Rhine-Ruhr

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Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region

Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr
Rhein-Ruhr-Region-LEP.png
The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region according to the LEP NRW , 1995
CountryFlag of Germany.svg  Germany
State Flag of North Rhine-Westphalia.svg  North Rhine-Westphalia
Largest cities Cologne
Düsseldorf
Dortmund
Essen
Duisburg
Bochum
Wuppertal
Bonn
Area
  Metro
7,268 km2 (2,806 sq mi)
Highest elevation
494 m (1,621 ft)
Lowest elevation
20 m (70 ft)
Population
 (2016)
   Metro
10,680,783
  Metro density1,469/km2 (3,806/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
Aerial view of Cologne Ballonfahrt uber Koln - Deutzer Hafen, Rhein, Rheinauhafen, Altstadt-RS-4106.jpg
Aerial view of Cologne
Aerial view of Dusseldorf, the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia Dusseldorfaire2.jpg
Aerial view of Düsseldorf, the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia
Aerial view of Dortmund Westfalenpark-100818-16757-Florian-Turm-cor.jpg
Aerial view of Dortmund
Aerial view of Essen Aerial view of Essen.jpg
Aerial view of Essen

The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (German : Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr) is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with over 10 million inhabitants. [1] A polycentric conurbation with multiple major urban concentrations, the region covers an area of 7,268 square kilometres (2,806 sq mi), entirely within the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region spreads from Dortmund-Bochum-Essen-Duisburg (Ruhr Area) in the north, to the urban areas of the cities of Mönchengladbach, Düsseldorf (the state capital), Wuppertal, Leverkusen, Cologne (the region's largest and Germany's fourth largest city), and Bonn in the south. The location of the Rhine-Ruhr at the heart of the European Blue Banana makes it well connected to other major European cities and metropolitan areas like the Randstad, the Flemish Diamond and the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region.

Contents

The metropolitan area is named after the Rhine and Ruhr rivers, which are the region's defining geographical features and historically its economic backbone.

Subdivisions

The largest cities in the Rhine-Ruhr area are Cologne, with over 1 million inhabitants, followed by Düsseldorf, Dortmund and Essen, which each have a population of over 500,000.

There are many different sub-definitions of what belongs to the Rhine-Ruhr area, but the metropolitan area itself has officially defined borders with Hamm in the east, Mönchengladbach in the west and Bonn in the south and the small city Wesel as its northernmost point. The northern border is similar to the border of the Ruhr Area.

The table below shows an unofficial summary of regions. In the official definition the metropolitan area is much smaller.

Regionmajor citiesareapopulation
Ruhr Metropolitan Region [2] 4,435 km25,172,745
Dortmund 280 km2581,308
Essen 210 km2576,259
Duisburg 233 km2491,931
Bochum 145 km2385,626
Gelsenkirchen 233 km2268,102
Oberhausen 77 km2212,568
Düsseldorf Metropolitan Region2,404 km22,944,700
Düsseldorf 217 km2586,217
Neuss 99 km2151,280
Mönchengladbach 170 km2258,251
Wuppertal 168 km2351,050
Cologne / Bonn Metropolitan Region [3] 2,920 km22,818,178
Cologne 405 km21,000,298
Bonn 141 km2319,841
Leverkusen 79 km2160,819
Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region9,759 km210,935,623

Eurostat's Urban Audit splits the Rhine-Ruhr region into six Larger Urban Zones (LUZ). These six Urban Zones do not cover the cities of Remscheid and Solingen nor the district of Rhein-Kreis Neuss.

