Richard Poore

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Richard Poore
Bishop of Durham

Richard Poore.jpg

Sculpture on the west front of Salisbury Cathedral of Richard Poore, holding a model of the Cathedral in his hand.
Appointed 14 May 1228
Term ended 15 April 1237
Predecessor William Scot
Successor Thomas de Melsonby
Other posts Bishop of Chichester
Bishop of Salisbury
Dean of Salisbury
Orders
Consecration 25 January 1215
Personal details
Died 15 April 1237
Tarrant Keyneston, Dorset
Buried probably church at Tarrant Keyneston, Dorset
Denomination Catholic

Richard Poore or Poor (died 15 April 1237) was a medieval English clergyman best known for his role in the establishment of modern Salisbury and its cathedral at their present location, away from the fortress at Old Sarum.

Salisbury Cathedral city in Wiltshire, England

Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Avon, Nadder, Ebble, Wylye and Bourne. The city is approximately 20 miles (32 km) from Southampton and 30 miles (48 km) from Bath.

Salisbury Cathedral Church in Wiltshire, England

Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England, and one of the leading examples of Early English architecture. The main body of the cathedral was completed in 38 years, from 1220 to 1258.

Old Sarum site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury in England

Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury in England. Located on a hill about 2 miles (3 km) north of modern Salisbury near the A345 road, the settlement appears in some of the earliest records in the country. It is an English Heritage property and is open to the public.

Contents

Early life

Poore was probably the son of Richard of Ilchester, also known as Richard Toclive, who served as Bishop of Winchester. [1] He was the brother of Herbert Poore, who served as bishop of Salisbury from 1194 to 1217. [2] Richard studied under Stephen Langton at Paris. [3] Richard Poore became Dean of Salisbury in 1197, and unsuccessfully was nominated to the see of Winchester in 1205 [4] and the see of Durham in 1213. [2] [5] His election to Durham was disallowed by Pope Innocent III before it was made public, probably because the pope knew that King John wished for the translation of his advisor John de Gray from the see of Norwich to Durham. [6] During the interdict on England during King John's reign, Richard returned to Paris to teach until the interdict was lifted. [7]

Richard of Ilchester was a medieval English statesman and prelate.

Bishop of Winchester Diocesan bishop in the Church of England

The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester in the Church of England. The bishop's seat (cathedra) is at Winchester Cathedral in Hampshire.

Herbert Poore or Poor (died 1217) was a medieval English clergyman who held the post of Bishop of Salisbury during the reigns of Richard I and John.

It was probably during these years before Poore held an episcopal office that he completed Osmund's Institutio, as well as his own works the Ordinale and the Consuetudinarium. The Institutio detailed the duties of the cathedral clergy at Salisbury, along with their rights. The Ordinale covered the liturgy, and how the various specialised services interacted with the basic divine service. The last work, the Consuetudinarium, gave the customs of Salisbury itself. Both the Consuetudinarium and the Ordinale were basically guides to the Sarum Rite, the usual form of liturgy in thirteenth century England. [7] While he was dean, he also encouraged Robert of Flamborough to write a penitential. [8]

A penitential is a book or set of church rules concerning the Christian sacrament of penance, a "new manner of reconciliation with God" that was first developed by Celtic monks in Ireland in the sixth century AD. It consisted of a list of sins and the appropriate penances prescribed for them, and served as a type of manual for confessors.

Poore was Bishop of Chichester in 1215, being elected about 7 January [9] and consecrated on 25 January at Reading. [10] He attended the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215. [11] He also served as one of the executors of King John's estate. [7]

Bishop of Chichester Diocesan bishop in the Church of England

The Bishop of Chichester is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers the counties of East and West Sussex. The see is based in the City of Chichester where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity. On 3 May 2012 the appointment was announced of Martin Warner, Bishop of Whitby, as the next Bishop of Chichester. His enthronement took place on 25 November 2012 in Chichester Cathedral.

Reading, Berkshire Place in England

Reading is a large minster town in Berkshire, England, of which it is now the county town. It is in the Thames Valley at the confluence of the River Thames and River Kennet, and on both the Great Western Main Line railway and the M4 motorway. Reading is 70 miles (110 km) east of Bristol, 24 miles (39 km) south of Oxford, 40 miles (64 km) west of London, 14 miles (23 km) north of Basingstoke, 12 miles (19 km) south-west of Maidenhead and 15 miles (24 km) east of Newbury as the crow flies.

Bishop of Salisbury

Salisbury Cathedral's construction was started by Richard Poore Salisbury Cathedral.jpg
Salisbury Cathedral's construction was started by Richard Poore

Poore's brother, Herbert Poore, died in 1217, and Richard succeeded to his position as Bishop of Salisbury by 27 June. [12] He owed his move to the see of Salisbury to the papal legate, Cardinal Guala Bicchieri. [7] It was during this time that he oversaw and helped plan the construction of the new Salisbury Cathedral as a replacement for the old cathedral at Old Sarum. [13] He also laid out the town of Salisbury in 1219, to allow the workers building the cathedral a less cramped town than the old garrison town at Old Sarum. [14] The cathedral, however, was not dedicated until 1258. [15]

The Bishop of Salisbury is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers much of the counties of Wiltshire and Dorset. The see is in the City of Salisbury where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The current bishop is Nick Holtam, the 78th Bishop of Salisbury, who was consecrated at St Paul's Cathedral on 22 July 2011 and enthroned in Salisbury Cathedral on 15 October 2011.

