Republic of Upper Volta

Last updated

Contents

Republic of Upper Volta

République de Haute-Volta (French)
1958–1984
Motto: "Unité Travail Justice" (in French)
"Unity Work Justice"
LocationBurkinaFaso.svg
CapitalOuagadougou
Common languages French
GovernmentRepublic
President  
 1959–1966
Maurice Yaméogo
 1982–1983
Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo
 1983–1984
Thomas Sankara
High Commissioner  
 1958–1959
Max Berthet
 1959–1960
Paul Masson
Prime Minister  
 1971–1974
Gérard Kango Ouédraogo
 1983
Thomas Sankara
Historical era Cold War
December 11 1958
August 5, 1960
  Renamed
August 4 1984
Currency CFA franc
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of France.svg French Upper Volta
Burkina Faso Flag of Burkina Faso.svg
Today part ofFlag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso
Part of a series on the
History of Burkina Faso
Presidential Standard of Burkina Faso.svg
Bura
Bura-Asinda
Prehistoric
c. 3rd–13th century
Mossi Kingdoms c. 11th century – 1896
French Upper Volta
1919–1932
1947–1958
Republic 1958–1984
Burkina Faso
(1984–present)
Agacher Strip War 1985
Assassination of Sankara 1987
Compaoré rule 1987–2014
Burkinabè revolution 2014
Transitional period 2014–2015
Burkinabé coup d'état 2015
2015 elections and aftermath 2015–present

The Republic of Upper Volta (French : République de Haute-Volta), now Burkina Faso, was a landlocked West African country established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community. [1] [2] Before attaining autonomy it had been French Upper Volta and part of the French Union. On August 5, 1960, it attained full independence from France. [3]

Overview

Map showing the Volta River in Upper Volta. Upper volta map with rivers.PNG
Map showing the Volta River in Upper Volta.

Thomas Sankara came to power through a military coup d'état on August 4, 1983. [4] After the coup, he formed the National Council for the Revolution (CNR), with himself as president. Under the direction of Sankara, the country changed its name on August 4, 1984, from Upper Volta to Burkina Faso, which means "Land of Incorruptible People". [5]

The name Upper Volta indicated that the country contains the upper part of the Volta River. The colors of the national flag corresponded to the names of its three main tributaries — the Black Volta, the White Volta, and the Red Volta. [6]

History

Upper Volta obtained independence on August 5, 1960. The first president of the country, Maurice Yaméogo, is at the head of the Alliance for Democracy and the Federation / African Democratic Rally. The 1960 Constitution establishes the election by direct universal suffrage of the President and the National Assembly for a term of five years. Shortly after coming to power, Yaméogo banned all political parties other than the Alliance for Democracy.

Thomas Sankara came to power by a coup on August 4, 1983. After coming to power, he formed the National Council of the Revolution (NCRC) and became the president of the twenty-man council.

Policy

From 1958 to 1960, the Republic of Upper Volta was led by a High Commissioner:

From 1971 to 1987, the Republic of Upper Volta was led by a Prime Minister:

Symbols

Flag

The three colors of the national flag of Upper Volta come from the fact that the Volta has three parts:

National Hymm

In French:

Verse 1:

Fière Volta de mes aieux,

Ton soleil ardent et glorieux

Te revêt d'or et de fierté

Ô Reine drapée de loyauté !

Refrain:

Nous te ferons et plus forte, et plus belle

À ton amour nous resterons fidèles

Et nos cœurs vibrant de fierté

Acclameront ta beauté

Vers l'horizon lève les yeux

Frémis aux accents tumultueux

De tes fiers enfants tous dressés

Promesses d'avenir caressées

Refrain:

Le travail de ton sol brûlant

Sans fin trempera les cœurs ardents,

Et les vertus de tes enfants

Le ceindront d'un diadème triomphant.

Refrain:

Que Dieu te garde en sa bonté,

Que du bonheur de ton sol aimé,

L'Amour des frères soit la clé,

Honneur, Unité et Liberté.

In English:

Verse:

Proud Volta of my ancestors,

Your ardent and glorious sun

Takes you with gold and pride

O Queen draped with loyalty!

Refrain:

We will make you stronger and more beautiful

To your love we will remain faithful

And our hearts vibrant with pride

Will acclaim your beauty

Towards the horizon look up

Frisks with the tumultuous accents

Of your proud children all trained

Caressed promises of future

Refrain:

The work of your burning ground

Endless will soak the ardent hearts,

And the virtues of your children

The girdle of a triumphant diadem.

Refrain:

May God keep you in his goodness,

May the happiness of your beloved soil,

The love of the brethren be the key,

Honor, Unity and Freedom.

This anthem has been replaced since 1984 by a new anthem, the Ditanyè.

See also

Related Research Articles

Burkina Faso Landlocked country in western Africa

Burkina Faso, officially the Republic of Burkina Faso, is a landlocked country in West Africa. It covers an area of around 274,200 square kilometres (105,900 sq mi) and is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; Niger to the east; Benin to the southeast; Togo to the southeast; Ghana to the south; and Ivory Coast to the southwest. The July 2019 population estimate by the United Nations was 20,321,378. The country’s official language of government and business is French. Roughly 50% of the population speaks the Mossi language natively. Formerly called the Republic of Upper Volta (1958–1984), the country was renamed "Burkina Faso" on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara. Its citizens are known as Burkinabé. Its capital is Ouagadougou.

History of Burkina Faso aspect of history

The history of Burkina Faso includes the history of various kingdoms within the country, such as the Mossi kingdoms, as well as the later French colonisation of the territory and its independence as the Republic of Upper Volta in 1960.

