Portrait of Varick by Henry Inman (ca. 1831)
|45th Mayor of New York City|
October 12, 1789 –December 31, 1801
|Preceded by||James Duane|
|Succeeded by||Edward Livingston|
|Governor|| George Clinton (1789 - 1795)|
John Jay (1795 - 1801)
|2nd Attorney General of New York|
May 14, 1788 –September 29, 1789
|Preceded by||Egbert Benson|
|Succeeded by||Aaron Burr|
|6th Speaker of the New York State Assembly|
January 12, 1787 –December 10, 1788
|Preceded by||John Lansing Jr.|
|Succeeded by||John Lansing Jr.|
|15th Recorder of New York City|
February 20, 1784 –September 29, 1789
|Preceded by||John Watts|
|Succeeded by||Samuel Jones|
|Born||March 15, 1753|
Hackensack, Bergen County, Province of New Jersey
|Died||July 30, 1831 (aged 78)|
Jersey City, New Jersey
|Resting place||First Reformed Dutch Church Cemetery|
|Years of service||1775 - 1784 Continental Army |
1784 - 1801 New York State Militia
Richard Varick (March 15, 1753 – July 30, 1831) was an American lawyer, military officer, and politician. In 1789, Varick became the 45th Mayor of New York City and served eleven concurrent one year terms until 1801.During the Revolutionary War, he served as George Washington's aide-de-camp and private secretary.
Aside from his terms as mayor, Varick was major figure in the development of post-Independence New York City and State, serving as the 14th Recorder of New York City from 1784 to 1789 and concurrently as a member of the New York State Assembly from New York County from 1786 to 1788. During his term as a member of the New York State Assembly, he was 7th Speaker of the New York State Assembly during the sessions of 1787 and 1788. Varick was simultaneously appointed the 2nd Attorney General of New York from 1788 to 1789.
Varick was also a founder of the Society of the Cincinnati, the American Bible Society, and a longtime trustee of Columbia University.
He was born on March 15, 1753, at Hackensack in Bergen County, New Jersey to John Varick and Jane (née Dey) Varick.His mother grew up in her father's house, the Dey Mansion, which would go on to play a pivotal role in the revolution.
Both Varick's parents ancestors had emigrated with the Dutch West India Company in the early to mid 17th century and remained in the greater New York City area. Amongst Varick's ancestors are Joris Jansen Rapelje, a member of the Council of Twelve Men which was the first democratic body in the history of the United States (1641).
Little is known about the specifics of Varick's education before university, though surviving letters indicate that he was educated by private tutors and studied Latin, French, and other subjects. He enrolled in King's College (the original name of Columbia University) in New York City in 1771 where he studied under John Morin Scott. Varick clerked for Scott during his education and after being admitted into the New York Bar in October 1774, Scott made him an offer to be a partner in his firm. Unusually, Varick had not yet graduated from King's College despite having passed the bar and never formally graduated. Later in his career, Varick would become a trustee of King's College for over thirty years.
Eight months into his career in private practice, the American Revolutionary War began. At the influence of his employer, John Morin Scott, Varick suspended his studies and enlisted in the militia. On June 28, 1775, he was appointed captain of the 1st New York Regiment and after only three days as field officer, was appointed military secretary under General Philip Schuyler. It was thought that Scott, understanding the administrative and intellectual value of his young partner, secured the appointment. Varick departed New York City with Schuyler on July 4, 1775 to head north to Fort Ticonderoga and launch the campaign to drive the British out of Canada. En route, the traveling party stopped in Albany briefly where Varick would first meet General Benedict Arnold, who would become a good friend, also played a significant role in Varick's life until Arnold's treason in 1780.
By the summer of 1776, Schuyler had been felled by multiple illnesses, and was reeling from a series of losses on the battlefield. Varick, by this juncture, in part out of necessity, and in part by appointment, was performing three jobs at once: private secretary to Schuyler, quartermaster for all the northern forts held by the Continental Army, and the Northern Army's deputy muster master general. Laterally, actual battlefield commands had been outsourced to Arnold and General Horatio Gates. Schuyler, recognizing the burden Varick was carrying, promoted him to Lieutenant Colonel. Varick's almost total control of the administration for the Northern Army lead to an even closer friendship between Arnold and Varick.
