Rhodes

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Rhodes

Ρόδος
Maltan knights castle in rh.jpg
Palace of the Grand Master in the city of Rhodes
Flag of Rhodes Island.svg
Flag
Emblem of Rhodes.svg
Seal
2011 Dimos Rodou.png
Coordinates: 36°10′N27°56′E / 36.167°N 27.933°E / 36.167; 27.933 Coordinates: 36°10′N27°56′E / 36.167°N 27.933°E / 36.167; 27.933
Country Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
Administrative region South Aegean
Prefecture Dodecanese
Regional unit Rhodes
Seat Rhodes
Government
  MayorAntonios Kambourakis ( New Democracy )
Area
  Total1,400.684 km2 (540.807 sq mi)
Highest elevation
1,216 m (3,990 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2011)
  Total115,490
  Density82/km2 (210/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Rhodian, Rhodiot or Rhodiote (rare)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
851 00
Telephone 2241, 2244, 2246
Website www.rhodes.gr
General view of the village of Lindos, with the acropolis and the beaches, island of Rhodes, Greece Lindos Rhodes 1.jpg
General view of the village of Lindos, with the acropolis and the beaches, island of Rhodes, Greece

Rhodes (Greek : Ρόδος, romanized: Ródos [ˈroðos] ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece and is also the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Rhodes regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean administrative region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes. [1] The city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011. It is located northeast of Crete, southeast of Athens. Rhodes' nickname is The island of the Knights, named after the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, who ruled the island from 1310 to 1522. [2]

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes in Latin and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek. The masculine Greek word Ἅγιος or Άγιος might variously appear as Hagiοs, Agios, Aghios, or Ayios, or simply be translated as "Holy" or "Saint" in English forms of Greek placenames.

Dodecanese Former prefecture in South Aegean, Greece

The Dodecanese are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited. Τhis island group generally defines the eastern limit of the Sea of Crete. They belong to the wider Southern Sporades island group.

Contents

Historically, Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Medieval Old Town of the City of Rhodes has been declared a World Heritage Site. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe. [3] [4] [5] [6] The name of the U.S. state of Rhode Island is thought to be based on this island.

Colossus of Rhodes One of the seven wonders of the ancient world

The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the Greek sun-god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes, on the Greek island of the same name, by Chares of Lindos in 280 BC. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, it was constructed to celebrate Rhodes' victory over the ruler of Cyprus, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, whose son Demetrius I of Macedon unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. According to most contemporary descriptions, the Colossus stood approximately 70 cubits, or 33 metres high—the approximate height of the modern Statue of Liberty from feet to crown—making it the tallest statue of the ancient world. It collapsed during the earthquake of 226 BC; although parts of it were preserved, it was never rebuilt.

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World remarkable constructions of classical antiquity

The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists. Although the list, in its current form, did not stabilise until the Renaissance, the first such lists of seven wonders date from the 1st–2nd century BC. The original list inspired innumerable versions through the ages, often listing seven entries. Of the original Seven Wonders, only one—the Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest of the ancient wonders—remains relatively intact. The Colossus of Rhodes, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were all destroyed. The location and ultimate fate of the Hanging Gardens are unknown, and there is speculation that they may not have existed at all.

Fortifications of Rhodes

The fortifications of the town of Rhodes are shaped like a defensive crescent around the medieval town and consist mostly in a modern fortification composed of a huge wall made of an embankment encased in stone, equipped with scarp, bastions, moat, counterscarp and glacis. The portion of fortifications facing the harbour is instead composed of a crenellated wall. On the moles towers and defensive forts are found.

Name

The island has been known as Ρόδος in Greek throughout its history. In addition, the island has been called Rodi in Italian, Rodos in Turkish, and Rodi or Rodes in Ladino.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire and, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a protected language in these countries. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

The Travels of Sir John Mandeville incorrectly reports that Rhodes was formerly called "Collosus", through a conflation of the Colossus of Rhodes and Paul's Epistle to the Colossians , which refers to Colossae. [7]

Paul the Apostle Early Christian apostle and missionary

Paul the Apostle, commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus, was an apostle who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. He took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences.

Epistle to the Colossians book of the Bible

The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians, often referred to simply as Colossians, is the twelfth book of the New Testament. It was written, according to the text, by Paul the Apostle and Timothy to the Church in Colossae, a small Phrygian city near Laodicea and approximately 100 miles (160 km) from Ephesus in Asia Minor.

Colossae was an ancient city of Phrygia in Asia Minor, and one of the most celebrated cities of southern Anatolia. The Epistle to the Colossians, an early Christian text traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, is addressed to the church in Colossae. A significant city from the 5th century BC onwards, it had dwindled in importance by the time of Paul, but was notable for the existence of its local angel cult. It was part of the Roman – and then Byzantine – province of Phrygia Pacatiana, before being destroyed in 1192/3 and its population relocating to nearby Chonai.

