Richard Rodgers

Last updated

Richard Rodgers
Rodgers.jpg
Rodgers at the St. James Theatre in 1948
Background information
Birth nameRichard Charles Rodgers
Born(1902-06-28)June 28, 1902
New York City, U.S.
DiedDecember 30, 1979(1979-12-30) (aged 77)
New York City, U.S.
Genres Musical theater
Occupation(s)
  • Composer
  • songwriter
  • playwright
Years active1919–1979
Education Columbia University (BA)
Juilliard School

Richard Charles Rodgers (June 28, 1902 – December 30, 1979) was an American composer who worked primarily in musical theater. With 43 Broadway musicals and over 900 songs to his credit, Rodgers was one of the most well-known American composers of the 20th century, and his compositions had a significant influence on popular music.

Contents

Rodgers is known for his songwriting partnerships, first with lyricist Lorenz Hart and then with Oscar Hammerstein II. With Hart he wrote musicals throughout the 1920s and 1930s, including Pal Joey , A Connecticut Yankee , On Your Toes and Babes in Arms. With Hammerstein he wrote musicals through the 1940s and 1950s, such as Oklahoma! , Flower Drum Song , Carousel , South Pacific , The King and I , and The Sound of Music . His collaborations with Hammerstein, in particular, are celebrated for bringing the Broadway musical to a new maturity by telling stories that were focused on characters and drama rather than the earlier light-hearted entertainment of the genre.

Rodgers was the first person to win all four of the top American entertainment awards in theater, film, recording, and television an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar, and a Tony  now known collectively as an EGOT. [1] In addition, he was awarded a Pulitzer Prize, making him the first ever to receive all five awards (later joined by Marvin Hamlisch). [2] In 1978, Rodgers was in the inaugural group of Kennedy Center Honorees for lifetime achievement in the arts. [3]

Early life

The poster for Fly With Me, the 1920 Columbia University Varsity Show. The music was co-written by Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, and also included songs by Oscar Hammerstein II, making the show one of the first collaborations between the two men. Fly With Me poster.jpg
The poster for Fly With Me , the 1920 Columbia University Varsity Show. The music was co-written by Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, and also included songs by Oscar Hammerstein II, making the show one of the first collaborations between the two men.

Rodgers was born into a Jewish family in Queens, New York, the son of Mamie (Levy) and Dr. William Abrahams Rodgers, a prominent physician who had changed the family name from Rogazinsky. Rodgers began playing the piano at the age of six. He attended P.S. 166, Townsend Harris Hall and DeWitt Clinton High School. Rodgers spent his early teenage summers in Camp Wigwam (Waterford, Maine) where he composed some of his first songs. [5]

Rodgers, Lorenz Hart, and later collaborator Oscar Hammerstein II all attended Columbia University. At Columbia, Rodgers joined the Pi Lambda Phi fraternity. In 1921, Rodgers shifted his studies to the Institute of Musical Art (now the Juilliard School). [6] Rodgers was influenced by composers such as Victor Herbert and Jerome Kern, as well as by the operettas his parents took him to see on Broadway when he was a child.

Career

Rodgers and Hart

Richard Rodgers (seated) with Lorenz Hart in 1936 Rodgers and Hart NYWTS.jpg
Richard Rodgers (seated) with Lorenz Hart in 1936

In 1919, Richard met Lorenz Hart, thanks to Phillip Levitt, a friend of Richard's older brother. Rodgers and Hart struggled for years in the field of musical comedy, writing several amateur shows. They made their professional debut with the song "Any Old Place With You", featured in the 1919 Broadway musical comedy A Lonely Romeo. Their first professional production was the 1920 Poor Little Ritz Girl , which also had music by Sigmund Romberg. Their next professional show, The Melody Man, did not premiere until 1924.

When he was just out of college Rodgers worked as musical director for Lew Fields. Among the stars he accompanied were Nora Bayes and Fred Allen. [7] Rodgers was considering quitting show business altogether to sell children's underwear, when he and Hart finally broke through in 1925. They wrote the songs for a benefit show presented by the prestigious Theatre Guild, called The Garrick Gaieties , and the critics found the show fresh and delightful. Although it was meant to run only one day, the Guild knew they had a success and allowed it to re-open later. The show's biggest hit—the song that Rodgers believed "made" Rodgers and Hart—was "Manhattan". The two were now a Broadway songwriting force.

