| United States Senator |
March 4, 1865 –March 3, 1871
|Preceded by||William A. Richardson|
|Succeeded by||John A. Logan|
|13th Governor of Illinois|
January 14,1861 –January 16,1865
|Preceded by||John Wood|
|Succeeded by||Richard J. Oglesby|
|Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives |
from Illinois's 6th district
March 4,1853 –March 3,1855
|Preceded by||Thompson Campbell|
|Succeeded by||Thomas L. Harris|
|Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives |
from Illinois's 7th district
March 4,1851 –March 3,1853
|Preceded by||Thomas L. Harris|
|Succeeded by||James C. Allen|
|Member of the Illinois House of Representatives|
|Died||November 27,1873 58) (aged|
|Political party|| Whig (until 1854)|
Republican (after 1854)
|Alma mater|| Illinois College |
Richard Yates (January 18,1815 –November 27,1873) was the Governor of Illinois during the American Civil War and has been considered one of the most effective war governors. He took energetic measures to secure Cairo and St. Louis against rebel attack. Nicknamed the "Soldiers' Friend",he helped organize the Illinois contingent of Union soldiers,including commissioning Ulysses S. Grant as a colonel for an Illinois regiment.He supported the Emancipation Proclamation. He also represented Illinois in the United States House of Representatives (1851–1855) and in the U.S. Senate (1865–1871). As a Senator,he voted and spoke in favor of removing President Andrew Johnson from office. He was a Whig and then a Republican.
Yates was born in a log cabin in Warsaw,Kentucky.His family was of English descent and moved to Illinois in 1831. He studied at Miami University and Georgetown College and graduated from Illinois College in Jacksonville,Illinois,in 1835. He then studied law at Transylvania University in Lexington,Kentucky. He was admitted to the bar in 1837 and commenced practice in Jacksonville.
Yates served as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives from 1842 to 1845 and 1848 to 1849.In 1850,he was elected as a Whig to the United States House of Representatives,where he was the youngest member of the Thirty-second Congress. He was reelected to Congress in 1852. During Yates' second term in Congress,the repeal of the Missouri Compromise reignited the anti-slavery controversy. He opposed the repeal,which opened the possibility of slavery expanding into Kansas, and became identified with the new Republican Party. Illinois Democrats redrew the boundaries of his district to favor their candidate,and Yates narrowly lost his bid for a third term in Congress.
Yates then worked for a time as president of a railroad company. Remaining politically engaged,he campaigned on behalf of Republican presidential candidate John C. Frémont in the 1856 election.He was known as an excellent orator. He had a weakness for whiskey,though at times he strove to exercise temperance. In later years,he was often conspicuously drunk,even at public functions. By 1867 he had "resolve[d] to quit drink altogether" but was unable to persist in this resolution.
In 1860 he was elected governor as a Republican;he and Abraham Lincoln,with whom he was friendly,supported each other's campaigns in Illinois.Yates's inaugural address denied that states had any right to secede from the Union and declared that "a claim so presumptuous and absurd could never be acquiesced in";he also predicted that the Union would "in the end,be stronger and richer and more glorious,renowned and free,than it has ever been heretofore,by the necessary reaction of the crisis through which [they were] passing."
Governor Yates continued to be an outspoken opponent of slavery,and at the opening of the Civil War was very active in raising volunteers.He convened the legislature in extra session on April 12,1861,the day after the attack on Fort Sumter,and took military possession of Cairo,garrisoning it with regular troops. Illinois banks made $1,000,000 available to Yates to equip the new Illinois troops raised in response to Lincoln's call. At Yates's suggestion,Lincoln authorized Illinois troops to protect the federal arsenal in St. Louis.
In Governor Yates's office,General Ulysses S. Grant received his first distinct recognition as a soldier in the Civil War,being appointed by Yates as mustering officer for the state,and afterward colonel of the 21st Illinois regiment.Yates would also secure military commissions for John A. Logan,John A. McClernand,and John M. Palmer (all prominent Democrats). Lincoln disregarded a hint from Yates that he would accept a commission as brigadier general on the grounds that Yates was too important as a loyal governor. After the Battle of Shiloh,Yates personally took hospital supplies to the succor of the wounded from his state,as did the wartime governors of Wisconsin (Salomon) and Indiana (Morton). Such humanitarian gestures cemented Yates's popularity,and the governor enjoyed the nickname of the "Soldiers' Friend". In September 1862,Yates attended the Loyal War Governors' Conference in Altoona,Pennsylvania,which ultimately gave Abraham Lincoln support for his Emancipation Proclamation.