The island's name might be derived from erod, Phoenician for snake, since the island was infested with snakes in antiquity. [8]

Phoenician language extinct Semitic language

Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region, then called "Pūt", "Canaan", "Phoenicia". It is a part of the Canaanite subgroup of the Northwest Semitic languages. Other members of the family are Hebrew, Ammonite, Moabite, and Edomite.

Snake limbless, scaly, elongate reptile

Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes. Like all other squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales. Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws. To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca. Lizards have evolved elongate bodies without limbs or with greatly reduced limbs about twenty-five times independently via convergent evolution, leading to many lineages of legless lizards. Legless lizards resemble snakes, but several common groups of legless lizards have eyelids and external ears, which snakes lack, although this rule is not universal.

Geography

Topographic map of Rhodes Rhodos topo.png
Topographic map of Rhodes
Akramitis mountain Akramitis.jpg
Akramitis mountain

The island of Rhodes is shaped like a spearhead, 79.7 km (49.5 mi) long and 38 km (24 mi) wide, with a total area of approximately 1,400 square kilometres (541 sq mi) and a coastline of approximately 220 km (137 mi). Limestone is the main bedrock. [9] The city of Rhodes is located at the northern tip of the island, as well as the site of the ancient and modern commercial harbours. The main air gateway (Diagoras International Airport, IATA code: RHO) is located 14 km (9 mi) to the southwest of the city in Paradisi. The road network radiates from the city along the east and west coasts.

A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with fire hardened spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint, obsidian, iron, steel or bronze. The most common design for hunting or combat spears since ancient times has incorporated a metal spearhead shaped like a triangle, lozenge, or leaf. The heads of fishing spears usually feature barbs or serrated edges.

Limestone Sedimentary rocks made of calcium carbonate

Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock that is often composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, foraminifera, and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). A closely related rock is dolomite, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. In old USGS publications, dolomite was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolomites or magnesium-rich limestones.

Outside the city of Rhodes, the island is dotted with small villages and spa resorts, among them Faliraki, Lindos, Kremasti, Haraki, Pefkos, Archangelos, Afantou,Ixia, Koskinou, Embona (Attavyros), Paradisi, and Trianta (Ialysos). There are mineral-rich spring water (and sometimes sea water) used to give medicinal baths and the spa resorts offer various health treatments.

Rhodes is situated 363 km (226 mi) east-south-east from the Greek mainland, and 18 km (11 mi) from the southern shore of Turkey.

Flora

The interior of the island is mountainous, sparsely inhabited and covered with forests of pine ( Pinus brutia ) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens). While the shores are rocky, the island has arable strips of land where citrus fruit, wine grapes, vegetables, olives and other crops are grown.

Fauna

The Rhodian population of fallow deer was found to be genetically distinct in 2005, and to be of urgent conservation concern. [10] In Petaloudes Valley (Greek for "Valley of the Butterflies"), large numbers of tiger moths gather during the summer months. Mount Attavyros, at 1,216 metres (3,990 ft), is the island's highest point of elevation.

Earthquakes

Earthquakes include the 226 BC earthquake that destroyed the Colossus of Rhodes; one on 3 May 1481 which destroyed much of the city of Rhodes; [11] and one on 26 June 1926. [12]

On 15 July 2008, Rhodes was struck by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake causing minor damage to a few old buildings and one death. [13]

Climate

Rhodes has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen climate classification).

