|Revolutionary Girl Utena|
Cover of the Newtype artbook Newtype Ultimate Collection.
(Shōjo Kakumei Utena)
|Genre||Fantasy, romance, yuri|
|Written by||Chiho Saito|
|Original run||1996 – 1998|
|Anime television series|
|Directed by||Kunihiko Ikuhara|
|Produced by||Noriko Kobayashi|
|Written by||Yōji Enokido|
|Music by|| Shinkichi Mitsumune |
J. A. Seazer (Duel themes)
|Original network||TV Tokyo|
|Original run||April 2, 1997 – December 24, 1997|
|Adolescence of Utena|
|Directed by||Kunihiko Ikuhara|
|Produced by||Yuji Matsukura|
|Written by||Yōji Enokido|
|Music by|| Shinkichi Mitsumune |
J. A. Seazer (Duel themes)
|Released||August 14, 1999|
|The Story of Someday Revolution|
|Released||May 28, 1998|
Revolutionary Girl Utena(Japanese:少女革命ウテナ Hepburn:Shōjo Kakumei Utena, French: Utena, la Fillette Révolutionnaire) is a manga by Chiho Saito and an anime directed by Kunihiko Ikuhara. The manga serial began in the June 1996 issue of Ciao and the anime was first broadcast in 1997. The anime and manga were created simultaneously, but, despite some similarities, they progressed in different directions. A movie, Adolescence of Utena (少女革命ウテナ アドゥレセンス黙示録Shōjo Kakumei Utena Aduresensu Mokushiroku, literally "Revolutionary Girl Utena Adolescence Apocalypse"), was released in theatres in 1999. A number of stage productions based on the franchise were also produced in the late-1990s and late-2010s, including the "Comédie Musicale Utena la fillette révolutionnaire", staged by an all-female Takarazuka-style cast.
Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.
Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries. Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
The main character is Utena Tenjou, a tomboyish teenage girl who was so impressed by a kind prince in her childhood that she decided to become a prince herself, expressed in her manner of dress and personality. She attends Ohtori Academy, where she meets a student named Anthy Himemiya, a girl who is in an abusive relationship with another student. Utena fights to protect Anthy and is pulled into a series of sword duels with the members of the Student Council. Anthy is referred to as the "Rose Bride"(薔薇の花嫁Bara no hanayome) and is given to the winner of each duel. It is said that the winner of the tournament will receive a mysterious "power to revolutionize the world", and the current champion is constantly challenged for the right to possess the Rose Bride.
Utena is seen as having conflict with the staff of her current school and they call in her aunt, who is an interior decorator. Utena's friend Kaido is introduced and the two seem to have a strong friendship. It is then explained that Utena may be as headstrong as she is because of her parents' death at such an early age. Utena gets a letter from someone who has been sending her letters every year when the roses bloom. She says it started after she was rescued by her prince as a little girl. Kaido is intent on finding out who is sending her the letters. Later on Utena meets a co-worker of her aunt's, Aoi Wakaouji. He seems to bear a strong resemblance as well as the same ring as Utena's prince. She is drawn to him but only to have her hopes that Aoi is her prince shattered when she catches him and her aunt in a passionate moment. From there the scene from her childhood is recreated right in front of Kaido's eyes. He informs her that he found that all the letters reveal themselves to be a picture of Aoi's alma mater, an exclusive prep school. From this knowledge Utena decides to change schools. She leaves a heartbroken Kaido, who it seems has feelings for Utena, to find her prince.
The anime series is divided into four story arcs, in each of which Utena comes to face a different challenge at Ohtori Academy (Enoki Films calls it "Otori Junior High School"). In all of them, Utena must defend her title as the owner of the Rose Bride, with the intention of protecting Anthy. The duels almost always occur when someone with the Rose Crest ring challenges the current Engaged, though the Engaged may challenge other Duelists as well. No refusal is accepted. The matches occur in the dueling arena, a large, high platform in the academy's outskirts, which is only open to duelists. The Rose Bride pins roses to the Duelists' jackets. They then sword fight until one duelist wins by knocking away the opponent's rose with his or her blade.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.
