Riccardo Muti

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Riccardo Muti
Riccardo Muti.jpg
Muti in 2008
Born (1941-07-28) 28 July 1941 (age 78)
Alma mater Conservatory of San Pietro a
Majella

Milan Conservatory

Riccardo Muti, OMRI (Italian:  [rikˈkardo ˈmuːti] ; born in Naples 28 July 1941) is an Italian conductor. He currently holds two music directorships, at the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and at the Orchestra Giovanile Luigi Cherubini. He has previously held posts at the Maggio Musicale in Florence, the Philharmonia Orchestra in London, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Teatro alla Scala in Milan, and the Salzburg Whitsun Festival. Muti has been a prolific recording artist, and has received dozens of honours, titles, awards and prizes. He is especially associated with the music of Giuseppe Verdi.

Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Italian order of knighthood

The Order of Merit of the Italian Republic was founded as the senior order of knighthood by the second President of the Italian Republic, Luigi Einaudi in 1951. The highest ranking honour of the Republic, it is awarded for "merit acquired by the nation" in the fields of literature, the arts, economy, public service, and social, philanthropic and humanitarian activities and for long and conspicuous service in civilian and military careers. The post-nominal letters for the order are OMRI. The order effectively replaced national orders such as the Civil Order of Savoy (1831), the Order of the Crown of Italy (1868), the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (1572) and the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (1362).

Naples Comune in Campania, Italy

Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.

Conducting Directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures

Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert. It has been defined as "the art of directing the simultaneous performance of several players or singers by the use of gesture." The primary duties of the conductor are to interpret the score in a way which reflects the specific indications in that score, set the tempo, ensure correct entries by ensemble members, and "shape" the phrasing where appropriate. Conductors communicate with their musicians primarily through hand gestures, usually with the aid of a baton, and may use other gestures or signals such as eye contact. A conductor usually supplements their direction with verbal instructions to their musicians in rehearsal.

Contents

Childhood and education

Riccardo Muti, Premio Cantelli Teatro Coccia di Novara, 1967 Riccardo Muti Premio Cantelli Teatro Coccia di Novara 1967.jpg
Riccardo Muti, Premio Cantelli Teatro Coccia di Novara, 1967

Muti was born in Naples but he spent his early childhood in Molfetta, near Bari, in the long region of Apulia on Italy's southern Adriatic coast. His father was a doctor in Molfetta and an amateur singer; his mother, a Neapolitan woman with five children. [1]

Molfetta Comune in Apulia, Italy

Molfetta is a town located in the northern side of the Metropolitan City of Bari, Apulia, southern Italy.

Bari Comune in Apulia, Italy

Bari is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy. It is the second most important economic centre of mainland Southern Italy after Naples, a port and university city, as well as the city of Saint Nicholas. The city itself has a population of 320,257 inhabitants, over 116 square kilometres (45 sq mi), while the urban area has 750,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area has 1.3 million inhabitants.

Apulia Region of Italy

Apulia is a region in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers (7,469 sq mi), and its population is about four million.

Muti graduated from Liceo classico (Classical Lyceum) Vittorio Emanuele II in Naples, then studied piano at the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella under Vincenzo Vitale; here Muti was awarded a diploma cum laude. He was subsequently awarded a diploma in Composition and Conducting by the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory, Milan, where he studied with the composer Bruno Bettinelli and the conductor Antonino Votto. He has also studied composition with Nino Rota, whom he considers a mentor. He was unanimously awarded first place by the jury of the "Guido Cantelli Competition for Conductors" in Milan in 1967 and became, the next year, principal conductor and music director of the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, a post he held for eleven years.

Liceo classico type of Italian senior high school specializing in classical studies

Liceo classico is the oldest, public secondary school type in Italy. Its educational curriculum spans over five years, when students are generally about 14 to 19 years of age.

The Naples Conservatory of Music is a music school located in Naples, Italy. It is situated in the complex of San Pietro a Majella.

Milan Conservatory Conservatory named after Verdi

The Milan Conservatory is a college of music in Milan.