Climate data for Rhodes
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.0
(71.6)
22.0
(71.6)
27.4
(81.3)
30.6
(87.1)
34.8
(94.6)
36.2
(97.2)
39.0
(102.2)
41.2
(106.2)
35.4
(95.7)
33.2
(91.8)
28.4
(83.1)
22.8
(73.0)
41.2
(106.2)
Average high °C (°F)15.1
(59.2)
15.2
(59.4)
16.8
(62.2)
20.0
(68.0)
24.2
(75.6)
28.4
(83.1)
30.5
(86.9)
30.7
(87.3)
28.2
(82.8)
24.5
(76.1)
20.1
(68.2)
16.6
(61.9)
22.5
(72.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)12.0
(53.6)
12.0
(53.6)
13.5
(56.3)
16.3
(61.3)
20.0
(68.0)
24.2
(75.6)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
24.4
(75.9)
20.7
(69.3)
16.7
(62.1)
13.5
(56.3)
18.9
(66.0)
Average low °C (°F)8.8
(47.8)
8.8
(47.8)
10.1
(50.2)
12.5
(54.5)
15.8
(60.4)
19.9
(67.8)
22.3
(72.1)
22.7
(72.9)
20.5
(68.9)
16.9
(62.4)
13.2
(55.8)
10.4
(50.7)
15.2
(59.3)
Record low °C (°F)−4.0
(24.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
0.2
(32.4)
5.2
(41.4)
8.6
(47.5)
12.6
(54.7)
16.8
(62.2)
17.0
(62.6)
10.6
(51.1)
7.2
(45.0)
2.4
(36.3)
1.2
(34.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches)149.6
(5.89)
105.7
(4.16)
75.6
(2.98)
27.8
(1.09)
18.6
(0.73)
2.3
(0.09)
0.4
(0.02)
0.2
(0.01)
5.8
(0.23)
65.5
(2.58)
94.1
(3.70)
157.4
(6.20)
703
(27.68)
Average rainy days15.512.710.57.64.61.20.20.11.56.79.515.485.5
Average relative humidity (%)70.169.168.766.564.458.557.659.961.467.571.472.465.6
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.06.07.09.011.013.014.013.011.08.06.05.09.0
Percent possible sunshine 5055586979871001009273605073
Source #1: Hellinic National Meteorological Service [14]
Source #2: NOAA (Record temperature), [15] Weather Atlas (sunshine data) [16]
Climate data for Rhodes
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average sea temperature °C (°F)17.9
(64.2)
17.0
(62.6)
17.1
(62.8)
17.6
(63.7)
20.1
(68.2)
23.4
(74.1)
25.9
(78.6)
27.2
(81.0)
26.7
(80.1)
23.8
(74.8)
20.9
(69.6)
18.8
(65.8)
21.4
(70.5)
Mean daily daylight hours10.011.012.013.014.015.014.013.012.011.010.010.012.1
Average Ultraviolet index 235781010975325.9
Source: Weather Atlas [16]
Ixia beach, Rhodes Ixia beach Rhodes Greece 2.jpg
Ixia beach, Rhodes
Valley of Petaloudes E koilada ton petaloudon.jpg
Valley of Petaloudes

History

Early and classical antiquity

Mycenean necklace of carnelian found in Kattavia Carnelian necklace As 7702.jpg
Mycenean necklace of carnelian found in Kattavia
Silver drachma of Rhodes, 88/42 BC. Obverse: radiate head of Helios. Reverse: rose, "rhodon" (Rodon), the symbol of Rhodes. Rhodes 88-42 BC-AD.jpg
Silver drachma of Rhodes, 88/42 BC. Obverse: radiate head of Helios. Reverse: rose, "rhodon" (ῥόδον), the symbol of Rhodes.
Temple of Apollo at the Acropolis of Rhodes Apollon temple acropolis Rhodes.jpg
Temple of Apollo at the Acropolis of Rhodes

Prehistory

The island was inhabited in the Neolithic period, although little remains of this culture.

Minoan Era

In the 16th century BC, the Minoans came to Rhodes. Later Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the Telchines and associated the island of Rhodes with Danaus; it was sometimes nicknamed Telchinis.

Mycenaean Era

In the 15th century BC, Mycenaean Greeks invaded. After the Bronze Age collapse, the first renewed outside contacts were with Cyprus. [17]

Homer mentions that Rhodes participated in the Trojan War under the leadership of Tlepolemus. [18]

Archaic Era

In the 8th century BC, the island's settlements started to form, with the coming of the Dorians, who built the three important cities of Lindos, Ialyssos and Kameiros, which together with Kos, Cnidus and Halicarnassus (on the mainland) made up the so-called Dorian Hexapolis (Greek for six cities).

In Pindar's ode, the island was said to be born of the union of Helios the sun god and the nymph Rhodos, and the cities were named for their three sons. The rhoda is a pink hibiscus, native to the island. Diodorus Siculus added that Actis, one of the sons of Helios and Rhode, travelled to Egypt. He built the city of Heliopolis and taught the Egyptians astrology. [19]

In the second half of the 8th century, the sanctuary of Athena received votive gifts that are markers for cultural contacts: small ivories from the Near East and bronze objects from Syria. At Kameiros on the northwest coast, a former Bronze Age site, where the temple was founded in the 8th century, there is another notable contemporaneous sequence of carved ivory figurines. The cemeteries of Kameiros and Ialyssos yielded several exquisite exemplars of the Orientalizing Rhodian jewellery, dated in the 7th and early 6th centuries BC. [20] Phoenician presence on the island at Ialysos is attested in traditions recorded much later by Rhodian historians.[ citation needed ]

Classical Era

The Persians invaded and overran the island, but they were in turn defeated by forces from Athens in 478 BC. The Rhodian cities joined the Athenian League. When the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC, Rhodes remained largely neutral, although it remained a member of the League. The war lasted until 404 BC, but by this time Rhodes had withdrawn entirely from the conflict and decided to go her own way.[ citation needed ]

In 408 BC, the cities united to form one territory. They built the city of Rhodes, a new capital on the northern end of the island. Its regular plan was, according to Strabo, superintended by the Athenian architect Hippodamus.