Guala Bicchieri was an Italian diplomat, papal official and cardinal. He was the papal legate in England from 1216 to 1218, and took a prominent role in the politics of England during King John’s last years and Henry III’s early minority.

It was while Poore was at Salisbury that he issued his Statutes of Durham, which derived their name from the fact that he reissued them after being moved to the see of Durham. These statutes were influential on many other episcopal legislation. [16] [17] He also welcomed the first Franciscan friars to Salisbury around 1225. [18] He also served as a royal justice in 1218 and 1219. In 1223, with the fall from power of Peter des Roches bishop of Winchester, Ranulph earl of Chester, and Falkes de Breauté, Richard helped Hubert de Burgh take over the government, along with Stephen Langton and Jocelin of Wells bishop of Bath and Wells. The four men worked together to govern England for the next five years. [7]

Peter des Roches 13th-century Bishop of Winchester and Justiciar of England

Peter des Roches was bishop of Winchester in the reigns of King John of England and his son Henry III. He was not an Englishman, but rather a native of the Touraine, in north-central France.

Sir Falkes de Breauté was an Anglo-Norman soldier who earned high office by loyally serving first King John and later King Henry III in the First Barons' War. He played a key role in the Battle of Lincoln Fair in 1217. He attempted to rival Hubert de Burgh, and as a result fell from power in 1224. His heraldic device was the griffin.

Jocelin of Wells 13th-century Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury

Jocelin of Wells was a medieval Bishop of Bath. He was the brother of Hugh de Wells, who became Bishop of Lincoln. Jocelin became a canon of Wells Cathedral before 1200, and was elected bishop in 1206. During King John of England's dispute with Pope Innocent III, Jocelin at first remained with the king, but after the excommunication of John in late 1209, Jocelin went into exile. He returned to England in 1213, and was mentioned in Magna Carta in 1215.

While Poore was at Salisbury, he took part in the translation of St Wulfstan's in 1218, and in the translation of Saint Thomas Becket's relics in 1220. At the later event, he was the only other bishop besides Stephen Langton to actually examine Becket's body. Richard also petitioned Pope Gregory IX to have the first bishop of Salisbury, Osmund de Sees canonized, but was unsuccessful. Osmund was eventually made a saint in 1457. [7]

Bishop of Durham

Poore was translated to the see of Durham on 14 May 1228. [19] With his move to Durham, he withdrew from royal service, although he was briefly back in service when Peter des Roches returned to power in late 1232 and early 1233. [7] At Durham, he inherited a quarrel between the bishop and the cathedral chapter that mainly involved the election of the prior and the right of the bishop to undertake visitations of the priory. The quarrel had begun under Richard Marsh, and had led to appeals to the papal curia from the monks. Soon after coming to Durham, Richard issued a set of detailed constitutions that governed many of the relations between the bishop, the prior, and the cathedral chapter that was the basis of church government in Durham until the Dissolution of the monasteries under King Henry VIII of England. [7]

Legacy and death

In 1220, while Poore was bishop of Salisbury, he ordered his clergy to instruct a few children so that the children might in turn teach the rest of the children in basic church doctrine and prayers. He also had the clergy preach every Sunday that children should not be left alone in a house with a fire or water. [20] Also during his time in Salisbury, he promoted the education of boys by endowing some schoolmasters with benefices provided they did not charge for instruction. [21] In 1237, Richard established a retirement house for the old and infirm clergy of the diocese of Durham. [22] Richard was also an opponent of pluralism, the holding of more than one benefice at the same time. He not only held that a clerk receiving a new benefice should give up the old one, but that if the clerk protested about the loss, he should lose both benefices. [23] He also decreed that the clergy should not be involved in "worldly business". [24] Poore House at Bishop Wordsworth's School, Salisbury is named in honour of his legacy to Salisbury schools.

Poore died on 15 April 1237 [19] at the manor of Tarrant Keyneston in Dorset. His tomb was claimed for both Durham and Salisbury, but most likely he was buried in the church at Tarrant Keyneston which was what he had wished. [7] He is commemorated with a statue in niche 170 on the west front of Salisbury Cathedral.

Citations

  1. British History Online Bishops of Salisbury. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
  2. 1 2 British History Online Deans of Salisbury. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
  3. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 163
  4. British History Online Bishops of Winchester. Retrieved 2 November 2007.
  5. British History Online Bishops of Durham. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
  6. Harper-Bill "John and the Church" King John p. 310
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hoskin "Poor, Richard (d. 1237)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  8. Mortimer Angevin England p. 201
  9. Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 239
  10. British History Online Bishops of Chichester. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
  11. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 237
  12. Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 270
  13. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 236
  14. Mortimer Angevin England p. 175
  15. Mortimer Angevin England p. 227
  16. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 236-238
  17. Prestwich Plantagenet England p. 99
  18. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 370
  19. 1 2 Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 241
  20. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 81-82
  21. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 105
  22. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 202
  23. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 220
  24. Moorman Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century p. 232

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References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Godfrey de Luci
Bishop of Winchester
election quashed

1205
Succeeded by
Peter des Roches
Preceded by
Philip of Poitou
Bishop of Durham
election quashed

1209–1213
Succeeded by
John de Gray
Preceded by
Nicholas de Aquila
Bishop of Chichester
1215–1217
Succeeded by
Ranulf of Wareham
Preceded by
Herbert Poore
Bishop of Salisbury
1217–1228
Succeeded by
Robert de Bingham
Preceded by
William Scot
Bishop of Durham
1229–1237
Succeeded by
Thomas de Melsonby