That same summer, Arnold was planning his attack effort to stop the British advance down Lake Champlain in what would be one of the first battles in the history of the U.S. Navy. With a dearth of available ships, the armada was largely built from scratch by Varick who solved the crisis by contacting his wide network in New York City and the surrounding area to send materials and coastal men who were qualified for such work. While the Battle of Valcour Island ended in defeat for the navy, it succeeded in slowing the British advance for the winter as they retreaded to their Canadian bases.
Varick also faced run-ins with fellow officers who were not part of Schuyler's faction. General Anthony Walton White, who had briefly served at Washington's aide-de-camp, was accused by Schuyler of looting a private home on the frontier. After denying the charges, White barged into Varick's offices and challenged him to a duel, under the impression that Varick had spoken negatively to his character. Varick, unarmed, narrowly escaped White's attempt to murder him after Varick declined the challenge.
After the disastrous Battle of Saratoga, Schuyler was removed from duty by the Continental Congress in August 1777 and replaced by General Gates. With factionalism rife within the Northern Army, Varick was aligned with Arnold which pitted him against Gates, whom he disliked regardless. Their circle of friendship had also grown to include Henry Brockholst Livingston and Matthew Clarkson. Their camaraderie was rudely defined as "the New York gang" by James Wilkinson, a partisan of General Gates'.
Varick would quietly and capably continue in his role as the Northern Army's deputy muster master general, though not as Gates' aide-de-camp or private secretary, until January 12, 1780 when the department was abolished by the Continental Congress in a larger reorganization.
Varick briefly resumed his law in private practice, which proved challenging in his politically volatile hometown of New York City—which was under occupation by the enemy. In August 1780, Benedict Arnold approached Varick about joining his staff at his newly appointed position as commanding officer of West Point (then an active military instillation) as his aide-de-camp and inspector-general.
Within three months, Arnold's treason was discovered and he fled to British territory. Varick, along with David Franks, were arrested. Varick had been ill in bed when informed both of Arnold's treason and his own arrest. Contemporary reports described Varick as spending several days on the edge of madness about Arnold's defection. Despite Arnold writing to Washington personally to say that his aides were not complicit, both Varick and Franks were detained by Washington as a precautionary measure. After a court of inquiry completed its investigation, they found Varick not guilty, and delivered the following:
“That Lieutenant Colonel Varick’s conduct with respect to the base Peculations and Treasonable Practices of the late General Arnold is not only unimpeachable but think him entitled (throughout every part of his conduct) to a degree of Merit that does him great honor as an Officer and particularly distinguishes him as a sincere Friend to his Country…”
A by-product of the above was the introduction of Varick to George Washington, which would lead to the two working together for the rest of their careers, and lives. This relationship began in 1781 when Washington petitioned the Continental Congress to establish team of writers to record and preserve all of his, and the army's, papers, planning, and correspondence for use by future generations. This would be under the supervision “of a Man of character in whom entire confidence can be placed”. Washington appointed Varick in this role, which made use of his highly respected administrative skills, and would fully rehabilitate his name after the Arnold scandal. Establishing his office at Poughkeepsie, Varick and his assistants spent more than two years in compiling the forty-four folio volumes known as the Varick Transcripts. Varick served under Washington solely until Washington retired his commission in 1783.
Upon completing the assigned duties after years or work, General Washington wrote:
“I take this first opportunity of signifying my entire approbation of the manner in which you have executed the important duties of recording secretary; and the satisfaction I feel in having my papers so properly arranged, and so correctly recorded; and beg you will accept my thanks for the care and attention which you have given to this business and beg you be persuaded, that I shall take pleasure in asserting on every occasion, the sense of entertainment of the fidelity, skill and indefatigable industry manifested by you in the performance of your public duties."