In 357 BC, the island was conquered by the king Mausolus of Caria, then it fell again to the Persians in 340 BC. Their rule was also short.

Hellenistic age

Rhodes then became a part of the growing empire of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after he defeated the Persians.[ citation needed ]

The Colossus of Rhodes, as depicted in an artist's impression of 1880 Colosse de Rhodes (Barclay).jpg
The Colossus of Rhodes, as depicted in an artist's impression of 1880

Following the death of Alexander, his generals vied for control of the kingdom. Three—Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Antigonus—succeeded in dividing the kingdom among themselves. Rhodes formed strong commercial and cultural ties [21] with the Ptolemies in Alexandria, and together formed the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance that controlled trade throughout the Aegean in the 3rd century BC.

The city developed into a maritime, commercial and cultural center; its coins circulated nearly everywhere in the Mediterranean. Its famous schools of philosophy, science, literature and rhetoric shared masters with Alexandria: the Athenian rhetorician Aeschines, who formed a school at Rhodes; Apollonius of Rhodes; [22] the observations and works of the astronomers Hipparchus and Geminus, the rhetorician Dionysius Thrax. Its school of sculptors developed, under Pergamese influence, a rich, dramatic style that can be characterized as "Hellenistic Baroque". Agesander of Rhodes, with two other Rhodian sculptors, carved the famous Laocoön group , now in the Vatican Museums, and the large sculptures rediscovered at Sperlonga in the villa of Tiberius, probably in the early Imperial period. [23]

In 305 BC, Antigonus directed his son, Demetrius, to besiege Rhodes in an attempt to break its alliance with Egypt. Demetrius created huge siege engines, including a 180 ft (55 m) battering ram and a siege tower called Helepolis that weighed 360,000 pounds (163,293 kg). Despite this engagement, in 304 BC after only one year, he relented and signed a peace agreement, leaving behind a huge store of military equipment. The Rhodians sold the equipment and used the money to erect a statue of their sun god, Helios, the statue since called the Colossus of Rhodes.[ citation needed ]

Throughout the 3rd century BC, Rhodes attempted to secure her independence and her commerce, most especially her virtual control over the grain trade in the eastern Mediterranean. Both of these goals were dependent upon no one of the three great Hellenistic states achieving dominance, and consequently the Rhodians pursued a policy of maintaining a balance of power among the Antigonids, Seleucids and Ptolemies, even if that meant going to war with her traditional ally, Egypt. To this end they employed as leverage their economy and their excellent navy, which was manned by proverbially the finest sailors in the Mediterranean world: "If we have ten Rhodians, we have ten ships."[ citation needed ] The Rhodians also established their dominance on the shores of Caria across from their island, which became known as the "Rhodian Peraia". It extended roughly from the modern city of Muğla (ancient Mobolla) in the north and Kaunos bordering Lycia in the south, near the present-day Dalyan, Turkey.

Rhodes successfully carried on this policy through the course of the third century BC, an impressive achievement for what was essentially a democratic state. By the end of that period, however, the balance of power was crumbling, as declining Ptolemaic power made Egypt an attractive target for Seleucid ambitions. In 203/2 BC the young and dynamic kings of Antigonid Macedon and Seleucid Asia, Philip V and Antiochus III, agreed to accept—at least temporarily—their respective military ambitions, Philip's campaign in the Aegean and western Anatolia and Antiochus’ final solution of the Egyptian question. Heading a coalition of small states, the Rhodians checked Philip's navy, but not his superior army. Without a third power to which to turn, the Rhodians appealed in 201 BC to the Roman Republic.[ citation needed ]

Medieval gate at the Acropolis of Lindos Rhodos Ritterkastell bei Lindos.jpg
Medieval gate at the Acropolis of Lindos

Despite being exhausted by the titanic struggle against Hannibal (218–201 BC) the Romans agreed to intervene, having already been stabbed in the back by Philip during the war against Carthage. The Senate saw the appeal from Rhodes and her allies as the opportunity to pressure Philip. The result was the Second Macedonian War (200–196 BC), which ended Macedon's role as a major player and preserved Rhodian independence.[ citation needed ] Rhodian influence in the Aegean was cemented through the organization of the Cyclades into the Second Nesiotic League under Rhodian leadership.