Flag of Burkina Faso flag

The national flag of Burkina Faso is formed by two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green, with a yellow five-pointed star resting in the center. In Blazon: Per fess gules and vert, a mullet of five points Or. The flag was adopted on 4 August 1984. The flag is coloured in the popular Pan-African colours of the Ethiopian flag, reflecting both a break with the country’s colonial past and its unity with other African ex-colonies. The red is also said to symbolize the revolution and the green the abundance of agricultural and natural riches. The yellow star placed over the red and green stripes is the guiding light of the revolution. The flag was adopted following the coup of 1983 which brought Thomas Sankara to power.

Jean-Baptiste Philippe Ouédraogo, also referred to by his initials JBO, is a Burkinabé physician and retired military officer who served as President of Upper Volta from 8 November 1982 to 4 August 1983. He has since mediated a few national political disputes and operates a clinic in Somgandé.

Saye Zerbo was a Burkinabé military officer the third President of the Republic of Upper Volta from 25 November 1980 until 7 November 1982. He led a coup in 1980, but was resisted by trade unions and was overthrown by Major Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo and the Council of Popular Salvation (CSP).

Maurice Yaméogo Burkina Faso President

Maurice Yaméogo was the first President of the Republic of Upper Volta, now called Burkina Faso, from 1959 until 1966.

Coat of arms of Burkina Faso coat of arms

The coat of arms of Burkina Faso contains a shield based on the national flag. Above the shield the name of the country is shown, while below it is the national motto, Unité, Progrès, Justice. The supporters are two white stallions. The two plants emerging from the lower banner appear to represent pearl millet, an important cereal grain cultivated in this country where agriculture represents 32% of the gross domestic product. This coat of arms is similar to the old Upper Volta coat of arms, with the Burkina Faso flag replacing the Upper Volta flag in the middle. The coat of arms and its meaning is mandated by Law No 020/97/II/AN.

Joseph Ki-Zerbo Burkinabé historian, politician and writer

Joseph Ki-Zerbo was a Burkinabé historian, politician and writer. He is recognized as one of Africa’s foremost thinkers.

Change 2005

Change 2005 was a political alliance in Burkina Faso, founded to contest the presidential election in 2005. The incumbent, Blaise Compaore, was standing for a third term and was expected to win despite claims that another term in office would be unconstitutional. He was re-elected with 80.35% of the votes.

Gérard Kango Ouédraogo Burkinabé politician

Gérard Kango Ouédraogo was a Burkinabé statesman and diplomat who served as Prime Minister of Upper Volta from 13 February 1971 to 8 February 1974. He was subsequently President of the National Assembly of Burkina Faso from October 1978 to November 25, 1980.

Chantal Compaoré former first lady of Burkina Faso

Chantal Compaoré, born Chantal Terrasson de Fougères is the Franco-Ivorian wife of former President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso. Born in the Ivory Coast, after becoming the First Lady in 1987 she spent much of her time on charity work in Burkina Faso. Her husband, who came to power in a bloody 1987 military coup, was overthrown in the 2014 Burkinabé uprising. Chantal Compaoré was subsequently forced to flee to her home country, going into exile together with her husband.

Articles related to Burkina Faso include:

The Hymne National Voltaïque was the national anthem of Upper Volta from 1960 until 1984, when the country's name was changed to Burkina Faso, and the existing anthem Une Seule Nuit was adopted.

Joseph Ouédraogo was a Burkinabè trade unionist and politician, active during the last years of the French Upper Volta and subsequently in the Republic of Upper Volta.

Major Jean-Baptiste Boukary Lingani was an officer of Army of the Republic of Upper Volta executed on September 19, 1989 along with Henri Zongo by Blaise Compaoré who accused them of plotting a coup. Lingani was set by Laurent Sédego, Gilbert Diendéré, Hermann Yaméogo, Issa Tiendrébeogo and his cousin Alain Ouilma of national safety department.

Burkina Faso–Soviet Union relations Diplomatic relations between Burkina Faso and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Burkina Faso–Soviet Union relations refers to the historical relationship between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the Republic of Burkina Faso. Relations between the countries were relatively close during some parts of the late Cold War. The Soviet Union maintained an embassy in the Burkinabé capital Ouagadougou, and Burkina Faso maintained an embassy in Moscow.

The 1980 Upper Voltan coup d'état took place on 25 November 1980 in the Republic of Upper Volta. Following a long period of drought, famine, popular unrest and labour strikes, Colonel Saye Zerbo overthrew President Sangoulé Lamizana, another military leader. Zerbo himself would be overthrown only two years later.

The 1982 Upper Voltan coup d'état took place in the Republic of Upper Volta on 7 November 1982. The coup, led by the little-known Colonel Gabriel Yoryan Somé and a slew of other junior officers within the military, many of them political radicals, overthrew the regime of Colonel Saye Zerbo. Zerbo had previously taken power just under two years prior to his own downfall.

1987 Burkinabé coup détat

The 1987 Burkinabé coup d'état was a bloody military coup in Burkina Faso, which took place on 15 October 1987. The coup was organized by Captain Blaise Compaoré against incumbent far-left President Captain Thomas Sankara, his former friend and associate during the 1983 upheaval.

References

  1. http://www.africa.com/countries/burkina-faso/afripedia/
  2. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/print_2109.html
  3. Meredith, Martin (2013). The State of Africa . Simon & Schuster. p. 69. ISBN   9780857203885.
  4. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Sankara
  5. "More (Language of the Mossi Tribe) Phrase Book". World Digital Library . Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  6. https://flagspot.net/flags/bf_uv.html

Coordinates: 12°16′N2°4′W / 12.267°N 2.067°W / 12.267; -2.067