After he retired from his service in the Continental Army, Varick would remain in service as a colonel in the New York State Militia until 1801.
The Varick Transcripts are deposited in the Library of Congress. The value of these documents has been noted throughout their lifetime as invaluable to the understanding of the formation of the United States.
As originally provisioned by Congress, the stated duties by General Washington to Colonel Varick as Recording Secretary would include categorizing, transcribing, and assembling:
Varick was the Recorder of New York City from 1784 to 1789. An office that no longer exists, it is equatable to 'Chief Legal Officer'. In this office, along with Samuel Jones, he codified New York State's first statutes after Revolution in the Laws of New York (2 vols., 1789). This body of work laid the whole foundation for the Law of New York, the New York City Administrative Code, and the Rules of New York City.
Concurrently to the above, he was a member of the New York State Assembly from New York County from 1786 to 1788. During his term as a member of the New York State Assembly, he was Speaker during the sessions of 1787 and 1788. Varick was appointed the New York State Attorney General from 1788 to 1789.
Remarkably, due to the elitist nature of the New York State Constitution of 1777, almost all government positions in the city and state of New York were appointed by the Council of Appointment. Few, if any, general elections or other democratic functions would exist until 1802. Thus, in the year 1788, Varick was simultaneously the Recorder of New York City, a State Assemblyman representing New York City, the Speaker of the House of the State of New York, and the Attorney General of the State of New York. Varick is on record protesting the egregious nature of his occupying multiple offices. Though, it was rationalized at the time that as both an expert administrator and lawyer, he was an ideal choice for these myriad offices to swiftly build out all the mechanisms of government. And, that the subsequent laws were codified quickly in the nascent days of an independent New York City and State to ensure the function, and growth, of both entities.
Most notably, Varick was the Mayor of New York City for twelve years during the formative post-Independence era from 1789 to 1801.While Mayor, he focused on the yellow fever epidemics which struck repeatedly.
Varick was a founder of the American Bible Society in 1816.He would later become president (succeeding John Jay) in 1828 until his death in 1831.
He was an original member of the Society of the Cincinnati beginning in 1783, and president of the New York chapter until his death. As such, he was responsible for maintaining the legacy of George Washington. From 1790 to 1836, celebrations of Washington's birthday in the City included Tammany Hall dinners, Washington Benevolent Society parades and an intimate open house held each February 22 by Mary Simpson (c. 1752-March 18, 1836), at her John Street grocery. Varick was a member of, and generous contributor to, many charitable organizations in New York City.
He and his wife Maria Roosevelt, daughter of Isaac Roosevelt, were married on May 8, 1786 in New York City and resided at 52 Wall Street initially then moved to a larger home on lower Broadway. His father-in-law was the patrilineal great-great-grandfather of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Varick was one of seven children, his siblings being: Abraham Varick (the great-grandfather of Anna Maria Romeyn Varick, who married George Lauder of the Lauder Greenway Family.); Dr. John Varick Jr.; Anne Elting; Sarah Froeligh; Jane De Witt (wife of Simeon De Witt); and Maria Gilbert.
Varick died on July 30, 1831 and is interred at the First Reformed Dutch Church Cemetery in Hackensack, New Jersey.
The Town of Varick, New York, Varick Street in Jersey City and Varick Street (where he once owned property) in Manhattan in the City of New York bear his name.
Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Steuben, also referred to as Baron von Steuben, was a Prussian and later an American military officer. He served as Inspector General and a Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is credited with being one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills, tactics, and discipline. He wrote Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, the book that served as the standard United States drill manual until the War of 1812. He served as General George Washington's chief of staff in the final years of the war.
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ex-British colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain. The Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and volunteer troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war.
Horatio Lloyd Gates was a British-born soldier who served as a leading American general during the early years Revolutionary War. He took credit for the American victory in the Battles of Saratoga (1777) – a matter of contemporary and historical controversy – and was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden in 1780. Gates has been described as "one of the Revolution's most controversial military figures" because of his role in the Conway Cabal, which attempted to discredit and replace General George Washington; the battle at Saratoga; and his actions during and after his defeat at Camden.