The Romans actually withdrew from Greece after the end of the conflict, but the resulting power vacuum quickly drew in Antiochus and subsequently the Romans, who defeated (192–188 BC) the last Mediterranean power that might even vaguely threaten their predominance. Having provided Rome with valuable naval help in her first foray into Asia, the Rhodians were rewarded with territory and enhanced status.[ citation needed ] The Romans once again evacuated the east – the Senate preferred clients to provinces – but it was clear that Rome now ruled the world and Rhodian autonomy was ultimately dependent upon good relations with them.[ citation needed ]

And those good graces soon evaporated in the wake of the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC). In 169 BC, during the war against Perseus, Rhodes sent Agepolis as ambassador to the consul Quintus Marcius Philippus, and then to Rome in the following year, hoping to turn the Senate against the war. [24] Rhodes remained scrupulously neutral during the war, but in the view of hostile elements in the Senate she had been a bit too friendly with the defeated King Perseus. Some actually proposed declaring war on the island republic, but this was averted. In 164, Rhodes became a permanent ally of Rome, ending an independence that no longer had any meaning.[ clarification needed ] It was said that the Romans ultimately turned against the Rhodians because the islanders were the only people they had encountered who were more arrogant than themselves.[ citation needed ]

After surrendering its independence Rhodes became a cultural and educational center for Roman noble families and was especially noted for its teachers of rhetoric, such as Hermagoras and the unknown author of Rhetorica ad Herennium . At first, the state was an important ally of Rome and enjoyed numerous privileges, but these were later lost in various machinations of Roman politics. Cassius eventually invaded the island and sacked the city. In the early Imperial period Rhodes became a favorite place for political exiles. [25]

In the 1st century AD, the Emperor Tiberius spent a brief term of exile on Rhodes. Saint Paul brought Christianity to people on the island. [26] Rhodes reached her zenith in the 3rd century.

In ancient times there was a Roman saying: "hic Rhodus, hic salta!"—"Here is Rhodes, jump here", an admonition to prove one's idle boasts by deed rather than talk. It comes from an Aesop's fable called "The Boastful Athlete" and was cited by Hegel, Marx, and Kierkegaard.

Byzantine period

In 395 with the division of the Roman Empire, the long Byzantine period began for Rhodes. In Late Antiquity, the island was the capital of the Roman province of the Islands, headed by a praeses ( hegemon in Greek), and encompassing most of the Aegean islands, with twenty cities. Correspondingly, the island was also the metropolis of the ecclesiastical province of Cyclades, with eleven suffragan sees. [27]

Beginning from ca. 600 AD, its influence in maritime issues was manifested in the collection of maritime laws known as "Rhodian Sea Law" (Nomos Rhodion Nautikos), accepted throughout the Mediterranean and in use throughout Byzantine times (and influencing the development of admiralty law up to the present).[ citation needed ] In 622/3, during the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Rhodes was captured by the Sasanian navy. [28] [29] [30]

Rhodes was occupied by the Islamic Umayyad forces of Caliph Muawiyah I in 654, who carried off the remains of the Colossus of Rhodes. [27] [31] The island was again captured by the Arabs in 673 as part of their first attack on Constantinople. When their fleet was destroyed by Greek fire before Constantinople and by storms on its return trip, however, the island was evacuated in 679/80 as part of the Byzantine–Umayyad peace treaty. [32] In 715 the Byzantine fleet dispatched against the Arabs launched a rebellion at Rhodes, which led to the installation of Theodosios III on the Byzantine throne. [27] [33]

From the early 8th to the 12th centuries, Rhodes belonged to the Cibyrrhaeot Theme of the Byzantine Empire, and was a centre for shipbuilding and commerce. [27] In c. 1090, it was occupied by the forces of the Seljuk Turks, not long after the Battle of Manzikert. [34] Rhodes was recaptured by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the First Crusade.

Part of the late medieval fortifications of Rhodes Rhodes-TerrePleinSpain.JPG
Part of the late medieval fortifications of Rhodes

As Byzantine central power weakened under the Angeloi emperors (1185–1204), in the first half of the 13th century, Rhodes became the centre of an independent domain under Leo Gabalas and his brother John, [27] until it was occupied by the Genoese in 1248–1250. The Genoese were evicted by the Empire of Nicaea, after which the island became a regular province of the Nicaean state (and after 1261 of the restored Byzantine Empire). In 1305, the island was given as a fief to Andrea Morisco, a Genoese adventurer who had entered Byzantine service. Between 1300 and 1314, however, Rhodes was controlled by Menteşe, an Anatolian beylik.

Crusader and Ottoman rule

Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript OttomanJanissariesAndDefendingKnightsOfStJohnSiegeOfRhodes1522.jpg
Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript
Rhodes in the 19th century A small harbour in Rhodes.jpg
Rhodes in the 19th century

In 1306–1310, the Byzantine era of the island's history came to an end when the island was occupied by the Knights Hospitaller. [27] Under the rule of the newly named "Knights of Rhodes", the city was rebuilt into a model of the European medieval ideal. Many of the city's famous monuments, including the Palace of the Grand Master, were built during this period.