Throughout the rest of the decade, the duo wrote several hit shows for both Broadway and London, including Dearest Enemy (1925), The Girl Friend (1926), Peggy-Ann (1926), A Connecticut Yankee (1927), and Present Arms (1928). Their 1920s shows produced standards such as "Here in My Arms", "Mountain Greenery", "Blue Room", "My Heart Stood Still" and "You Took Advantage of Me".

With the Depression in full swing during the first half of the 1930s, the team sought greener pastures in Hollywood. The hardworking Rodgers later regretted these relatively fallow years, but he and Hart did write some classic songs and film scores while out west, including Love Me Tonight (1932) (directed by Rouben Mamoulian, who would later direct Rodgers's Oklahoma! on Broadway), which introduced three standards: "Lover", "Mimi", and "Isn't It Romantic?". Rodgers also wrote a melody for which Hart wrote three consecutive lyrics which were either cut, not recorded or not a hit. The fourth lyric resulted in one of their most famous songs, "Blue Moon". Other film work includes the scores to The Phantom President (1932), starring George M. Cohan, Hallelujah, I'm a Bum (1933), starring Al Jolson, and, in a quick return after having left Hollywood, Mississippi (1935), starring Bing Crosby and W. C. Fields.

In 1935, they returned to Broadway and wrote an almost unbroken string of hit shows that ended shortly before Hart's death in 1943. Among the most notable are Jumbo (1935), On Your Toes (1936, which included the ballet "Slaughter on Tenth Avenue", choreographed by George Balanchine), Babes in Arms (1937), I Married an Angel (1938), The Boys from Syracuse (1938), Pal Joey (1940), and their last original work, By Jupiter (1942). Rodgers also contributed to the book on several of these shows.

Many of the songs from these shows are still sung and remembered, including "The Most Beautiful Girl in the World", "My Romance", "Little Girl Blue", "I'll Tell the Man in the Street", "There's a Small Hotel", "Where or When", "My Funny Valentine", "The Lady Is a Tramp", "Falling in Love with Love", "Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered", and "Wait till You See Her".

In 1939, Rodgers wrote the ballet Ghost Town for the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, with choreography by Marc Platoff. [8]

Rodgers and Hammerstein

Rodgers (seated) with Hammerstein, 1945 Rodgers and Hammerstein at piano-original.jpg
Rodgers (seated) with Hammerstein, 1945

Rodgers' partnership with Hart began having problems because of the lyricist's unreliability and declining health from alcoholism. Rodgers began working with Oscar Hammerstein II, with whom he had previously written songs (before ever working with Lorenz Hart). Their first musical, the groundbreaking hit Oklahoma! (1943), is a notable example of a "book musical", a musical play in which the songs and dances are fully integrated into the plot. What was once a collection of songs, dances and comic turns held together by a tenuous plot became a fully integrated narrative. Even though Show Boat is considered to be the earliest example of a book musical, Oklahoma! epitomized the innovations for which Show Boat had laid the groundwork and is considered the first production in American history to be intentionally marketed as a fully integrated musical. [9]

In 1943, Richard Rodgers became the ninth president of the Dramatists Guild of America. In November that year he and Hart mounted a revival of A Connecticut Yankee ; Hard died from alcoholism and pneumonia just days after its opening.

Rogers and Hammerstein went on to create four more hits that are among the most popular in musical history. Each was made into a successful film: Carousel (1945), South Pacific (1949, winner of the 1950 Pulitzer Prize for Drama), The King and I (1951), and The Sound of Music (1959). Other shows include the minor hit Flower Drum Song (1958), as well as relative failures Allegro (1947), Me and Juliet (1953), and Pipe Dream (1955). They also wrote the score to the film State Fair (1945) (which was remade in 1962 with Pat Boone) and a special TV musical of Cinderella (1957).

Their collaboration produced many well-known songs, including "Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'", "People Will Say We're in Love", "Oklahoma" (which also became the state song of Oklahoma), "It's A Grand Night For Singing", "If I Loved You", "You'll Never Walk Alone", "It Might as Well Be Spring", "Some Enchanted Evening", "Younger Than Springtime", "Bali Hai", "Getting to Know You", "My Favorite Things", "The Sound of Music", "Sixteen Going on Seventeen", "Climb Ev'ry Mountain", "Do-Re-Mi", and "Edelweiss", Hammerstein's last song.