Early career

Since 1971 he has been a frequent conductor of operas and concerts at the Salzburg Festival, where he is particularly known for his Mozart opera performances. From 1972 Muti regularly conducted the Philharmonia Orchestra in London and in 1973 he was appointed its principal conductor, succeeding Otto Klemperer. [2]

Salzburg Festival Festival of music and drama established in 1920

The Salzburg Festival is a prominent festival of music and drama established in 1920. It is held each summer in the Austrian town of Salzburg, the birthplace of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. One highlight is the annual performance of the play Jedermann (Everyman) by Hugo von Hofmannsthal.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Austrian composer of the Classical period

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

Philharmonia Orchestra British Orchestra based in London

The Philharmonia Orchestra is a British orchestra based in London. It was founded in 1945 by Walter Legge, a classical music record producer for EMI. Among the conductors who worked with the orchestra in its early years were Richard Strauss, Wilhelm Furtwängler and Arturo Toscanini; of the Philharmonia's younger conductors, the most important to its development was Herbert von Karajan, who though never formally chief conductor was closely associated with the orchestra in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The Philharmonia became widely regarded as the finest of London's five symphony orchestras in its first two decades.

In 1986 Muti became principal conductor of the Filarmonica della Scala, Milan, with which in 1988 he received the Viotti d'Oro and toured Europe. In 1991, after twelve years as music director, he announced his resignation from the Philadelphia Orchestra, effective at the end of the 1991–1992 season.

The Viotti International Music Competition, named after the Italian composer and violinist Gian (Giovanni) Battista Viotti (1755–1824), is held every year in Vercelli, Piedmont, Italy. It was founded by violinist Joseph Robbone in 1950 and has been, since 1957, a member of the World Federation of Music Competitions.

Philadelphia Orchestra American symphony orchestra in Philadelphia, PA

The Philadelphia Orchestra is an American symphony orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. One of the "Big Five" American orchestras, the orchestra is based at the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, where it performs its subscription concerts, numbering over 130 annually, in Verizon Hall.

In 1995 he was the president of the jury of the International Composing Competition "2 Agosto". [3]

The International Composition Competition "2 Agosto" is a major composition competition in Italy. It was established in 1994 at the behest of the Association of the families of the victims of the massacre at Bologna Station on August 2, 1980.

Berlin and Vienna

Muti has been a regular guest of the Berlin Philharmonic and the Vienna Philharmonic. In 1996 he conducted the latter during Vienna Festival Week and on tour to Japan, Korea, Hong Kong and Germany; he most recently toured with the Vienna Philharmonic to Japan in 2008. Muti has also led the orchestra's globally televised Vienna New Year's Concert on several occasions: in 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, [4] and 2018.

Work in opera

Apart from his work at Milan's Teatro alla Scala, where he was music director for 19 years, Muti has led operatic performances with the Philadelphia Orchestra and productions in the principal opera houses of Rome (from 1969), Ravenna, Vienna, London (from 1977), Munich (from 1979), and, finally, in 2010, New York. His work with the Vienna State Opera has included Aida in 1973, La forza del destino in 1974, Norma in 1977, Rigoletto in 1983, Così fan tutte in 1996 and 2008, Don Giovanni in 1999, and The Marriage of Figaro in 2001.

At the Salzburg Festival

Salzburg Festival President Helga Rabl-Stadler with Riccardo Muti, 14 August 2016 Helga Rabl-Stadler with Riccardo Muti picture.jpg
Salzburg Festival President Helga Rabl-Stadler with Riccardo Muti, 14 August 2016