(The story arc names below link to more details than given here as well as the episodes.)
The Utena franchise was conceived by Be-Papas, a production group composed of talents from various corners of the manga and anime universe. Most notably, the 39-episode Revolutionary Girl Utena TV series was created by some of the same production staff responsible for Sailor Moon , including writer and director Kunihiko Ikuhara. Ikuhara was already well known for his role in the production of Sailor Moon, including his contributions to the highly acclaimed third season, Sailor Moon S . When working on Utena Ikuhara was unsure if he would be fit for the role as producer and worried about the financial risk involved. Believing it may be the last show he ever worked on, Ikuhara set out to make Utena the pinnacle of his work.The member of Be-Papas responsible for the manga version of Utena was Chiho Saito, a well-established shōjo manga author. Though she and the other members of Be-Papas discussed concepts together, Saito had little influence on the direction of the anime, and faced a great deal more scrutiny by publishers to censor the LGBT themes in the content of the manga. She went through 4 editors during the production of the manga due to this, despite it being far more tame than the television series.
Be-Papas was an artist collective and collective pen name founded by anime director Kunihiko Ikuhara. Its membership consisted of Ikuhara, manga artist Chiho Saito, animator and character designer Shinya Hasegawa, scriptwriter Yōji Enokido, and planner Yūichirō Oguro.
Sailor Moon is a Japanese shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. It was originally serialized in Nakayoshi from 1991 to 1997; the 60 individual chapters were published in 18 tankōbon volumes. The series follows the adventures of a schoolgirl named Usagi Tsukino as she transforms into Sailor Moon to search for a magical artifact, the "Legendary Silver Crystal". She leads a diverse group of comrades, the Sailor Soldiers as they battle against villains to prevent the theft of the Silver Crystal and the destruction of the Solar System.
Kunihiko Ikuhara, also known as Ikuni, is a Japanese director, writer, artist, and music producer. He has created and collaborated on several notable anime and manga series, including his early works Sailor Moon and Revolutionary Girl Utena, and his later works Mawaru Penguindrum, Yurikuma Arashi, and Sarazanmai.
Ikuhara did not conceive of the idea for the movie, Adolescence of Utena, until watching the final episodes of the television series on broadcast TV. Once again, Be-Papas convened to discuss concepts, and Saito would go on to create a manga adaptation of the film. The film can be interpreted either as the end of the story initiated by the TV series, or as a condensed retelling with the same themes and characters, although it goes in a very different direction. Its structure is in many ways parallel to that of the series, but the roles of the leads are subtly switched. If the television series riffs on themes from theater and mythology, it could be said that the movie riffs on themes from the series. Familiarity with the television series is assumed, and the movie version is even more visually bizarre than the original Utena, enough so that it earned the good-natured nickname "The End of Utena", after the similarly abstract but much less cheerful The End of Evangelion .
The End of Evangelion is a 1997 Japanese anime film written and co-directed by Hideaki Anno and animated by Gainax and Production I.G. It serves as an alternative ending to the controversial Neon Genesis Evangelion television series, in which teenage Shinji Ikari pilots Evangelion Unit 01, one of several giant cyborgs designed to fight hostile supernatural entities called Angels. The film picks up where the TV show's 24th episode ended, and as such is structured as alternate, longer versions of Episodes 25 and 26.
Another incarnation of Utena came in the form of a number of one-shot theatrical productions. The Takarazuka-style "Musical Shōjo Kakumei Utena", also known as "Comédie Musicale Utena la fillette révolutionnaire", played in 1997, and the second disc of Shōjo Kakumei Utena OST 5, Engage Toi a Mes Contes, contains many of the songs from this musical. At Animazement '00, Ikuhara was said to be working on a later musical, "Shōjo Kakumei Utena, Makai Tensei Mokushiroku hen, Reijin Nirvana Raiga", with the theatrical group Gesshoku Kageki Dan.
The Takarazuka Revue is a Japanese all-female musical theater troupe based in Takarazuka, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. Women play all roles in lavish, Broadway-style productions of Western-style musicals, and sometimes stories adapted from shōjo manga and Japanese folktales. The company is a division of the Hankyu Railway company; all members of the troupe are employed by the company.