Rodgers was the subject of a two-part special on Ed Sullivan's Toast of the Town television show in 1952 Richard Rodgers Ed Sullivan 1952.JPG
Rodgers was the subject of a two-part special on Ed Sullivan's Toast of the Town television show in 1952

Much of Rodgers' work with both Hart and Hammerstein was orchestrated by Robert Russell Bennett. Rodgers composed twelve themes, which Bennett used in preparing the orchestra score for the 26-episode World War II television documentary Victory at Sea (1952–53). This NBC production pioneered the "compilation documentary"—programming based on pre-existing footage—and was eventually broadcast in dozens of countries. The melody of the popular song "No Other Love" was later taken from the Victory at Sea theme entitled "Beneath the Southern Cross". Rodgers won an Emmy for the music for the ABC documentary Winston Churchill: The Valiant Years , scored by Eddie Sauter, Hershy Kay, and Robert Emmett Dolan. Rodgers composed the theme music, "March of the Clowns", for the 1963–64 television series The Greatest Show on Earth , which ran for 30 episodes. He also contributed the main title theme for the 1963–64 historical anthology television series The Great Adventure.

In 1950, Rodgers and Hammerstein received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York." Rodgers, Hammerstein, and Joshua Logan won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for South Pacific. [10] Rodgers and Hammerstein had won a special Pulitzer Prize in 1944 for Oklahoma!. [11]

In 1954, Rodgers conducted the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in excerpts from Victory at Sea, Slaughter on Tenth Avenue and the Carousel Waltz for a special LP released by Columbia Records.

Rodgers and Hammerstein musicals earned a total of 37 Tony Awards, 15 Academy Awards, two Pulitzer Prizes, two Grammy Awards, and two Emmy Awards.

After Hammerstein

Rodgers composed five new musicals between Hammerstein's death in 1960 and his own in 1979. In chronological order, they are: No Strings (1962), Do I Hear a Waltz? (1965), Two by Two (1970), Rex (1976), and I Remember Mama (1979). [12]

Rodgers wrote both words and music for his first new Broadway project No Strings, which earned two Tony Awards and played 580 shows. The show was a minor hit and featured the song, "The Sweetest Sounds".

Rodgers also wrote both the words and music for two new songs used in the film version of The Sound of Music. (Other songs in that film were from Rodgers and Hammerstein.)

Each of his final Broadway musicals faced a declining level of success as Rodgers was overshadowed by up and coming composers and lyricists. This was evident by the steady drop in run times and critic reviews. Do I Hear a Waltz? ran 220 performances;Two by Two, 343 performances; Rex only 49 performances; and I Remember Mama, 108 performances. [12]

While Rodgers went on to work with lyricists: Stephen Sondheim (Do I Hear a Waltz?), who was a protégé of Hammerstein, Martin Charnin (Two by Two,I Remember Mama) and Sheldon Harnick (Rex), he never found another permanent partner. These partnerships proved to be unsuccessful as a result of issues of collaboration. Sondheim's reluctance to participate in Do I Hear a Waltz? led to tension between the two. In addition, Charnin and Rodgers were met with opposing ideas when creating Two by Two. [12]

Nevertheless, his overall successful lifetime career did not go unrecognized. At its 1978 commencement ceremonies, Barnard College awarded Rodgers its highest honor, the Barnard Medal of Distinction.

Rodgers was an honoree at the first Kennedy Center Honors in 1978. At the 1979 Tony Awards ceremony—six months before his death—Rodgers was presented the Lawrence Langner Memorial Award for Distinguished Lifetime Achievement in the American Theatre.

One of Rodger's final works was a revival of Fly With Me for the 1980 Varsity Show, to which he added several new songs. He died less than four months before its premiere in April 1980. [4]

Personal life

In 1930, Rodgers married Dorothy Belle Feiner (1909–92). [13] Their daughter, Mary (1931–2014), was the composer of Once Upon a Mattress and an author of children's books. [14] The Rodgers later lost a daughter at birth. Another daughter, Linda (1935–2015), also had a brief career as a songwriter. Mary's son and Richard Rodgers's grandson, Adam Guettel (b. 1964), also a musical theater composer, won Tony Awards for Best Score and Best Orchestrations for The Light in the Piazza in 2005. Peter Melnick (b. 1958), Linda Rodgers's son, is the composer of Adrift In Macao, which debuted at the Philadelphia Theatre Company in 2005 and was produced Off-Broadway in 2007. Mary Rodgers' book Shy: The Alarmingly Outspoken Memoirs of Mary Rodgers was published posthumously in 2022, and included her frank revelations and assessments of her father, family and herself. [15]

Rodgers was an atheist. [16] He was prone to depression and alcohol abuse and was at one time hospitalized.