Larger Urban Zonemajor citiesareapopulation
Ruhr Larger Urban Zone [4] [5] 4,434 km25,172,745
Dortmund 280 km2581,308
Essen 210 km2576,259
Duisburg 233 km2491,931
Düsseldorf Larger Urban Zone [6] [7] 1,200 km21,525,774
Düsseldorf 217 km2586,217
Neuss 99 km2151,280
Ratingen 67 km291,306
Mönchengladbach Larger Urban Zone [8] [9] 170 km2258,251
Mönchengladbach 170 km2258,251
Wuppertal Larger Urban Zone [10] [11] 168 km2351,050
Wuppertal 168 km2351,050
Cologne Larger Urban Zone [12] [13] 1,627 km21,899,930
Cologne 405 km21,000,298
Bonn Larger Urban Zone [14] [15] 1,295 km2918,248
Bonn 141 km2319,841
Rhine-Ruhr Region8,894 km210,125,998

Economy

Deutsche Telekom headquarters in Bonn Bonn DTAG2.jpg
Deutsche Telekom headquarters in Bonn

Historically, most of the Ruhr area was for the most part characterized by heavy industry since the age of industrialisation in the late 19th and early 20th century. Since the Middle Ages, Cologne, Dortmund and other cities were important regional trading cities, but during the 19th century the city of Düsseldorf grew to become the administrative center of the region and since 1945 its political capital.

Today, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region accounts for roughly 15% of the GDP of the German economy, which would place it as the 2nd largest GDP of metropolitan area in the European Union. Despite this size, the Rhine-Ruhr region as a whole often lacks international competitiveness because it lacks a unified presentation. Cities and urban areas within it often pursue separate investment policies against each other. [16]

From within, Düsseldorf, Essen and Cologne are by far the largest economic centers, [17] with specialisation in financial/high tech and insurance/multi media services respectively. Other major economic centers are Bonn and Dortmund. The region is home to twelve [18] Fortune Global 500 companies, among them E.ON AG, Essen, Deutsche Post AG, Bonn, Metro AG, Düsseldorf, Deutsche Telekom AG, Bonn, ThyssenKrupp AG, Essen/Duisburg, RWE AG, Essen, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Franz Haniel & Cie. GmbH, Duisburg, Evonik Industries, Essen, Hochtief AG, Essen and the Henkel Group, Düsseldorf.

Climate

The Rhine-Ruhr area's climate is characterized by having the warmest winters in Germany, especially its western part at the Lower Rhine area. Classified by Köppen-Geiger climate classification to be oceanic (Cfb).

Düsseldorf
Climate chart (explanation)
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Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-Data [19]
Essen
Climate chart (explanation)
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Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-Data [20]
Cologne
Climate chart (explanation)
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Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-Data [21]
Dortmund
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-Data [22]

Transportation

Map of DB 2650 connecting Cologne with Hamm DB 2650 railway map.png
Map of DB 2650 connecting Cologne with Hamm

Air

The area has four international commercial airports, and multiple smaller aerodromes for general aviation.

Airport IATA code ICAO code annual passenger traffic
Düsseldorf Airport DUSEDDL25.51 Mio. (2019)
Cologne Bonn Airport CGNEDDK12.39 Mio. (2019)
Dortmund Airport DTMEDLW2.72 Mio. (2019)
Weeze Airport NRNEDLV1.23 Mio. (2019)

Road

North Rhine-Westphalia has the densest network of Autobahns in Germany.

Public transport

The rail, S-Bahn, U-Bahn and bus companies are administered through a consortium of local and regional transport lines, the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr . It offers a rapid transit system which interconnects all cities and their respective local buses, trams, U- and S-Bahn systems, partly under the umbrella of Deutsche Bahn. Their systems are highly integrated where even some subway lines continue from one city to the next (for example between Düsseldorf and Duisburg or Bochum and Herne, which is unique in Germany, as the city border is crossed underground). The region is divided into several urban zones and fares are paid according to the amount of urban areas (or zones) passed through. Tickets include door to door transportation with all forms covered in one ticket with the exception of high speed rail (which only stops in the major cities). Some excursions, theatre and opera tickets as well as museums offer free transportation from any point in the Rhine Ruhr area to the venue and return.

Waterways

Duisburg Inner Harbour (Duisport) and Dortmund Port are large industrial inland ports and serve as hubs along the Rhine and the German inland water transport system.