Animazement is an annual three-day anime convention held during May at the Raleigh Convention Center in Raleigh, North Carolina. It is traditionally held over Memorial Day weekend. The convention is designed to be family-friendly. Animazement is run by unpaid staff and volunteers.
Riyoko Ikeda's The Rose of Versailles has often been speculated as an established source of inspiration for the visual style of Utena,scenes involving sliding mirrors and unsupported staircases appear during character introspections in The Rose of Versailles while in Utena very similar scenes are part of the surreal landscape. However, director Ikuhara has denied this on several occasions, including the director's commentary on the final DVD Finale of the American release.
Ikuhara cites prolific playwright, poet and director Shūji Terayama as a major influence. Terayama was a long-time collaborator with J. A. Seazer, who wrote the music for his plays. Ikuhara worked with Seazer for the most well-known music of Utena.
Ikuhara stated that the concept for Revolutionary Girl Utena came from his "End of the World"-themed Sailor Moon Super S: The Movie . Ikuhara's original ideas for the film were not used as he left prematurely following the producer.
Ikuhara felt episodes like "On the Night of the Ball", where Utena stressed itself as a "shōjo manga anime", were "absolutely necessary" for the show's later development.Susan J. Napier wrote that Utena "uses the trappings of fairy tales (the castle, the prince) and more traditional shōjo manga (beautiful girls and boys, romantic intrigue) to critique the illusions they offer", and that in the series Utena must make her way past these illusions to get to reality. The image of Anthy with her suitcase at the end of the series, Napier posits, suggests that inspired by Utena's example Anthy is now "taking charge of her own life and breaking free of the incestuous coils that her brother has wound around her". This "liberation" becomes more explicit in the film, where Utena turns into a car which Anthy drives through an escape route to the "real world".
Napier also sees the relationship between Anthy and Utena as a possible metaphor for "the need for integration of the two sides of the self", the more masculine Utena and the more feminine Anthy. Napier suggests Anthy's betrayal of Utena in the penultimate episode of the series may also be her discovering "her rage" at the "masculine 'protection'" Utena and Akio both offer, with Anthy only beginning to develop a "more integrated personality" after making her own choice at the series' (with the suitcase) and film's (with the keys) ends.
The color red is used liberally throughout the series to symbolize the ambition of the characters.
The manga Revolutionary Girl Utena was written by Be-Papas and illustrated by Chiho Saito. It began serialization in the June 1996 issue of the monthly manga magazine Ciao . The manga ended in 1998 with five volumes being released. The manga was licensed for an English-language release in North America by Viz Media in 2000, 's magazine Animerica Extra and later published into five trade paperbacks, with an additional volume for the film adaptation.and was serialized in Viz
On May 20, 2017, Shōgakukan announced that a new manga would be published in the September issue of its magazine Flower. Subsequently, three short stories were published in the magazine, illustrating the lives and events of the primary cast 20 years after the series. It was later published as a its own book, and it is currently not licensed in the United States.
The anime series of Revolutionary Girl Utena was produced by the Japanese animation studio J.C.Staff and directed by Kunihiko Ikuhara. The series aired between April 2, 1997 and December 24, 1997 on TV Tokyo in Japan and spanned 39 episodes.
Enoki Films USA held the North American license to the anime and called the series Ursula's Kiss, and gave each character English names.However, the American distributor, Central Park Media, chose to use the original title and character names. The dubbed and subbed versions were released to VHS in 1998 by Central Park Media under their Software Sculptors label. There were a total of four releases each containing either three or four episodes. These same episodes were released to two bilingual DVD volumes in 1999 with six or seven episodes each. These DVDs were known as the Rose Collection. However, after releasing the first 13 episodes to VHS and DVD, Central Park Media had difficulties licensing the remaining 26 episodes and the dub was put on hiatus despite the show's popularity. After settling all legal issues, they released the remaining 26 episodes of the anime series to bilingual DVDs in 2002 and 2003, though the show's popularity had declined in the years since. The entire series was later sold in the form of three DVD box sets.