The strong walls which the knights had built withstood the attacks of the Sultan of Egypt in 1444, and a siege by the Ottomans under Mehmed II in 1480. Eventually, however, Rhodes fell to the large army of Suleiman the Magnificent in December 1522. The Sultan deployed 400 ships delivering 100,000 men to the island (200,000 in other sources). Against this force the Knights, under Grand Master Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, had about 7,000 men-at-arms and their fortifications. The siege lasted six months, at the end of which the surviving defeated Hospitallers were allowed to withdraw to the Kingdom of Sicily. Despite the defeat, both Christians and Muslims seem to have regarded the conduct of Villiers de L'Isle-Adam as extremely valiant, and the Grand Master was proclaimed a Defender of the Faith by Pope Adrian VI (see Knights of Cyprus and Rhodes). The knights would later move their base of operations to Malta.

Rhodes was thereafter a possession of the Ottoman Empire (see Sanjak of Rhodes) for nearly four centuries.

Modern history

5 soldi Austrian Levant stamp cancelled in brown RHODUS. Rhodus type Muller A86.jpg
5 soldi Austrian Levant stamp cancelled in brown RHODUS.
Palazzo Governale (today the offices of the Prefecture of the Dodecanese), built during the Italian period Offices of the Prefecture of the Dodecanese 02.jpg
Palazzo Governale (today the offices of the Prefecture of the Dodecanese), built during the Italian period

The island was populated by ethnic groups from the surrounding nations, including Jews. Under Ottoman rule, they generally did fairly well, but discrimination and bigotry occasionally arose. In February 1840, the Jews of Rhodes were falsely accused by the Greek Orthodox community of ritually murdering a Christian boy. This became known as the Rhodes blood libel.

Austria opened a post-office at RHODUS (Venetian name) before 1864, [36] as witnessed by stamps with Franz-Josef head.

In 1912, Italy seized Rhodes from the Turks during the Italo-Turkish War. The island's population was spared the "exchange of the minorities" between Greece and Turkey. Rhodes and the rest of the Dodecanese Islands were assigned to Italy in the Treaty of Ouchy and were supposed to be given back but were not. Turkey ceded them officially in the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. It then became the core of their possession of the Isole Italiane dell'Egeo .

Following the Italian Armistice of 8 September 1943, the British attempted to get the Italian garrison on Rhodes to change sides. This was anticipated by the German Army, which succeeded in occupying the island with the Battle of Rhodes. In great measure, the German occupation caused the British failure in the subsequent Dodecanese Campaign.

The Turkish Consul Selahattin Ülkümen succeeded, at considerable risk to himself and his family, in saving 42 Jewish families, about 200 persons in total, who had Turkish citizenship or were members of Turkish citizens' families.

On 8 May 1945 the Germans under Otto Wagener surrendered Rhodes as well as the Dodecanese as a whole to the British, who soon after then occupied the islands as a military protectorate.

In 1947, Rhodes, together with the other islands of the Dodecanese, was united with Greece.

In 1949, Rhodes was the venue for negotiations between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, concluding with the 1949 Armistice Agreements.

The name of the US state of Rhode Island is based on a reference to Rhodes by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano. In a 1524 letter detailing his excursion into the waters around either Block Island or Aquidneck Island Verrazano wrote that he "discovered an Ilande in the form of a triangle, distant from the maine lande 3 leagues, about the bignesse of the Ilande of the Rodes".

Archaeology

Fountain square at the ancient site of Kameiros Kameiros - Fountain square 03.jpg
Fountain square at the ancient site of Kameiros
Medieval castle of Monolithos Rhodos Monolithos R02.jpg
Medieval castle of Monolithos

The Colossus of Rhodes was considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. This giant bronze statue was documented as once standing at the harbour. It was completed in 280 BC and destroyed in an earthquake in 224 BC. No trace of the statue remains today.

Historical sites on the island of Rhodes include the Acropolis of Lindos, the Acropolis of Rhodes with the Temple of Pythian Apollo and an ancient theatre and stadium, [37] ancient Ialysos, ancient Kamiros, the Governor's Palace, Rhodes Old Town (walled medieval city), the Palace of the Grand Masters, Kahal Shalom Synagogue in the Jewish Quarter, the Archeological Museum, the ruins of the castle of Monolithos, the castle of Kritinia, St. Catherine Hospice and Rhodes Footbridge.

Religion

Filerimos Monastery in Ialysos Rhodes Filerimos3 tango7174.jpg
Filerimos Monastery in Ialysos

Christianity

The predominant religion is Greek Orthodox; the island is the seat of the Metropolis of Rhodes.