Tourism

Events

Signal Iduna Park, the stadium of Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund, is the largest stadium in Germany Signal iduna park stadium dortmund 4.jpg
Signal Iduna Park, the stadium of Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund, is the largest stadium in Germany

The region is host to numerous large events, comprising fun fairs and cultural events like the Cologne and Düsseldorf carnivals (carnival is however a public event in almost all cities and towns of the area), the Cologne Comedy Festival, Ruhrfestspiele Recklinghausen, and the RuhrTriennale, as well as gamescom and other trade fairs at koelnmesse—Cologne Trade Fair and Messe Düsseldorf; and Essen Motor Show in Essen. With a capacity of up to 20,000 people, the Lanxess Arena and Westfalenhallen are amongst the largest indoor arenas in Germany.

The region is home to a total of 13 Bundesliga football clubs, of which five are active in the season of 2017–18. The most successful among them are Borussia Dortmund, Borussia Mönchengladbach, 1. FC Köln, FC Schalke 04 and Bayer 04 Leverkusen. The Revierderby is the rivalry between Borussia Dortmund and Schalke 04, one of the most significant in German football. Signal Iduna Park, the stadium of Borussia Dortmund, is the biggest stadium in Germany. The area has planned to bid for 2032 Summer Olympics.

Landmarks

The Zeche Zollverein coal mine Zeche Zollverein abends.jpg
The Zeche Zollverein coal mine

Several tourist destinations within the region attract over 12 million tourists per year. Cologne Cathedral, Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces at Brühl and the Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex at Essen are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Other sights include Schloss Benrath in Düsseldorf and several anchor points of the European Route of Industrial Heritage.

Museums

NRW Forum, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, Museum Koenig, Museum Ludwig, Romano-Germanic Museum, Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Neanderthal Museum, Museum Folkwang, Museum Ostwall, Lehmbruck Museum, German Mining Museum and Deutsches Museum Bonn are some of the most famous examples.

Education

The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is home to nine universities and over 30 partly postgraduate colleges, with a total of over 300.000 students. The largest and oldest university is the University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln), founded in 1388 AD. Other universities include:

Municipalities

This map of the Rhine-Ruhr Area spans approximately 130 kilometers (81 mi) from north to south. Rheinruhr.png
This map of the Rhine-Ruhr Area spans approximately 130 kilometers (81 mi) from north to south.
Cologne Cathedral at night Cologne Rheinufer Frankenwerft Abend.jpg
Cologne Cathedral at night
A view of Dusseldorf, the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia Nacht in Dusseldorf cropped.jpg
A view of Düsseldorf, the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia
The skyline of Dortmund Dortmund vom Mathetower.jpg
The skyline of Dortmund
The skyline of Essen Blick auf Essen von Recklinghausen.jpg
The skyline of Essen
The skyline of Duisburg Duisburg Innenhafenpanorama.jpg
The skyline of Duisburg
The skyline of Bochum Bochum 080814 023 30.jpg
The skyline of Bochum
The skyline of Wuppertal Wuppertal Skyline 0001.jpg
The skyline of Wuppertal
View of Bonn Blick vom Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) - 2221.jpg
View of Bonn

The following register lists all municipalities that officially belong to Rhine-Ruhr area. Demographically, these municipalities include 20 cities (German: Kreisfreie Städte), each with more than 100,000 inhabitants, and 11 districts (German: Kreis), each with a population of more than 250,000 inhabitants. Some districts only belong partly to Rhine-Ruhr area. In such a case only the municipalities that belong to the metro area are listed.

