Rhoda (biblical figure)

Last updated
Peter Returns by Johann Christoph Weigel, 1695. Rhoda is in the upper left of the woodcut. Peter Returns by Weigel.png
Peter Returns by Johann Christoph Weigel, 1695. Rhoda is in the upper left of the woodcut.

Rhoda (Gk ˁΡόδη) is a woman mentioned once in the New Testament. She appears only in Acts 12:12-15. Rhoda (whose name means "Rose" [1] ) was a girl (Greek : παιδισκη) living in the house of Mary, the mother of John Mark. Many biblical translations state that she was a 'maid' or 'servant girl'. After Peter was miraculously released from prison, he went to the house and knocked on the door. Rhoda came to answer it, and when she heard Peter's voice she was so overjoyed that she rushed to tell the others, and forgot to open the door for him. She told the group of Christians who were praying that Peter was there. They did not believe her at first, and told her she was "out of her mind". When she kept insisting that it was Peter, they said, "He is his angel." Yet Peter kept on knocking, and eventually, they opened the door for him.

New Testament Second division of the Christian biblical canon

The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first being the Old Testament. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture.

Acts of the Apostles Book of the New Testament

Acts of the Apostles, often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.

Rhoda is a female given name, originating in both Greek and Latin. Its primary meaning is "rose" but it can also mean "from Rhodes", the Greek island originally named for its roses. The name was mostly used in the 18th and 19th centuries but goes back at least to the first century as it is recorded in the New Testament of the Bible.

Peter had walked out of a prison chained to, and guarded by, Roman soldiers and confined behind secure walls; yet, he was unable to get past a gate because a servant girl was too excited to open it for him. Christian historian Jaroslav Pelikan suggests that it is "difficult not to smile when reading this little anecdote," [2] while biblical scholar F. F. Bruce says that the scene is "full of vivid humor." [3] Pastor and theologian John Gill surmised that Rhoda recognized Peter's voice because she had "often heard him preach and converse [with Mary's] family". [4] However, theologians Donald Fay Robinson and Warren M. Smaltz have suggested that the incident involving Rhoda really represents an idealized account of the death of St. Peter, which may have occurred in a Jerusalem prison in 44 AD. [5]

Jaroslav Pelikan US historian of Christianity, Christian theology and medieval intellectual history at Yale

Jaroslav Jan Pelikan Jr. was an American scholar of the history of Christianity, Christian theology, and medieval intellectual history at Yale University.

F. F. Bruce Scottish biblical scholar

Frederick Fyvie Bruce, usually cited as F. F. Bruce, was a biblical scholar who supported the historical reliability of the New Testament. His first book, New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? (1943), was voted by the American evangelical periodical Christianity Today in 2006 as one of the top 50 books "which had shaped evangelicals".

John Gill (theologian) British theologian and pastor

John Gill was an English Baptist pastor, biblical scholar, and theologian who held to a firm Calvinistic soteriology. Born in Kettering, Northamptonshire, he attended Kettering Grammar School where he mastered the Latin classics and learned Greek by age 11. He continued self-study in everything from logic to Hebrew, his love for the latter remaining throughout his life.

Writing from a feminist perspective, Kathy Chambers[ who? ] argues that the narrative demonstrates "how Christian adaptations of comedic tropes challenged the dominant cultural construction of status and gender, of ecclesial authority, slaves, and women." [6] :89 Chambers connects this story to the fulfillment in Acts 2 of the prophecy of Joel 2 that women and slaves would prophesy. Although "Rhoda lacked the necessary authority to have her message taken seriously because of her status of both woman and slave," she had enough courage and faith to keep insisting that it was Peter. [6] :94

Feminist theology is a movement found in several religions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, and New Thought, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of those religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts and matriarchal religion.

Acts 2 Acts of the Apostles, chapter 2

Acts 2 is the second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book containing this chapter is anonymous but early Christian tradition affirmed that Luke composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke. This chapter records the events on the day of Pentecost, about 10 days after the ascension of Jesus Christ.

Joel 2

Joel 2 is the second chapter of the Book of Joel in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Joel from the seventh century BCE, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets. This chapter contains the allusions to "the Day of the LORD" as an awesome and terrifying manifestation of God and his army, described as locusts, followed by "thick darkness" with "the sun turned to darkness and the moon to blood" and other terrible signs.

See also

Related Research Articles

Epistle to the Ephesians book of the Bible

The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament. Its authorship has traditionally been attributed to Paul the Apostle but starting in 1792, this has been challenged as Deutero-Pauline, that is, written in Paul's name by a later author strongly influenced by Paul's thought, probably "by a loyal disciple to sum up Paul’s teaching and to apply it to a new situation fifteen to twenty-five years after the Apostle’s death.

First Epistle of Peter book of the Bible

The First Epistle of Peter, usually referred to simply as First Peter and often written 1 Peter, is a book of the New Testament. The author presents himself as Peter the Apostle, and, following Roman Catholic tradition, the epistle has been held to have been written during his time as Bishop of Rome or Bishop of Antioch, though neither title is used in the epistle. The text of the letter states that it was written from Babylon. The letter is addressed to various churches in Asia Minor suffering religious persecution.

<i>The Shepherd of Hermas</i> Christian literary work of the 1st or 2nd century

The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian literary work of the late first half of the second century, considered a valuable book by many Christians, and considered canonical scripture by some of the early Church fathers such as Irenaeus. The Shepherd was very popular amongst Christians in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. It is part of the Codex Sinaiticus, and it is listed between the Acts of the Apostles and the Acts of Paul in the stichometrical list of the Codex Claromontanus.