A special relationship connects Muti with the Salzburg Festival, where the conductor debuted in 1971 with Donizetti's Don Pasquale (staged by Ladislav Stros). In the following years Muti has been constantly present at the festival, conducting both numerous concerts with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra and opera productions, such as Così fan tutte (staged by Michael Hampe) from 1982 to 1985 and from 1990 to 1991, La clemenza di Tito (staged by Peter Brenner) in 1988 and 1989, Don Giovanni (staged by Michael Hampe) in 1990 and 1991, La traviata (staged by Lluis Pasqual, and designed by Luciano Damiani) in 1995, The Magic Flute in 2005 (staged by Graham Vick) and 2006 (staged by Pierre Audi, stage designed by Karel Appel), Otello (staged by Stephen Langridge) in 2008, Moise et Pharaon (staged by Jürgen Flimm) in 2009, and Orfeo ed Euridice (staged by Dieter Dorn) in 2010. In 2011, Muti will[ citation needed ] conduct a new production of Verdi's Macbeth , which will be directed by Peter Stein. [5] For the 2017 Salzburg Festival he conducted Aida, with Shirin Neshat seating on the director's chair. In 2018 Muti will conduct Robert Schumann's Symphony No. 2 in C, Op. 61 and Franz Schubert's Mass in E flat, D. 950. Muti also owns a residence close to Salzburg.

Salzburg Whitsun Festival

From 2007 to 2011, Muti was the principal conductor at Salzburg's Whitsun Festival. He conducted productions of rare Italian operas from the 18th century, and concerts with his Luigi Cherubini Youth Orchestra.

Muti with Vladimir Putin after a performance in Moscow, 1 June 2000 Vladimir Putin with Riccardo Muti-1.jpg
Muti with Vladimir Putin after a performance in Moscow, 1 June 2000


Riccardo Muti Italian Opera Academy

In July 2015, Riccardo Muti's desire to devote even more to the training of young musicians was realised: the first edition of the Riccardo Muti Italian Opera Academy for young conductors, répétiteurs and singers took place with great acclaim at Teatro Alighieri in Ravenna and talented young musicians, as well as an audience of music-lovers from around the world participated. The Academy has as purpose to pass on to young musicians Riccardo Muti's experience and lessons and to make the audience understand in its full complexity the path to accomplish an opera production. [6]

In the United States

In the United States, from 1980 to 1992 Muti was music director of the Philadelphia Orchestra, which he led on numerous international tours. In 1979, he was appointed its music director and, in 1992, conductor laureate. Muti stated that his approach was to remain faithful to the intent of the composer. This meant a change from applying the lush "Philadelphia Sound," created by his predecessors Eugene Ormandy and Leopold Stokowski, to all repertoire; however, many of his recordings with that orchestra largely seem to do away with its hallmark sound, even in the works of such composers as Tchaikovsky, Brahms, and other high romantics. His sonic changes to the orchestra remain controversial. Some felt he turned it into a generic-sounding institution with a lean sound much favored by modern recording engineers. Others believe Muti uncovered the true intention of the works, which had been covered in a silky sheen by Muti's predecessor. Since his departure from Philadelphia, he has made very few guest conducting appearances with the Philadelphia Orchestra, most recently in 2005. [7]

Muti has been a regular and popular guest conductor with the New York Philharmonic. The orchestra's musicians had reportedly been interested – towards the end of the tenures of Kurt Masur and Lorin Maazel, and before Muti took the Chicago post – in having the conductor as their music director, but Muti stated that he had no wish to take on the position. [8] [9]

On 5 May 2008, Muti was named the next music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO), effective with the 2010–2011 season, with an initial contract of 5 years. Muti is to conduct a minimum of 10 weeks of CSO subscription concerts each season, in addition to domestic and international tours. He made his CSO debut at the Ravinia Festival in 1973. [10] In August 2009, Muti was said to be named the next music director of the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, effective December 2010, [11] but the news given by the mayor (and therefore president of Opera di Roma) Gianni Alemanno was not true. Alemanno, instead, announced in October 2011 that Muti accepted an invitation by the Orchestra of Opera di Roma to become a "lifetime conductor" of Opera di Roma. [12]

End of tenure in Milan

In 2003, there were reports of artistic and programming conflicts at La Scala between musical director and principal conductor Muti and general manager Carlo Fontana. [13] Muti did not attend the press conference that announced the 2003–04 season. The appointment in 2003 of Mauro Meli as La Scala's artistic director was intended to calm the conflict between Fontana and Muti. [14]