Cities independent of a Kreis
MunicipalityInhabitants
31 December 2009 [23]
Surface
km2
Inhabitants per/
km2
Bochum (BO)376,319145.442,587.45
Bonn (BN)319,841141.222,264.84
Bottrop (BOT)117,241100.611,165.3
Dortmund (DO)581,308280.392,073.21
Duisburg (DU)491,931232.812,113.01
Düsseldorf (D)586,217217.012,701.34
Essen (E)576,259210.382,739.13
Gelsenkirchen (GE)259,744104.862,477.06
Hagen (HA)190,121160.361,185.59
Hamm (HAM)181,741226.26803.24
Herne (HER)165,63251.413,221.79
Cologne (K)998,105405.152,463.54
Krefeld (KR)235,414137.761,708.87
Leverkusen (LEV)160,59378.852,036.69
Mönchengladbach (MG)258,251170.451,515.11
Mülheim an der Ruhr (MH)167,47191.291,834.49
Oberhausen (OB)214,02477.042,778.09
Remscheid (RS)111,42274.601,493.59
Solingen (SG)160,99289.461,799.6
Wuppertal (W)351,050168.392,084.74
total/average6,503,6763,163.742,055.69
Kreise (districts)
Municipality/Kreis (district)Inhabitants
31 December 2009 [23]
Surface per
km2
Kreis Mettmann (ME)
Erkrath 46,08426.89
Haan 29,15624.22
Heiligenhaus 26,81827.47
Hilden 55,55125.96
Langenfeld (Rheinland) 59,03841.10
Mettmann 39,37442.52
Monheim am Rhein 43,06523.10
Ratingen 91,30688.72
Velbert 84,63374.90
Wülfrath 21,42032.23
Kreis Unna (UN)
Bergkamen 51,14944.80
Bönen 18,63038.02
Fröndenberg/Ruhr 22,13556.21
Holzwickede 17,26422.36
Kamen 44,80340.93
Lünen 87,78359.18
Schwerte 48,52356.20
Selm 27,12360.34
Unna 66,65288.52
Werne 29,99476.08
Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis (EN)
Ennepetal 30,77857.42
Gevelsberg 31,65126.29
Hattingen 55,81771.39
Herdecke 24,79422.40
Schwelm 29,01220.50
Sprockhövel 25,51247.79
Wetter 28,22131.47
Witten 98,60172.37
Kreise (districts)
Municipality/Kreis (district)Inhabitants
31 December 2009 [23]
Surface per
km2
Märkischer Kreis (MK)
Hemer 37,45967.56
Iserlohn 95,232125.50
Menden 56,07886.06
Kreis Recklinghausen (RE)
Castrop-Rauxel 75,75251.66
Datteln 35,75766.08
Dorsten 77,308171.19
Gladbeck 75,52035.91
Herten 62,63937.32
Marl, North Rhine-Westphalia 88,20287.63
Oer-Erkenschwick 30,49938.69
Recklinghausen 119,05066.43
Waltrop 29,83746.99
Rhein-Erft-Kreis (BM)
Brühl 44,25936.12
Frechen 49,75245.11
Hürth 57,50151.17
Wesseling 35,14423.37
Rhein-Kreis Neuss (NE)
Dormagen 62,92485.41
Grevenbroich 64,039102.46
Kaarst 41,84137.40
Korschenbroich 33,11655.26
Meerbusch 54,19064.38
Neuss 151,28099.48
Kreise (districts)
Municipality/Kreis (district)Inhabitants
31 December 2009 [23]
Surface per
km2
Rhein-Sieg-Kreis (SU)
Alfter 22,89534.77
Bornheim 48,54482.71
Niederkassel 37,40235.79
Sankt Augustin 55,52434.23
Siegburg 39,65423.46
Troisdorf 75,15062.17
Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis (GL)
Bergisch Gladbach 105,69983.12
Burscheid 18,77127.38
Leichlingen 27,47637.33
Kreis Viersen (VIE)
Kempen 36,04068.81
Tönisvorst 30,08444.33
Viersen 75,47591.07
Willich 51,96267.77
Kreis Wesel (WES)
Dinslaken 69,68747.67
Kamp-Lintfort 38,72463.16
Moers 105,92967.69
Neukirchen-Vluyn 27,62743.48
Rheinberg 31,64875.15
Voerde 37,66853.48
Wesel 60,958122.53
total3,609,2123,946.69

[23]

See also

Related Research Articles

North Rhine-Westphalia State in Germany

North Rhine-Westphalia is a state of Germany. It is the most-populous of the 16 states of Germany.