Biblical criticism scholarly study of biblical writings that seeks to make discerning judgments about these writings

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term for those methods of studying the Bible that embrace two distinctive perspectives: the concern to avoid dogma and bias by applying a non-sectarian, reason-based judgment, and the reconstruction of history according to contemporary understanding. Biblical criticism uses the grammar, structure, development, and relationship of language to identify such characteristics as the Bible's literary structure, its genre, its context, meaning, authorship, and origins.

Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza is a Romanian-born German, Roman Catholic feminist theologian, who is currently the Krister Stendahl Professor of Divinity at Harvard Divinity School.

Ian Howard Marshall was a Scottish New Testament scholar. He was Professor Emeritus of New Testament Exegesis at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. He was formerly the chair of the Tyndale Fellowship for Biblical and Theological Research; he was also president of the British New Testament Society and chair of the Fellowship of European Evangelical Theologians. Marshall identified as an Evangelical Methodist. He was the author of numerous publications, including 2005 Gold Medallion Book Award winner New Testament Theology. He died of pancreatic cancer in 2015.

Richard Bauckham British theologian

Richard J. Bauckham is an English Anglican scholar in theology, historical theology and New Testament studies, specialising in New Testament Christology and the Gospel of John. He is a senior scholar at Ridley Hall, Cambridge.

Marabel Morgan is an American author of self-help books for married women, including The Total Woman (1973), Total Joy (1983), The Total Woman Cookbook (1980) and The Electric Woman (1986).

The roles of women in Christianity can vary considerably today as they have varied historically since the third century New Testament church. This is especially true in marriage and in formal ministry positions within certain Christian denominations, churches, and parachurch organizations.

Luthers Marian theology

Luther's Marian theology is derived from his views of Mary, the mother of Jesus. It was developed out of the deep Christian Marian devotion on which he was reared, and it was subsequently clarified as part of his mature Christocentric theology and piety. Lutherans hold Mary in high esteem. Martin Luther dogmatically asserted what he considered firmly established biblical doctrines like the divine motherhood of Mary while adhering to pious opinions of the Immaculate Conception and the perpetual virginity of Mary along with the caveat that all doctrine and piety should exalt and not diminish the person and work of Jesus Christ. By the end of Luther's theological development, his emphasis was always placed on Mary as merely a receiver of God's love and favor. His opposition to regarding Mary as a mediatrix of intercession or redemption was part of his greater and more extensive opposition to the belief that the merits of the saints could be added to those of Jesus Christ to save humanity.

Mary Through the Centuries: Her Place in the History of Culture is a book by Jaroslav Pelikan, published in New Haven by Yale University Press in 1996. It is based on the 1962 publication of Walter Tappolet, Das Marienlob der Reformatoren.Mary Through The Ages is a collection of texts from Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, and Bullinger, whom Pelikan called "the Reformers in Praise of Mary".

Liberation of Peter In Acts of the Apostles, chapter 12 the apostle Peter is rescued from prison by an angel.

The liberation of the apostle Peter is an event described in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 12 in which the apostle Peter is rescued from prison by an angel. Although described in a short textual passage, the tale has given rise to theological discussions and has been the subject of a number of artworks.

Redeemer (Christianity) title of Jesus

The English word redemption means "repurchase" or "buy back", and in the Old Testament referred to the ransom of slaves.

Jane Dewar Schaberg was the Professor of Religious Studies and of Women's Studies at the University of Detroit Mercy from 1977 through 2009.

Acts 12 Acts of the Apostles, chapter 12

Acts 12 is the twelfth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It records the death of the first apostle, James, son of Zebedee, followed by the miraculous escape of Peter from prison, the death of Herod Agrippa I, and the early ministry of Barnabas and Paul of Tarsus. The book containing this chapter is anonymous, but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke.

Ralph Philip Martin was a British New Testament scholar.

Revelation 18 Book of Revelation, chapter 18

Revelation 18 is the eighteenth chapter of the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is traditionally attributed to John the Apostle, but the precise identity of the author remains a point of academic debate. This chapter describes the fall of Babylon the Great.

Political theology in sub-Saharan Africa deals with the relationship of theology and politics born from and/or specific to the circumstances of the region. Arising from the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa and nationalist campaigns of the mid to late twentieth century elsewhere, the increasing numbers of Christians in sub-Saharan Africa has led to an increased interest in Christian responses to the region's continuing issues of poverty, violence, and war. According to the Cameroonian theologian and sociologist Jean-Marc Éla, African Christianity "has to be formulated from the struggles of our people, from their joys, from their pains, from their hopes and from their frustrations today." African theology is heavily influenced by liberation theology, global black theology, and postcolonial theology.

References

  1. Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament , RHODA.
  2. Jaroslav Pelikan, Acts (Grand Rapids: Brazos, 2005), 148.
  3. F. F. Bruce, Commentary on the Book of the Acts (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 251.
  4. Gill, J. Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible, (http://biblehub.com/commentaries/gill/acts/12.htm) accessed 31 August 2015
  5. Robinson, D. F., 'Where and When did Peter die?', Journal of Biblical Literature Vol 64 (1945), supported by Smaltz, W. M., Did Peter die in Jerusalem?, Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 71, No. 4 (Dec. 1952), pp. 211-216 accessed 31 August 2015
  6. 1 2 Chambers, Kathy (2004). "'Knock, knock--Who's there?' Acts 12.6-17 as a comedy of errors". In Levine, Amy-Jill (ed.). A Feminist Companion to the Acts of the Apostles. T&T Clark.