During the Civil War,Yates benefited from his relations with Lincoln to bring significant federal financial resources to the State of Illinois and Chicago in particular.[ citation needed ] Chicago became the location for the largest prisoner of war encampment,Camp Douglas,which had been erected on the former estate of Lincoln's political opponent,the late Senator Stephen A. Douglas (similarly,the estate of Confederate General Robert E. Lee in Arlington,Virginia was taken over by the government for use as a military cemetery). During this period,Yates enlisted the services of former Chicago Mayor James Hutchinson Woodworth,a Republican with strong anti-slavery views similar to those of Yates,to oversee the disbursement and management of the federal funds received.
In his 1863 annual message,Yates denounced the talk among some secession sympathizers that the Union might be reconstructed to the exclusion of New England.
After the Emancipation Proclamation,the Democratic-dominated Illinois legislature proved increasingly uncooperative. Yates,fearing that the Democrats had been infiltrated by the pro-secession Knights of the Golden Circle,dissolved the Illinois legislature on June 10,1863,declaring that "the past history of the Assembly hold[s] out no reasonable hope of beneficial results to the citizens of the State,or the army in the field,from its further continuance".
After his service as governor ended,Yates was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate and served from March 4,1865,to March 3,1871. While in the Senate,Yates was Chairman of the Committee on Revolutionary Claims (Thirty-ninth and Forty-first Congresses) and Chairman of the Committee on Territories (Fortieth Congress). He was identified as an associate and "disciple" of Charles Sumner,the Radical Senator from Massachusetts.During the impeachment proceedings against Andrew Johnson,Yates spoke in favor of convicting the President,whom he described as a "most pestilent disturber of public peace ... who,through murder succeeded to the chief command and seeks to betray us to the enemy."
Yates did not seek reelection to the Senate. After leaving the Senate,he was appointed by President Grant as a United States commissioner to inspect a land subsidy railroad. He died suddenly in St. Louis,Missouri on November 27,1873. He is buried in Diamond Grove Cemetery,Jacksonville,Illinois.
In 1923 a statue of Yates by Albin Polasek was erected on the Illinois State Capitol grounds.
His son,Richard Yates,Jr.,was also active in Illinois politics,and also became governor of Illinois.
Abraham Lincoln was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War and succeeded in preserving the Union,abolishing slavery,bolstering the federal government,and modernizing the U.S. economy.
The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States between the Union and the Confederacy. The central cause of the war was the status of slavery,especially the expansion of slavery into territories acquired as a result of the Louisiana Purchase and the Mexican–American War. On the eve of the Civil War in 1860,four million of the 32 million Americans (~13%) were enslaved black people,almost all in the South.
The Emancipation Proclamation,officially Proclamation 95,was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1,1863,during the Civil War. The Proclamation changed the legal status of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the secessionist Confederate states from enslaved to free. As soon as slaves escaped the control of their enslavers,either by fleeing to Union lines or through the advance of federal troops,they were permanently free. In addition,the Proclamation allowed for former slaves to "be received into the armed service of the United States."
Hannibal Hamlin was an American attorney and politician who served as the 15th vice president of the United States from 1861 to 1865,during President Abraham Lincoln's first term. He was the first Republican vice president.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude,except as punishment for a crime. The amendment was passed by the Senate on April 8,1864,by the House of Representatives on January 31,1865,and ratified by the required 27 of the then 36 states on December 6,1865,and proclaimed on December 18. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War.
The 1864 United States presidential election,the 20th quadrennial presidential election,was held on Tuesday,November 8,1864. Near the end of the American Civil War,incumbent President Abraham Lincoln of the National Union Party easily defeated the Democratic nominee,former General George B. McClellan,by a wide margin of 212–21 in the electoral college,with 55% of the popular vote. For the election,the Republican Party and some Democrats created the National Union Party,especially to attract War Democrats.
Samuel Jordan Kirkwood,was an American politician best known as Iowa's American Civil War Governor. He also served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. Secretary of the Interior.