Ruhr Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

The Ruhr, also referred to as Ruhr area, Ruhr district, Ruhr region, or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With a population density of 2,800/km2 and a population of over 5 million (2017), it is the largest urban area in Germany. It consists of several large cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. In the southwest it borders the Bergisches Land. It is considered part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region of more than 10 million people, which is among the largest in Europe.

Duisburg Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn Suburban railway in Rhine-Ruhr area (Western Germany)

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Köln Messe/Deutz station railway station in Germany

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Duisburg Hauptbahnhof railway station in Duisburg, Germany

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Oberhausen Hauptbahnhof railway station in Oberhausen, Germany

Oberhausen Hauptbahnhof is a railway station in Oberhausen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The station was opened in 1847 and is located on the Duisburg–Dortmund railway, Arnhem-Oberhausen railway, Oberhausen–Duisburg-Ruhrort railway and Oberhausen-Mülheim-Styrum railway and is served by ICE, IC, RE and RB services operated by Deutsche Bahn, Abellio Deutschland, NordWestBahn and Eurobahn.

Cologne Bonn Region

The Cologne Bonn Region, also known as Cologne/Bonn Metropolitan Region, is a metropolitan area in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, covering the cities of Cologne, Bonn and Leverkusen, as well as the districts of Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis, Oberbergischer Kreis, Rhein-Erft-Kreis and Rhein-Sieg-Kreis. The region covers an area of 3,839 km² with 3.13 million inhabitants. The city centres of Cologne and Bonn are 24 kilometres apart as the crow flies. At the outer city limits, there are only 8 kilometres between Cologne-Libur and Bonn-Geislar.

Witten/Dortmund–Oberhausen/Duisburg railway railway line

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NRW-Express Regional railway line in North Rhine-Westphalia

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Rhein-Weser-Express passenger train

The Rhein-Weser-Express is a Regional-Express service route in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, connecting some of the most important cities in Westphalia with the Ruhr. Cologne, Neuss, Düsseldorf and Duisburg lie on the Rhine while Minden lies on the Weser.

Wupper-Express

The Wupper-Express is a Regional-Express service in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) running from Aachen via Mönchengladbach, Düsseldorf, Wuppertal, Hagen to Dortmund. The service is operated every hour by DB Regio NRW. It is the third most widely used Regional-Express line in the area administered by the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr with approximately 24,000 passengers a day.

Rhein-Hellweg-Express

The Rhein-Hellweg-Express is a Regional-Express service in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), running from Hamm via Dortmund, Bochum, Essen, Duisburg and Düsseldorf Airport to Düsseldorf Hbf. It is named after the Rhine and the Westphalian Hellweg.

Rhein-Haard-Express

The Rhein-Haard-Express is a Regional-Express service in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), running from Osnabrück via Münster, Recklinghausen, Gelsenkirchen, Essen and Duisburg to Düsseldorf.

Rhein-Emscher-Express

The Rhein-Emscher-Express is a Regional-Express service in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), running from Düsseldorf via Duisburg, Gelsenkirchen and Dortmund to Hamm. It connects with the rest of the regional rail network of NRW in Düsseldorf, Duisburg, Oberhausen, Wanne-Eickel, Dortmund and Hamm. In addition, it connects in Düsseldorf, Duisburg, Oberhausen, Dortmund and Hamm with long-distance services.

Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn

The Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn is an umbrella system of all of the Stadtbahn lines included in the integrated public transport network of Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr (VRR) which covers the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area in western Germany. It does not include the independent Cologne Stadtbahn and Bonn Stadtbahn systems.

The Emscher-Niederrhein-Bahn (RB 35) is a Regionalbahn service in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It runs hourly between Gelsenkirchen and Duisburg with Mönchengladbach. Its name refers to the Emscher river and the Lower Rhine.

References

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  2. "metropoleruhr.de - Metropole Ruhr - Portal für das Ruhrgebiet". Metropleruhr.de. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
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Further reading