On 24 February 2005, La Scala governors dismissed Fontana as general manager and named Meli as his successor. [15] The musicians sided with Fontana against Muti at this point in the dispute, and on 13 March, Muti stated that he would refuse to conduct the La Scala orchestra from that point on. [16] On 16 March 2005, the orchestra and staff of La Scala voted overwhelmingly against Muti in a motion of no-confidence. [17] Muti was forced to cancel a concert prior to the vote, and some other productions were disrupted at the theater because of continuing rifts with Fontana's supporters. On 2 April, he resigned from La Scala, citing "hostility" from staff members. [18] [19]

Political intervention

On the night of 12 March 2011, Rome's Teatro dell'Opera staged the first in a series of scheduled performances of Verdi's opera Nabucco , conducted by Muti. After the end of the chorus "Va, pensiero", which contains the lyrics "Oh mia patria, sì bella e perduta" ("Oh my country, so beautiful and so lost"), the audience applauded "heartily." Muti, breaking with opera protocol and the strict conventions of composer Verdi himself, [20] turned to the audience and delivered a small speech, referring to the severe budget cuts announced by the Berlusconi government [21] which would particularly affect the funding of the arts. He spoke of the need to keep culture alive in Italy, prompted, as he later stated, by the belief that "killing culture in a country like Italy is a crime against society. Culture is the spiritual glue that holds a people together." [20] He then invited the audience to participate in an encore of the "Va, pensiero" chorus – the invitation and the encore also a break from tradition for an opera performance. [22] The opera audience stood up and sang along with the on-stage chorus. [23] Muti recalls that "80 percent of the audience knew the lyrics" and sang along, while "some members of the chorus were in tears." [20]

On 18 March, the performance of Nabucco was repeated in front of Italian president Giorgio Napolitano and prime minister Silvio Berlusconi. Muti, who had stated that it had been the first time in his life that he conducted chorus and audience together and also the last, [20] on that occasion conducted the Verdi opera in the "orthodox" manner. [23]

Tenure in Chicago

Muti was named conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 2010. According to the orchestra's 2014 Form 990, he is paid a salary of $1,095,000. [24]

During the Chicago Blackhawks' run to the 2013 Stanley Cup, Muti created an orchestral version of the Blackhawks' goal song, Chelsea Dagger . In a YouTube video posted on the CSO's official channel, Muti led the CSO while wearing a customized #19 Blackhawks sweater—a tribute to Blackhawks captain Jonathan Toews, who wears #19. [25] Following the Blackhawks winning the 2015 Stanley Cup, he led the CSO in a live performance of Chelsea Dagger. [26]

Personal life

Muti is married to Maria Cristina Mazzavillani, the founder and director of the Ravenna Festival. [27] They have two sons and a daughter.

In 2010, Muti wrote an autobiography. The following year, it was translated and published in English as Riccardo Muti: An Autobiography: First the Music, Then the Words. Music critic John von Rhein of the Chicago Tribune described Muti's memoir as "fascinating." [28]

Repertoire and recordings

External audio
Nuvola apps arts.svg You may listen to Riccardo Muti conducting Gioachino Rossini's opera William Tell with La Scala Opera Orchestra and Giorgio Zancanaro, Chris Merritt and Cheryl Studer in 1988 here on archive.org

With the Philadelphia, his recordings include the first Beethoven symphony cycle made for compact disc, the symphonies of Brahms and Scriabin, selected works of Tchaikovsky and Prokofiev, as well as less-known works of composers such as Puccini and Busoni.

Muti is considered one of the world's greatest conductors of the operas of Verdi. He also led a series of annual performances of opera in concerts including the works of Verdi, Puccini, Mozart and Wagner. In 1992, Muti conducted performances of Leoncavallo's Pagliacci with Luciano Pavarotti. A recording was also made of these performances.

At La Scala, Muti was noted for exploring lesser-known works of the Classical- and early Romantic-era repertory such as Lodoiska by Cherubini and La vestale by Spontini.