With the complete shutdown of Central Park Media in 2009, the distribution rights to the series were put up for liquidation.At Anime Expo 2010, Right Stuf Inc. announced that they have rescued the Utena TV series and subsequently re-released the series in three remastered sets in 2011. The anime is also being distributed in Australia for the first time by the anime distributor Hanabee.
King Records released two Blu-ray box sets of Utena in Japan with HD remastered video in 2013, subsequently getting a three volume release in the United States by Right Stuf. In 2018, Right Stuf released the Blu-ray version of the series under their Nozomi Entertainment label, with edits made to the subtitle script. The limited edition box set included two rose crests and a large book of production notes, interviews, and artwork.
Hawaii-based TV station KIKU aired the Central Park Media-licensed version of the series during the January/March and July/August periods of 2007. Back in 2006, Funimation had previously acquired broadcast rights for Revolutionary Girl Utena from Enoki Films USA and aired it on their channel, the Funimation Channel (licensed by Olympusat; currently operating under the Toku name as of the end of 2015), multiple times.Comcast's Anime Selects on Demand also showed episodes of the first and second season for a brief period. It also aired on Sci-Fi Channel for a short time. Anime Network on Demand began streaming the series on VOD on August 6, 2009.
The anime ran on Viz Media's 24/7 Neon Alley streaming service in fall 2013. The series is also available on Nozomi Entertainment's YouTube channel for free
Adolescence of Utena was released in theaters in 1999. It was first conceived by director Kunihiko Ikuhara when the final episode of the television series was broadcast on Japanese television. Be-Papas reconvened and created a new vision of the Utena universe. The resulting film is ambiguous in its place within the Utena universe; though it functions as a separate continuity, much like the manga, it also refers to events in the television series frequently enough that it is confusing to those unfamiliar with the show. Ultimately, the film is plotted in such a way that it could be seen as a continuation of the series or an entirely new vision. Central Park Media licensed Adolescence of Utena and released it to a dubbed-only VHS and a bilingual DVD in 2001 under the title Revolutionary Girl Utena: The Movie.The film was also screened at several anime conventions and had a very limited theatrical run. Right Stuf also acquired the North American rights to the movie in 2010.
In a loose retelling of the Revolutionary Girl Utena TV series, Utena Tenjou arrives at Ohtori Academy, appearing to be a boy. She is accidentally swept up in a series of duels for the possession of the Rose Bride Anthy Himemiya and the power she supposedly holds. At the same time, Utena reunites with Touga Kiryuu, a friend and love from her childhood. It is later revealed that Touga died long ago. A belief among some fans is that the movie takes place in the land of the dead. Other key differences between the series and film include the absence of Nanami (save for a brief cameo in her cow incarnation) and the revelation that Akio is also dead before the film begins.
The film takes many themes from the series and either ramps up their intensity or turns them on an ear. For example, the latent sexual tension between Utena and Anthy in the series is far more overt in the film; it is made clear to the viewer that Anthy is not only a "bride" by name, but that she will sleep with the person to whom she is engaged, regardless of whether that person is male or female, including her brother. The concept of Ohtori as a prison is made clearer and Utena's empowerment of Anthy to escape is given physical manifestation as Utena literally transforms into a car for Anthy to ride to freedom.
As of April 10, 2007, Funimation, which previously acquired the broadcast rights for the Utena TV series, had acquired the broadcast rights for Adolescence of Utena and later aired the film on their Funimation Channel along with other CPM properties.
Two light novels by screenwriter and novelist Ichirō Ōkouchi, with illustrations by Chiho Saito, were released shortly after the TV series:
The novels exist in their own continuity, but adapt material from the TV series. The first novel is loosely based on episodes 1 to 5, and the second novel focuses on Saionji's and Wakaba's relationship. The novels have received fan translations into English.