The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party from the founding of the Republican Party in 1854 until the end of Reconstruction in the Compromise of 1877. They called themselves "Radicals" because of their goal of immediate,complete,permanent eradication of slavery,without compromise. They were opposed during the War by the contemporary moderate Republicans,and by the pro-slavery and anti-Reconstruction Democratic Party as well as liberals in the Northern United States during Reconstruction. Radicals led efforts after the war to establish civil rights for former slaves and fully implement emancipation. After weaker measures in 1866 resulted in violence against former slaves in the rebel states,Radicals pushed the Fourteenth Amendment and statutory protections through Congress. They opposed allowing ex-Confederate officers to retake political power in the Southern United States,and emphasized equality,civil rights and voting rights for the "freedmen",i.e.,former slaves who had been freed during or after the Civil War by the Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment.
Austin Blair,also known as the Civil War Governor,was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan,serving as its 13th governor and in its House of Representatives and Senate as well as the U.S. Senate. He was known as a strong opponent of slavery and secession. He also led efforts to provide women and black citizens the right to vote. However,he simultaneously sought to ban capital punishment.
David Tod was an American politician and industrialist from the U.S. state of Ohio. As the 25th governor of Ohio,Tod gained recognition for his forceful and energetic leadership during the American Civil War.
Benjamin Gratz Brown was an American politician. He was a U.S. Senator,the 20th Governor of Missouri,and the Liberal Republican and Democratic Party vice presidential candidate in the presidential election of 1872.
Abraham Lincoln's position on slavery in the United States is one of the most discussed aspects of his life. Lincoln often expressed moral opposition to slavery in public and private. "I am naturally anti-slavery. If slavery is not wrong,nothing is wrong," he stated in a now-famous quote. "I can not remember when I did not so think,and feel." However,the question of what to do about it and how to end it,given that it was so firmly embedded in the nation's constitutional framework,in Congress,and in the economy of much of the country,was complex and politically challenging. In addition,there was the unanswered question,which Lincoln had to deal with,of what would become of the four million slaves if liberated:how they would earn a living in a society that had almost always rejected them or looked down on their very presence.
The ten percent plan,formally the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction,was a United States presidential proclamation issued on December 8,1863,by United States President Abraham Lincoln,during the American Civil War. By this point in the war,the Union Army had pushed the Confederate Army out of several regions of the South,and some Confederate states were ready to have their governments rebuilt. Lincoln's plan established a process through which this postwar reconstruction could come about.
The Confiscation Acts were laws passed by the United States Congress during the Civil War with the intention of freeing the slaves still held by the Confederate forces in the South.
The presidency of Abraham Lincoln began on March 4,1861,when Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as the 16th president of the United States,and ended upon his assassination and death on April 15,1865,42 days into his second term. Lincoln was the first member of the recently established Republican Party elected to the presidency. Lincoln successfully presided over the Union victory in the American Civil War,which dominated his presidency and resulted in the end of slavery.
The 1864 National Union National Convention was the United States presidential nominating convention of the National Union Party,which was a name adopted by the main faction of the Republican Party in a coalition with many,if not most,War Democrats after some Republicans and War Democrats nominated John C. Frémont over Lincoln. During the Convention,the party officially called for the end of the ongoing Civil War,the eradication of slavery and the adoption of the Emancipation Proclamation.
The state of Illinois during the American Civil War was a major source of troops for the Union Army,and of military supplies,food,and clothing. Situated near major rivers and railroads,Illinois became a major jumping off place early in the war for Ulysses S. Grant's efforts to seize control of the Mississippi and Tennessee rivers. Statewide,public support for the Union was high despite Copperhead sentiment.
First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln is an 1864 oil-on-canvas painting by Francis Bicknell Carpenter. In the painting,Carpenter depicts Abraham Lincoln,the 16th President of the United States,and his Cabinet members reading over the Emancipation Proclamation,which proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the ten states in rebellion against the Union in the American Civil War on January 1,1863. Lincoln presented the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation to his Cabinet on July 22,1862 and issued it on September 22,1862. The final Emancipation Proclamation took effect on January 1,1863.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Abraham Lincoln:
This article documents the political career of Abraham Lincoln from the end of his term in the United States House of Representatives in March 1849 to the beginning of his first term as President of the United States in March 1861.