Honours

Awards

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References

  1. (in Italian) From his autobiography
  2. Stephen Moss (31 January 2005). "Enough!". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-06-03.
  3. http://www.concorso2agosto.it/about-us
  4. Edward Greenfield (13 February 2004). "New Year's Concert 2004, Vienna PO/ Muti". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-06-03.
  5. "Muti : Bring music to prisons" La Stampa , 5 August 2010 (in Italian).
  6. http://riccardomutimusic.com/eng/biografia.asp
  7. Bernard Holland (15 February 2005). "Muti Returns to Philadelphia for a Reunion". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-06-03.
  8. Ed Vulliamy (24 December 2000). "How America dropped the baton". The Observer. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  9. Daniel J. Wakin (25 April 2007). "Philharmonic to Add a Position at the Top". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  10. "Riccardo Muti to be CSO music director". The Associated Press. 5 May 2008. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-05.Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  11. Leandro Palestini (2009-08-20). "Riccardo Muti andrà all' Opera di Roma". La Repubblica. Retrieved 2009-08-22.
  12. "Muti all'Opera di Roma 'a vita'" (in Italian). Il giornale della musica. Retrieved 2011-10-12.
  13. John Hooper (16 September 2003). "Dumbing down row at La Scala". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  14. Philip Willan (13 October 2003). "New aria of peace at La Scala". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  15. John Hooper (3 March 2005). "Recriminations fly as crisis engulfs La Scala". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  16. John Hooper (14 March 2005). "Conductor downs baton at La Scala". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  17. John Hooper (17 March 2005). "Staff demand Muti exit in latest La Scala drama". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  18. Vanessa Thorpe (3 April 2005). "Muti exits after a musical mutiny". The Observer. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  19. Laura Smith (4 April 2005). "Curtain falls on unhappy Muti at La Scala". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  20. 1 2 3 4 'Muti : Killing Culture is a Crime" Corriere della Sera , 15.
  21. "Italy Passes $68 Billion in Budget Cuts" Bloomberg, 1 July 2011.
  22. "Va, pensiero" on YouTube Theatro dell'Opera, Rome, Saturday 12 March 2011.
  23. 1 2 "Muti conducts 'Nabucco' with Napolitano and Berlusconi present" Quotidiano , 18 March 2011.
  24. http://www.guidestar.org/FinDocuments/2014/362/167/2014-362167823-0b7da1c8-9.pdf
  25. CSO Salutes the Blackhawks in 2013 with Chelsea Dagger Goal Song on YouTube
  26. Live performance of Chelsea Dagger by CSO on YouTube
  27. "Muti Mazzavillani, lady of the Ravenna Festival: "That's how I made the city grow", FQ Emilia Romana website, 9 June 2011 (in Italian).
  28. von Rhein, John (July 27, 2011). "Muti book a compelling saga of a rich life lived in music". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  29. Riccardo Muti's List of Honors from Italy's Presidential website.
  30. "Honorary Members (Hon RAM)" (PDF). Royal Academy of Music. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  31. List of Knighthoods awarded 1997-2006 Archived October 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine , UK Parliament website.
  32. Cérémonie de décoration de Riccardo Muti Archived March 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine , 2010.
  33. Sweeting, Adam (16 March 2011). "Riccardo Muti: a profile". The Telegraph . Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  34. "World-Renowned Conductor to Address Class of 2014: Northwestern University News". www.northwestern.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
  35. "Concert The Roads of Frienship Ravenna-Tokyo". Archived from the original on 2016-08-20.
  36. Президент: Саме такі фестивалі як «Шляхи дружби» - це культурний зв’язок і свідчення повернення України до Європи. www.president.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  37. https://www.grammy.com/grammys/awards/53rd-annual-grammy-awards
  38. "The Birgit Nilsson Prize 2011 recipient". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
  39. "Riccardo Muti receives Praemium Imperiale Award". Gramophone . London. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
Cultural offices
Preceded by
Claudio Abbado
Music Director of La Scala
1986–2005
Succeeded by
Daniel Barenboim
Preceded by
Daniel Barenboim
Music Director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
2010-present
Succeeded by
incumbent