Rodgers was portrayed by Tom Drake in the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film Words and Music, a semi-fictionalized depiction of the partnership of Rodgers and Hart.

Death

Rodgers died in 1979, aged 77, after surviving cancer of the jaw, a heart attack, and a laryngectomy. He was cremated, and his ashes were scattered at sea.

Legacy

In 1990, the 46th Street Theatre was renamed the Richard Rodgers Theatre in his memory. In 1999, Rodgers and Hart were each commemorated on United States postage stamps. In 2002, the centennial year of Rodgers' birth was celebrated worldwide with books, retrospectives, performances, new recordings of his music, and a Broadway revival of Oklahoma!. The BBC Proms that year devoted an entire evening to Rodgers' music, including a concert performance of Oklahoma! The Boston Pops Orchestra released a new CD that year in tribute to Rodgers, entitled My Favorite Things: A Richard Rodgers Celebration.

Alec Wilder wrote the following about Rodgers:

Of all the writers whose songs are considered and examined in this book, those of Rodgers show the highest degree of consistent excellence, inventiveness, and sophistication ... [A]fter spending weeks playing his songs, I am more than impressed and respectful: I am astonished. [17]

Rodgers is a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame. [18]

Along with the Academy of Arts and Letters, Rodgers also started and endowed an award for non-established musical theater composers to produce new productions either by way of full productions or staged readings. It is the only award for which the Academy of Arts and Letters accepts applications and is presented every year. Below are the previous winners of the award: [19]

YearShowAwardee
2018 [20] Gun and PowderRoss Baum
Angelica Chéri
KPOPJason Kim
Helen Park
Max Vernon
Woodshed Collective
2017What I Learned from People Will Aronson
Hue Park
2016We Live in CairoPatrick Lazour
Daniel Lazour
Costs of Living Timothy Huang
Hadestown Anaïs Mitchell
2015StringAdam Gwon
Sarah Hammond
2014 Witness Uganda Matthew Gould
Griffin Matthews
2013 Natasha, Pierre & The Great Comet of 1812 Dave Malloy
The Kid Who Would Be PopeTom Megan
Jack Megan
2012 Witness Uganda Matthew Gould
Griffin Matthews
2011 Dogfight Peter Duchan
Benj Pasek
Justin Paul
Gloryana Andrew Gerle
2010Buddy's Tavern Raymond De Felitta
Alison Louise Hubbard
Kim Oler
Rocket SciencePatricia Cotter
Jason Rhyne
Stephen Weiner
2009Cheer WarsKarlan Judd
Gordon Leary
Rosa ParksScott Ethier
Jeff Hughes
2008Alive at TenKirsten A. Guenther
Ryan Scott Oliver
KingdomAaron Jafferis
Ian Williams
See Rock City and Other Destinations Brad Alexander
Adam Mathias
2007 Calvin Berger Barry Wyner
Main-Travelled RoadsDave Hudson
Paul Libman
2006 Grey Gardens Scott Frankel
Michael Korie
Doug Wright
True FansChris Miller
Bill Rosenfield
Nathan Tysen
Yellow WoodMichelle Elliott
Danny Larsen
2005BroadcastNathan Christensen
Scott Murphy
Dust & Dreams: Celebrating SandburgDavid Hudson
Paul Libman
Red Brian Lowdermilk
Marcus Stevens
2004To Paint the EarthDaniel Frederick Levin
Jonathan Portera
The Tutor Andrew Gerle
Maryrose Wood
Unlocked Sam Carner
Derek Gregor
2003The Devil in the FleshJeffrey Lunden
Arthur Perlman
Once Upon a Time in New JerseySusan DiLallo
Stephen A. Weiner
The TutorAndrew Gerle
Maryrose Wood
2002The FabulistDavid Spencer
Stephen Witkin
The TutorAndrew Gerle
Maryrose Wood
2001Heading East Leon Ko
Robert Lee
The Spitfire Grill Fred Alley
James Valcq
2000 Bat Boy Kaythe Farley
Brian Flemming
Laurence O'Keefe
The Bubbly Black Girl Sheds Her Chameleon Skin Kirsten Childs
SuburbRobert S. Cohen
David Javerbaum
1999 Bat Boy Kaythe Farley
Brian Flemming
Laurence O'Keefe
Blood on the Dining Room FloorJonathan Sheffer
The Bubbly Black Girl Sheds Her Chameleon SkinKirsten Childs
Dream True: My Life with Vernon Dexter Ricky Ian Gordon
Tina Landau
The Singing Lenora Champagne
Daniel Levy
1998 Little Women Alison Hubbard
Allan Knee
Kim Oler
SummerErik Haagensen
Paul Schwartz
1997The Ballad of Little Jo Mike Reid
Sarah Schlesinger
Barrio BabiesFernand Rivas
Luis Santeiro
Violet Brian Crawley
Jeanine Tesori
1996Bobos James McBride
Ed Shockley
The Hidden SkyKate Chisholm
Peter Foley
The Princess & the BlacAndy Chuckerman
Karole Foreman
1995SpendoraMark Campbell
Stephen Hoffman
Peter Webb
1994Doll (not produced) Scott Frankel
Michael Korie
The Gig Douglas Cohen
Rent Jonathan Larson
The Sweet Revenge of ...Mark Campbell
Burton Cohen
Stephen Hoffman
1993Allos Makar Scott Frankel
Michael Korie
Valeria Vasilevsky
Avenue XJohn Jiler
Ray Leslee
Christina Alberta'sPolly Pen
They Shoot Horses ...Nagle Jackson
Robert Sprayberry
1992Avenue XJohn Jiler
Ray Leslee
The Molly MaquiresSid Cherry
William Strempek
1991OpalRobert N. Lindsey
The Times Joe Keenan
Brad Ross
1990Down the StreamMichael Goldenberg
Swamp Gas and Shallow FeelingsRandy Buck
Shirlee Strother
Jack E. Williams
WhatnotHoward Crabtree
Dick Gallagher
Mark Waldrop
1989 Juan Darien Elliot Goldenthal
Julie Taymor
1988 Lucky Stiff Lynn Ahrens
Stephen Flaherty
Sheila Levine is Dead ...Michael Devon
Todd Graff
Superbia Jonathan Larson
1987Henry and Ellen Michael John LaChiusa
Lucky Stiff Lynn Ahrens
Stephen Flaherty
No Way to Treat A Lady Douglas J. Cohen
1986Break/Agnes/Eulogy Michael John LaChiusa
JubaWendy Lamb
Russell Walden
1984 Brownstone Andrew Cadiff
Peter Larson
Josh Rubens
PapushkoAndrew Teirstein
1982Portrait of JennieEnid Futterman
Howard Marren
Dennis Rosa
1981Child of the SunDamien Leake
1980Nine (not produced)Maro Fratti
Maury Yeston