There is a significant Latin Catholic [38] minority on the island of 2,000, many of whom are descendants of Italians who remained after the end of the Italian occupation, pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rhodes.

Islam

Rhodes has a Turkish Muslim minority, a remnant from Ottoman Turkish times who were not required in the population exchange of 1923–24 to leave because the Dodecanese Islands were under Italian administration. They are organized around the Turkish Association of Rhodes (Turkish : Rodos Türk Derneği), which gives the figure 3,500 for the population they bring together and represent for the island. [39] The number of the Turks in Rhodes could be as many as 4,000. [40] [41] [42]

Judaism

The Jewish community of Rhodes [43] goes back to the first century AD. Kahal Shalom Synagogue , established in 1557, during the Ottoman era, is the oldest synagogue in Greece and still stands in the Jewish quarter of the old town of Rhodes. At its peak in the 1920s, the Jewish community was one-third of the town's total population. [44] In the 1940s, there were about 2000 Jews of various ethnic backgrounds. The Nazis deported and killed most of the community during the Holocaust. Kahal Shalom has been renovated with the help of foreign donors but few Jews live year-round in Rhodes today, so services are not held on a regular basis. [45]

The Jewish Museum of Rhodes was established in 1997 to preserve the Jewish history and culture of the Jews of Rhodes. It is adjacent to the Kahal Shalom Synagogue.

Government

View of Archangelos Archangelos042.JPG
View of Archangelos
View of Lindos with the Acropolis Lindos Rhodes.jpg
View of Lindos with the Acropolis
St Paul's Bay, Lindos Rodi - Spiaggia 04.JPG
St Paul's Bay, Lindos

The present municipality Rhodes was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 10 former municipalities, that became municipal units (constituent communities in parentheses): [1]

The municipality has an area of 1400.681 km2. [47] It covers the island of Rhodes and a few uninhabited offshore islets. Rhodes city was the capital of the former Dodecanese Prefecture. Rhodes is the most populated island of the South Aegean Region.

Towns and villages

Rhodes has 43 towns and villages:

Town/VillagePopulationMunicipal unitTown/VillagePopulationMunicipal unit
Rhodes City 50,636Rhodes Gennadi 671 South Rhodes
Ialysos 11,331 Ialysos Salakos 576 Kameiros
Afantou 6,329 Afantou Kritinia 503 Attavyros
Archangelos 5,476 Archangelos Kattavia 307 South Rhodes
Kremasti 5,396 Petaloudes Dimylia 465 Kameiros
Kalythies 4,832 Kallithea Kalavarda 502 Kameiros
Koskinou 3,679 Kallithea Pylona 627 Lindos
Pastida 3,641 Petaloudes Istrios 291 South Rhodes
Paradeisi 2,667 Petaloudes Damatria 641 Petaloudes
Maritsa 1,808 Petaloudes Laerma 361 Lindos
Embonas 1,242 Attavyros Apolakkia 496 South Rhodes
Soroni 1,278 Kameiros Platania 196 Kameiros
Lardos 1,380 Lindos Kalathos 502 Lindos
Psinthos 853 Kallithea Lachania 153 South Rhodes
Malona 1,135 Archangelos Monolithos 181 Attavyros
Lindos 3,087 Lindos Mesanagros 155 South Rhodes
Apollona 845 Kameiros Profilia 304 South Rhodes
Massari 1,004 Archangelos Arnitha 215 South Rhodes
Fanes 858 Kameiros Siana 152 Attavyros
Theologos 809 Petaloudes Vati 323 South Rhodes
Archipoli 582 Afantou Agios Isidoros355 Attavyros
Asklipio 646 South Rhodes

Economy

View of the market (Nea Agora) of Mandraki (Rhodes city), built during the Italian period Hafenmarkt Rhodos01.jpg
View of the market (Nea Agora) of Mandraki (Rhodes city), built during the Italian period

The economy is tourist-oriented, and the most developed sector is service. Tourism has elevated Rhodes economically, compared to the rest of Greece. [48]

Small industries process imported raw materials for local retail, though other industry includes agricultural goods production, stockbreeding, fishery and winery.

Transportation

Air

Diagoras Airport, arrivals terminal Airpoort rhodes 02.JPG
Diagoras Airport, arrivals terminal

Rhodes has three airports, but only one is public. Diagoras Airport, one of the biggest in Greece, is the main entrance/exit point for both locals and tourists. The island is well connected with other major Greek cities and islands as well as with major European capitals and cities via charter flights.

Two pilot schools offer aviation services (small plane rental and island hopping).