Philip John Schuyler was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. He is usually known as Philip Schuyler, while his son is usually known as Philip J. Schuyler.
Benjamin Lincoln was an American army officer. He served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Lincoln was involved in three major surrenders during the war: his participation in the Battles of Saratoga contributed to John Burgoyne's surrender of a British army, he oversaw the largest American surrender of the war at the 1780 Siege of Charleston, and, as George Washington's second in command, he formally accepted the British surrender at Yorktown.
John Armstrong Jr. was an American soldier and statesman who was a delegate to the Continental Congress, U.S. Senator from New York, and Secretary of War.
David Salisbury Franks (1740–1793) was aide-de-camp for General Benedict Arnold during the American War of Independence.
William Pierce or William Pierce, Jr. was an army officer during the American Revolutionary War and a member of the United States Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Samuel Holden Parsons was an American lawyer, jurist, general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and a pioneer to the Ohio Country. Parsons was described as "Soldier, scholar, judge, one of the strongest arms on which Washington leaned, who first suggested the Continental Congress, from the story of whose life could almost be written the history of the Northern War" by Senator George F. Hoar of Massachusetts
Philip Van Cortlandt was an American surveyor, landowner, and politician from Westchester County, New York. Van Cortlandt was the son of Pierre Van Cortlandt and brother of Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr. He was a Continental Army officer during the American Revolution, and later served several terms in the United States House of Representatives.
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789. A unicameral body with legislative and executive function, it was composed of delegates appointed by the legislatures of the several states. Each state delegation had one vote. It was preceded by the Second Continental Congress (1775–1781) and was created by the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union in 1781.
John Doughty was an American military officer who briefly served as the senior officer of the United States Army in 1784. Holding the rank of major at the time, he bears the distinction of being the lowest ranked individual ever to serve as the senior most United States Army officer.
John Lamb (1735–1800) was an American soldier, politician, and Anti-Federalist organizer. During the American Revolutionary War he led the 2nd Continental Artillery Regiment.
James Livingston born in New York, was living in Quebec when the American Revolutionary War broke out. He was responsible for raising and leading the 1st Canadian Regiment of the Continental Army during the invasion of Canada, and continued to serve in the war until 1781. He retired to Saratoga, New York, where he served as a state legislator and raised a family of five children.
Washington's aides-de-camp during the American Revolutionary War were officers of the Continental Army appointed to serve on General George Washington's headquarters staff, with the rank of lieutenant colonel. The headquarters staff also included one military secretary, a full colonel.
The military career of Benedict Arnold from 1777 to 1779 was marked by two important events in his career. In July 1777, Arnold was assigned to the Continental Army's Northern Department, where he played pivotal roles in bringing about the failure of British Brigadier Barry St. Leger's siege of Fort Stanwix and the American success in the battles of Saratoga, which fundamentally altered the course of the war.
Israel Shreve was a colonel in the 2nd New Jersey Regiment during the American Revolution. He fought at the Battle of Brandywine and at the Battle of Germantown and wintered at Valley Forge.
General William Malcolm was a New York City merchant and officer in the American Revolution. He commanded Malcolm's Regiment, with Aaron Burr as his second in command.
Richard Montgomery was an Irish soldier who first served in the British Army. He later became a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and he is most famous for leading the unsuccessful 1775 invasion of Canada.
Washington at Verplanck's Point is a full-length portrait in oil painted in 1790 by the American artist John Trumbull of General George Washington at Verplanck's Point on the North River in New York during the American Revolutionary War. The background depicts the September 14, 1782 review of Continental Army troops Washington staged there as an honor for the departing French commander Comte de Rochambeau and his army.
John Lansing, Jr.
| Speaker of the New York State Assembly |
John Lansing, Jr.
| Mayor of New York City |
| Recorder of New York City |
| New York State Attorney General |