Relationship with performers

Richard Rodgers, Irving Berlin, Oscar Hammerstein II, and Helen Tamiris watching hopefuls who are being auditioned on stage of the St. James Theatre. Rodgers and Hammerstein and Berlin and Tamiris NYWTS.jpg
Richard Rodgers, Irving Berlin, Oscar Hammerstein II, and Helen Tamiris watching hopefuls who are being auditioned on stage of the St. James Theatre.

Rosemary Clooney recorded a version of "Falling in Love with Love" by Rodgers, using a swing style. After the recording session Richard Rodgers told her pointedly that it should be sung as a waltz. [21] The 1961 doo-wop arrangement of the Rodgers and Hart song "Blue Moon" by The Marcels so incensed Rodgers that he took out full-page newspaper ads urging people not to buy it. His efforts were unsuccessful as it reached #1 on the charts. [22] After Doris Day recorded "I Have Dreamed" in 1961, he wrote to her and her arranger, Jim Harbert, that theirs was the most beautiful rendition of his song he had ever heard.

After Peggy Lee recorded her version of "Lover", a Rodgers song, with a dramatically different arrangement from that originally conceived by him, Rodgers said, "I don't know why Peggy picked on me, she could have fucked up Silent Night". [23] Mary Martin said that Richard Rodgers composed songs for her for South Pacific, knowing she had a small vocal range, and the songs generally made her look her best. She also said that Rodgers and Hammerstein listened to all her suggestions and she worked extremely well with them. [24] Both Rodgers and Hammerstein wanted Doris Day for the lead in the film version of South Pacific and she reportedly wanted the part. They discussed it with her, but after her manager/husband Martin Melcher would not budge on his demand for a high salary for her, the role went to Mitzi Gaynor.

Awards and nominations

Rodgers is the first entertainer to have won the EGOT (Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony).