Musical - Shōjo Kakumei Utena(ミュージカル・少女革命ウテナ)
Shōjo Kakumei Utena Hell Rebirth Apocalypse: Advent of the Nirvanic Beauty(少女革命ウテナ魔界転生黙示録編～麗人ニルヴァーナ来駕～)
Shōjo Kakumei Utena: Choros Imaginary Living Body(少女革命ウテナ～コロス幻想生命体～)
Musical Shōjo Kakumei Utena ~ Shiroki Bara no Tsubomi(ミュージカル「少女革命ウテナ～白き薔薇の)
Shōjo Kakumei Utena: Itsuka Kakumeisareru Monogatari(少女革命ウテナ いつか革命される物語) was developed and published by Sega for the Sega Saturn video game console, it was released in 1998 in Japan only. It tells an original story which is set between episodes eight and nine of the TV series. The main character of the game is an original character (no default name, voice: Kaoru Fujino (藤野かほる)) who transfers to Ohtori Academy.
The game is in the style of a visual novel with strong dating sim elements. The major characters each possess a statistic called "Heart's Nobility" which the player affects through dialog choices that appear sporadically during play. Each character's level of Heart's Nobility determines how the game will end. The special endings available for characters that end with particularly high Heart's Nobility represent the game's dating sim element, but because it is set within the larger plot of the TV series the relationships are usually somewhat platonic, or one-sided affections on the part of the main character. Yet there are many aspects of the game that make it interesting to fans, such as duels between Student Council members and the opportunity to turn the main character into a duelist.
A completely playable fan translation of the game exists.
Avant-garde composer and theater director J. A. Seazer composed the song "Zettai Unmei Mokushiroku"(絶対運命黙示録, "Absolute Destiny: Apocalypse"), which is repeated every time Utena ascends to the dueling arena, and the choral rock pieces played during the duels. Ikuhara has said that, despite objections to the dueling choruses on the part of his BePapas collaborators and sponsors, Seazer's music "sealed the fate of the project" and was well received. The texture of the chorus is primarily monophonic, although there is some homophony within the inner voices of the chorus. The melody of the chorus is written in transposed Aeolian mode or natural minor. The melody does not use a major five chord at the cadence which is usually the norm for minor mode; it uses a minor five chord instead. The lyrics that often appear to be little more than themed words strung together.
The rest of the score was composed by Shinkichi Mitsumune, and is largely orchestral in character, though it often features significant jazz influences. One notable song is "The Sunlit Garden", a recurring duet piano piece which plays during nostalgic scenes. Mitsumune also handled the arrangement of the first eight duel choruses.
The soundtrack of Adolescence of Utena is similar in style to the series, containing a mixture of orchestral pieces and choral rock. Masami Okui's track, the J-pop ballad "Toki ni Ai wa" ("At Times Love Is..."), is however atypical of the series' sound.
In 2017, Gekidan Inu Curry illustrated a new Utena image album by J.A. Seazer.Another album is planned for 2019 to be illustrated by another artist.
Revolutionary Girl Utena won "Best TV Animation Award" at Animation Kobe in 1997.Mike Toole of Anime News Network named Revolutionary Girl Utena as one of the most important anime of the 1990s.
Lilian Min of The Mary Sue stated the series serves as its own explicit but honest depiction of growing sexuality, both how it operates in action and also how it can be twisted to meet adult ends.
Tomoko Kawakami was a Japanese voice actress. Having graduated from the Toho Gakuen College of Drama and Music, she was affiliated with Production Baobab at the time of her death.
Chiho Saito is a Japanese manga artist, most noted for the manga Revolutionary Girl Utena. In 1996, she received the Shogakukan Manga Award for shōjo for Kanon. She is part of the Be-Papas manga artist collective.
Duel Masters is a media franchise consisting of a manga, several anime series, a trading card game, and a video game. The original manga sold 4.5 million copies in Japan.
Wedding Peach is a shōjo manga written by Sukehiro Tomita and illustrated by Nao Yazawa that was originally serialized in Shogakukan's Ciao magazine. In North America, it was translated and published by VIZ Media in its entirety, consisting of six volumes.
Yuriko Fuchizaki is a Japanese actress and voice actress from Tokyo. She is a graduate of the College of Fine Arts at Nihon University a member of the talent agency Re-max. From 1987 to the beginning of 1989 her roles were credited under her real name (渕崎有里子) - the reading is unchanged.