Sea

MS Thomson Majesty at the harbour of Rhodes Louis Majesty Rhodes 2.jpg
MS Thomson Majesty at the harbour of Rhodes
The Kameiros Skala Dock Rhodes SkalaKamirou tango7174.jpg
The Kameiros Skala Dock

Rhodes has five ports, three of them in Rhodes City, one in the west coast near Kamiros and one in east coast near Lardos.[ citation needed ]

Road network

The road network of the island is mostly paved and consists of 3 national roads plus one planned, 40 provincial and numerous local. These are the four major island arteries:

Future roads:[ citation needed ]

Bus

Bus services are handled by two operators: [52]

Cars and motorbikes

Families in Rhodes often own more than one car, along with a motorbike. Traffic jams are common particularly in the summer months as vehicles more than double while parking spots downtown and around the old town are limited and can't cope with demand. Moreover, the island is served by 450 taxis and some 200 public and private buses adding to the traffic burden.

Sports

Diagoras Stadium in the city of Rhodes Rhodos003.JPG
Diagoras Stadium in the city of Rhodes

Culture

Pitaroudia, a traditional chickpea dumpling from Rhodes and Dodecanese Pitaroudia.jpg
Pitaroudia, a traditional chickpea dumpling from Rhodes and Dodecanese

Rhodian tradition in food is rich. Koriantolino and Souma (colorless alcoholic beverage produced from grape distillation) are the main alcoholic drinks of Rhodes. Local foods include Pitaroudia, Milla and Tsiriggia, Pougia pie, Lakani, Katsikaki Kapamas, Lópia (beans) with goat, Makarounia, Matsi or Koulouría (hand made pasta), Tsouvras, Sivrasi, Giaprakia, Kefalopoda Lambris, Giachni, Ladopita, Tachinopita, Sinoro (traditional cheese). Local pastry specialties are Melekouni, Fanouropita, Mouchalebi, Takakia, Escharitis, Amigdalotá (white almond cookies), Moschopougia and Mantinades.

Notable people

Diagoras of Rhodes carried in the stadium by his two sons Diagoras of Rodes.jpg
Diagoras of Rhodes carried in the stadium by his two sons

Tourism

Rhodes is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in Greece. After Crete the island is the most visited destination in Greece, with arrivals standing at 1.785.305 in 2013. In 2014 they stood at 1.931.005, while in 2015 the arrival number reduced slightly and stood at 1.901.000. The average length of stay is estimated at 8 days. Guests from Great Britain, Israel, France, Italy, Sweden and Norway are the ones that constitute the biggest portion in terms of the arrivals by country. [61] In Rhodes the supply of available rooms is high, since more than 550 hotels are operating in the island, the majority of which are 2 star hotels. [61] Additionally, in terms of competitiveness, the World Tourism Organization ranks Greece in the 31st position globally. [62]

Panoramas

Rhodes harbor 2017:

Rhodos hamn 2017 Rhodes D81 3478 (37745913995).jpg
Rhodos hamn 2017

Rhodes panorama 2017:

Panorama over Rhodos 2017 Rhodes D81 3370 (37746014135).jpg
Panorama över Rhodos 2017

See also

Related Research Articles

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Kos Place in Greece

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Lindos Place in Greece

Lindos is an archaeological site, a fishing village and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 178.9 km2. It lies on the east coast of the island. It is about 50 km south of the town of Rhodes and its fine beaches make it a popular tourist and holiday destination. Lindos is situated in a large bay and faces the fishing village and small resort of Charaki.

Karpathos Place in Greece

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South Aegean Administrative region of Greece in Aegean

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Faliraki human settlement

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Chares of Lindos was a Greek sculptor born on the island of Rhodes. He was a pupil of Lysippos. Chares constructed the Colossus of Rhodes in 282 BC, an enormous bronze statue of the sun god Helios and also the patron god of Rhodes. The statue was built to commemorate Rhodes' victory over the invading Macedonians in 305 BC, led by Demetrius I, son of Antigonus, a general under Alexander the Great. Also attributed to Chares was a colossal head which was brought to Rome and dedicated by P. Lentulus Spinther on the Capitoline Hill, in 57 BC.

Rhodes International Airport international airport serving Rodos, Greece

Rhodes International Airport "Diagoras", or Diagoras International Airport, is located on the West side of the island of Rhodes in Greece. The facility is located just north of the village Paradeisi, about 14 km southwest of the capital city, Rodos. Rhodes International Airport was the fourth busiest airport in Greece as of 2017, with 5,301,517 passengers utilizing the airport.

Tilos Place in Greece

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Ialysos Place in Greece

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Rhodes (city) Place in Greece

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The Acropolis of Rhodes is an acropolis dating from the Classical Greek period located approximately 3 kilometers from the centre of the city of Rhodes, Rhodes.

Diagoras of Rhodes Ancient Olympic winner in boxing

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Kritinia Place in Greece

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The Sanjak of Rodos or Rhodes was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the Dodecanese or Southern Sporades islands, with Rhodes as its centre.

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