YearAwardCategoryNominated workResultsRef.
1945 Academy Awards Best Song "It Might as Well Be Spring" (from State Fair )Won [25]
1958 Grammy Awards Best Original Cast Album (Broadway or TV) Flower Drum Song Nominated [26]
Victory at Sea: Vol II Nominated
Best Musical Composition First Recorded and Released in 1958 (Over 5 Minutes Duration) Nominated
1960 Best Show Album (Original Cast) The Sound of Music Won
1962 Song of the Year "The Sweetest Sounds"Nominated
Best Original Cast Show Album No Strings Won
1965 Best Score from an Original Cast Show Album Do I Hear a Waltz? Nominated
1971 Two by Two Nominated
1976 Best Cast Show Album Rex Nominated
1989 Trustees Award Won [27]
1978 Kennedy Center Honors Honored [28]
1958 Primetime Emmy Awards Best Musical Contribution for Television Cinderella Nominated [29]
1962 Outstanding Achievement in Original Music Composed for Television Winston Churchill: The Valiant Years Won
1944 Pulitzer Prize Special Citations and Awards Oklahoma! Won [30]
1950 Drama South Pacific Won [31]
1950 Tony Awards Best Musical Won [32]
Producers (Musical)Won
Best Score Won
1952 Best Musical The King and I Won [33]
1956 Pipe Dream Nominated [34]
1959 Flower Drum SongNominated [35]
1960 The Sound of MusicWon [lower-alpha 1] [36]
1962 No StringsNominated [37]
Best Composer Won
Special Tony Award Won [38]
1965 Best Composer and Lyricist Do I Hear a Waltz?Nominated [39]
1972 Special Tony AwardWon [40]
1979 Lawrence Langner Memorial Award Won [41]
1996 Best Original Score State Fair Nominated [42]

Shows with music by Rodgers

Lyrics by Lorenz Hart

Lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II

Other lyricists and solo works

Notes

  1. Tied with Fiorello! .

Related Research Articles

<i>Carousel</i> (musical) 1945 musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein

Carousel is the second musical by the team of Richard Rodgers (music) and Oscar Hammerstein II. The 1945 work was adapted from Ferenc Molnár's 1909 play Liliom, transplanting its Budapest setting to the Maine coastline. The story revolves around carousel barker Billy Bigelow, whose romance with millworker Julie Jordan comes at the price of both their jobs. He participates in a robbery to provide for Julie and their unborn child; after it goes tragically wrong, he is given a chance to make things right. A secondary plot line deals with millworker Carrie Pipperidge and her romance with ambitious fisherman Enoch Snow. The show includes the well-known songs "If I Loved You", "June Is Bustin' Out All Over" and "You'll Never Walk Alone". Richard Rodgers later wrote that Carousel was his favorite of all his musicals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jerome Kern</span> American composer

Jerome David Kern was an American composer of musical theatre and popular music. One of the most important American theatre composers of the early 20th century, he wrote more than 700 songs, used in over 100 stage works, including such classics as "Ol' Man River", "Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man", "A Fine Romance", "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes", "The Song Is You", "All the Things You Are", "The Way You Look Tonight" and "Long Ago ". He collaborated with many of the leading librettists and lyricists of his era, including George Grossmith Jr., Guy Bolton, P. G. Wodehouse, Otto Harbach, Oscar Hammerstein II, Dorothy Fields, Johnny Mercer, Ira Gershwin and Yip Harburg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oscar Hammerstein II</span> American librettist, lyricist, theatrical producer, and director of musicals (1895–1960)

Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II was an American lyricist, librettist, theatrical producer, and director in musical theater for nearly 40 years. He won eight Tony Awards and two Academy Awards for Best Original Song. Many of his songs are standard repertoire for vocalists and jazz musicians. He co-wrote 850 songs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mary Martin</span> American singer and actress (1913–1990)

Mary Virginia Martin was an American actress and singer. A muse of Rodgers and Hammerstein, she originated many leading roles on stage over her career, including Nellie Forbush in South Pacific (1949), the title character in Peter Pan (1954), and Maria von Trapp in The Sound of Music (1959). She was named a Kennedy Center Honoree in 1989. She was the mother of actor Larry Hagman.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pulitzer Prize for Drama</span> American award for distinguished plays

The Pulitzer Prize for Drama is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It is one of the original Pulitzers, for the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes, four of which were awarded that year. It recognizes a theatrical work staged in the U.S. during the preceding calendar year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lorenz Hart</span> American lyricist

Lorenz Milton Hart was an American lyricist and half of the Broadway songwriting team Rodgers and Hart. Some of his more famous lyrics include "Blue Moon"; "The Lady Is a Tramp"; "Manhattan"; "Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered"; and "My Funny Valentine".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moss Hart</span> American playwright, librettist and theater director

Moss Hart was an American playwright, librettist, and theater director.