Leah Applebaum is an American voice actress and Broadway actress. She is best known as the voice of Nanami Kiryu from Revolutionary Girl Utena and Erika, the Grass type Gym Leader from the internationally acclaimed Pokémon series.
Brigadier Oscar François de Jarjayes is one of the main characters in the manga/anime series The Rose of Versailles, created by Riyoko Ikeda.
We Were There is a Japanese romance manga by Yuki Obata, which chronicles the relationship between Motoharu Yano and Nanami Takahashi, starting from their teenage years and continuing during their early twenties. It has been serialized in Betsucomi from 2002 to 2012. The series went on hiatus in early 2008, but resumed publication in June 2009. It is licensed for an English language release in North America by Viz Media. It was adapted into a 26-episode anime television series which aired from July 3 to December 25, 2006. A 2-part live action film adaptation was released in Japanese cinemas in 17 March 2012(Part 1) and 21 April 2012(Part 2), starring Toma Ikuta and Yuriko Yoshitaka.
Penguin Revolution is a Japanese shōjo manga series by Sakura Tsukuba. It was serialized by Hakusensha in the shōjo manga magazine, LaLa with its collected volumes published under the Hana to Yume Comics imprint with seven complete volumes. It has been licensed in North America by CMX, an imprint of DC Comics for manga. The series is about a high school girl who disguises herself as a young man to become the manager of an actor classmate.
Nanami is a popular feminine Japanese given name which is also used as a surname.
Yurikuma Arashi is a Japanese yuri anime television series produced by Silver Link and directed by Kunihiko Ikuhara. The series was first announced via a website in August 2012, where it was referred to as the "Kunihiko Ikuhara/Penguinbear Project." The series first aired in Japan between January 5, 2015 and March 30, 2015 and is licensed in North America by Funimation. A manga adaptation illustrated by Akiko Morishima was serialized in Gentosha's Comic Birz magazine between February 2014 and April 2016 and has been licensed in English by Tokyopop under the title Yuri Bear Storm. The name appears to be a reference to Akira Yoshimura's novelization of the Sankebetsu brown bear incident, The Bear Storm, though any more concrete link besides the presence of human-attacking bears is only speculated.
Adolescence of Utena is a 1999 anime film. It is a follow-up to the 1997 anime television series Revolutionary Girl Utena, created by the artist collective Be-Papas. The film is directed by Kunihiko Ikuhara, written by Yōji Enokido based on a story by Ikuhara, and produced by J.C.Staff. An English-language dubbed version of the film produced by Central Park Media was released in 2001 as Revolutionary Girl Utena: The Movie.
Age 12 is a Japanese slice of life romance shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Nao Maita. It began serialization in 2012 in Shogakukan's Ciao manga magazine and seventeen volumes have been published so far. It was adapted into an original video animation that was released in April 2014 and it was also adapted into a video game. The anime is split into two seasons, the first half first aired in April, while the second half aired in October 2016.
The Rose of Versailles, also known as Lady Oscar or La Rose de Versailles, is a Japanese shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Riyoko Ikeda. It has been adapted into several Takarazuka Revue musicals, as well an anime television series, produced by Tokyo Movie Shinsha and broadcast by the anime television network Nippon TV. The series remains incredibly popular in Italy.
Sarazanmai is a 2019 Japanese anime series created by Kunihiko Ikuhara. A joint production between MAPPA and Lapin Track, the eleven-episode series aired on Fuji TV's Noitamina programming block from April 11 to June 20, 2019. The series follows a group of three middle school students who are transformed into kappas in order to collect shirikodama, a mythical ball located in the anus that contains the physical manifestation of one's desires; Ikuhara broadly developed the series as a story about yōkai for an adult audience.
World of the S&M, released in English as The World Exists for Me, is a 2001 manga series. The series is written by Kunihiko Ikuhara with Seinosuke Ito, credited jointly as Be-Papas, and illustrated by Chiho Saito. The series is Ikuhara and Saito's second collaboration following the anime and manga series Revolutionary Girl Utena.
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