<i>The King and I</i> Musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein, premiered in 1951

The King and I is the fifth musical by the team of Rodgers and Hammerstein. It is based on Margaret Landon's novel Anna and the King of Siam (1944), which is in turn derived from the memoirs of Anna Leonowens, governess to the children of King Mongkut of Siam in the early 1860s. The musical's plot relates the experiences of Anna, a British schoolteacher who is hired as part of the King's drive to modernize his country. The relationship between the King and Anna is marked by conflict through much of the piece, as well as by a love to which neither can admit. The musical premiered on March 29, 1951, at Broadway's St. James Theatre. It ran for nearly three years, making it the fourth-longest-running Broadway musical in history at the time, and has had many tours and revivals.

<i>Oklahoma!</i> Musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein

Oklahoma! is the first musical written by the duo of Rodgers and Hammerstein. The musical is based on Lynn Riggs's 1931 play, Green Grow the Lilacs. Set in farm country outside the town of Claremore, Indian Territory, in 1906, it tells the story of farm girl Laurey Williams and her courtship by two rival suitors, cowboy Curly McLain and the sinister and frightening farmhand Jud Fry. A secondary romance concerns cowboy Will Parker and his flirtatious fiancée, Ado Annie.

<i>South Pacific</i> (musical) 1949 Broadway musical

South Pacific is a musical composed by Richard Rodgers, with lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II and book by Hammerstein and Joshua Logan. The work premiered in 1949 on Broadway and was an immediate hit, running for 1,925 performances. The plot is based on James A. Michener's Pulitzer Prize–winning 1947 book Tales of the South Pacific and combines elements of several of those stories. Rodgers and Hammerstein believed they could write a musical based on Michener's work that would be financially successful and, at the same time, send a strong progressive message on racism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rodgers and Hart</span> American songwriting partnership

Rodgers and Hart were an American songwriting partnership between composer Richard Rodgers (1902–1979) and the lyricist Lorenz Hart (1895–1943). They worked together on 28 stage musicals and more than 500 songs from 1919 until Hart's death in 1943.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rodgers and Hammerstein</span> 20th-century American songwriting team

Rodgers and Hammerstein was a theater-writing team of composer Richard Rodgers (1902–1979) and lyricist-dramatist Oscar Hammerstein II (1895–1960), who together created a series of innovative and influential American musicals. Their musical theater writing partnership has been called the greatest of the 20th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marvin Hamlisch</span> American composer and conductor (1944–2012)

Marvin Frederick Hamlisch was an American composer and conductor. He is one of few people to win Emmy, Grammy, Oscar and Tony awards, a feat dubbed the "EGOT". He and composer Richard Rodgers are the only people to have won those prizes and a Pulitzer Prize ("PEGOT").

<i>Flower Drum Song</i> Musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein premiered in 1958

Flower Drum Song was the eighth musical by the team of Rodgers and Hammerstein. It is based on the 1957 novel, The Flower Drum Song, by Chinese-American author C. Y. Lee. It premiered on Broadway in 1958 and was then performed in the West End and on tour. It was adapted for a 1961 musical film.

<i>Do I Hear a Waltz?</i> Musical

Do I Hear a Waltz? is a musical with a book by Arthur Laurents, music by Richard Rodgers, and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. It was adapted from Laurents' 1952 play The Time of the Cuckoo, which was the basis for the 1955 film Summertime starring Katharine Hepburn.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Robert Russell Bennett</span> Musical artist

Robert Russell Bennett was an American composer and arranger, best known for his orchestration of many well-known Broadway and Hollywood musicals by other composers such as Irving Berlin, George Gershwin, Jerome Kern, Cole Porter, and Richard Rodgers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sheldon Harnick</span> American lyricist and songwriter (1924–2023)

Sheldon Mayer Harnick was an American lyricist and songwriter best known for his collaborations with composer Jerry Bock on musicals such as Fiorello!, She Loves Me, and Fiddler on the Roof.

Martin Charnin was an American lyricist, writer, and theatre director. Charnin's best-known work is as conceiver, director, and lyricist of the musical Annie.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Varsity Show</span> Tradition at Columbia University

The Varsity Show is one of the oldest traditions at Columbia University. Founded in 1893 as a fundraiser for the university's fledgling athletic teams, the Varsity Show now draws together the entire Columbia undergraduate community for a series of performances every April. Dedicated to producing a unique full-length musical that skewers and satirizes many dubious aspects of life at Columbia, the Varsity Show is written and performed exclusively by university undergraduates. Various renowned playwrights, composers, authors, directors, and actors have contributed to the Varsity Show, either as writers or performers, while students at Columbia, including Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II, Lorenz Hart, Herman J. Mankiewicz, I. A. L. Diamond, Herman Wouk, Greta Gerwig, and Kate McKinnon.

<i>Two by Two</i> (musical) Musical

Two By Two is a Broadway musical with a book by Peter Stone, lyrics by Martin Charnin, and music by Richard Rodgers.

References

  1. "In 1962, Richard Rodgers Became the First EGOT (Before That Was Even a Thing)". billboard.com. May 19, 2019. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  2. "Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II". pulitzer.org. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  3. "KENNEDY CENTER HONORS 1978". paleycenter.org. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  4. 1 2 "Sing a Song of Morningside". The Varsity Show. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  5. Hyland, William G: Richard Rodgers The New York Times, Chapter 1. Yale University Press, 1998, ISBN   0-300-07115-9
  6. Richard Rodgers, Musical Stages: An Autobiography (2002 Reissue), pp. 12,20–21,44, DaCapo Press, ISBN   0-306-81134-0
  7. Rodgers & Hammerstein as mystery guests on What's My Line?, February 19, 1956, video on YouTube
  8. Anna Kisselgoff, "DANCE REVIEW; Rodgers As Ideal Dance Partner", The New York Times, October 23, 2002.
  9. O'Leary, J. (2014). Oklahoma!, "lousy publicity," and the politics of formal integration in the American Musical Theater. Journal of Musicology, 31(1), 139–182. https://doi.org/10.1525/jm.2014.31.1.139
  10. "Drama". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
  11. "Special Awards and Citations". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
  12. 1 2 3 Block, Geoffrey (2003). "After Hammerstein". Richard Rodgers. Yale University Press. ISBN   978-0-300-09747-4. JSTOR   j.ctt1npq43.
  13. "Dorothy Rodgers". Rodgers and Hammerstein. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  14. Simonson, Robert (June 26, 2014). "Mary Rodgers, Composer of Once Upon a Mattress and Daughter of Broadway Royalty, Dies at 83". Playbill . Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  15. Rodgers, Mary & Green, Jesse,Shy: The Alarmingly Outspoken Memoirs of Mary Rodgers (2022). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0374298623
  16. Rodgers' biographer William G Hyland states: "That Richard Rodgers would recall, at the very beginning of his memoirs, his great-grandmother's death and its religious significance for his family suggests his need to justify his own religious alienation. Richard became an atheist, and as a parent, he resisted religious instruction for his children. According to his wife, Dorothy, he felt that religion was based on "fear" and contributed to "feelings of guilt." " Richard Rodgers, Yale University Press 1998, ISBN   0-300-07115-9. Chapter 1 at The New York Times Books (accessed April 30, 2008).
  17. Wilder, Alec, 1973. American Popular Song: The Great Innovators, 1900–1950, Oxford University Press: 163. ISBN   0-19-501445-6.
  18. "Theater Hall of Fame members" . Retrieved February 9, 2014.
  19. "Awards". American Academy of Arts and Letters.
  20. "Two Musicals Win Richard Rodgers Awards" (Press release). American Academy of Arts and Letters. March 23, 2018. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  21. Lehman, David (2009). A Fine Romance. New York: Random House. p. 140,249. ISBN   978-0-8052-4250-8.
  22. The Marcels By Marv Goldberg Marv Goldberg 2006. 2009.
  23. Lehman, p. 140.
  24. Lehman, p. 142–43.
  25. "The 18th Academy Awards (1946) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences . Retrieved August 16, 2011.
  26. "Richard Rodgers". Grammy Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  27. "Trustees Award". Grammy Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  28. "Richard Rodgers". Kennedy Center Honors . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  29. "Richard Rodgers". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  30. "Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II". Pulitzer Prize . Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  31. "1950 Pulitzer Prize Winners & Finalists". Pulitzer Prize . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  32. "1950 Tony Awards". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  33. "1952 Tony Awards". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  34. "1956 Tony Awards". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  35. "1959 Tony Awards". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  36. "1960 Tony Awards". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  37. "1962 Tony Awards". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  38. "1962 Special Tony Award". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  39. "1965 Tony Awards". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  40. "1972 Special Tony Award". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  41. "1979 Special Tony Award". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  42. "1996 Tony Awards". Tony Awards . Retrieved September 5, 2023.

Further reading