Richmond, Indiana

Last updated

Richmond, Indiana
City of Richmond
Main Street, Richmond, IN (48500606486).jpg
Main Street in Richmond
Richmond, Indiana Flag-Red Crwflags.png
Wayne County Indiana Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Richmond Highlighted 1864260.svg
Location of Richmond in Wayne County, Indiana.
Coordinates: 39°49′49″N84°53′26″W / 39.83028°N 84.89056°W / 39.83028; -84.89056 Coordinates: 39°49′49″N84°53′26″W / 39.83028°N 84.89056°W / 39.83028; -84.89056
CountryUnited States
State Indiana
County Wayne
Township Boston, Center, Wayne
Government
  MayorDave Snow (D)
Area
[1]
  Total24.16 sq mi (62.56 km2)
  Land24.00 sq mi (62.17 km2)
  Water0.15 sq mi (0.39 km2)
Elevation
[2]
981 ft (299 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total35,720
  Density1,488.02/sq mi (574.54/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
47374-47375
Area code 765
FIPS code 18-64260 [3]
GNIS feature ID 441976
Website richmondindiana.gov

Richmond /ˈrɪmənd/ is a city in eastern Wayne County, Indiana. Bordering the state of Ohio, it is the county seat of Wayne County and is part of the Dayton, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area [4] In the 2010 census, the city had a population of 36,812. Situated largely within Wayne Township, its area includes a non-contiguous portion in nearby Boston Township, where Richmond Municipal Airport is currently located.

Contents

Richmond is sometimes called the "cradle of recorded jazz" because the earliest jazz recordings and records were made at the studio of Gennett Records, a division of the Starr Piano Company. [5] Gennett Records was the first to record such artists as Louis Armstrong, Bix Beiderbecke, Jelly Roll Morton, Hoagy Carmichael, Lawrence Welk, and Gene Autry. [6]

The city has twice received the All-America City Award, most recently in 2009.

History

In 1806 the first European Americans in the area, Quaker families from the state of North Carolina, settled along the East Fork of the Whitewater River. This was part of a general westward migration in the early decades after the American Revolution. John Smith was one of the earliest settlers. Richmond is still home to several Quaker institutions, including Friends United Meeting, Richmond Friends School, Earlham College and the Earlham School of Religion.

The first post office in Richmond was established in 1818 with Robert Morrison as the first postmaster. [7] The town was officially incorporated in 1840, with John Sailor elected the first mayor. [8]

Early cinema and television pioneer Charles Francis Jenkins grew up on a farm north of Richmond, where he began inventing useful gadgets. As the Richmond Telegram reported, on June 6, 1894, Jenkins gathered his family, friends and newsmen at his cousin's jewelry store in downtown Richmond and projected a filmed motion picture for the first time in front of an audience. The motion picture was of a vaudeville entertainer performing a butterfly dance, which Jenkins had filmed himself. Jenkins filed for a patent for the Phantoscope projector in November 1894 and it was issued in March 1895. A modified version of the Phantoscope was later sold to Thomas Edison, who named it Edison's Vitascope and began projecting motion pictures in New York City vaudeville theaters, raising the curtain on American cinema.

Joseph E. Maddy is credited with founding the country's first complete high school orchestra at Richmond, and later founded the National High School Orchestra Camp, which became the Interlochen Center for the Arts in Michigan. [9] [10]

Hoagy Carmichael recorded "Stardust" for the first time in Richmond at the Gennett recording studio. Famed trumpeter and singer Louis Armstrong was first recorded at Gennett as a member of King Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band. [11] Many other internationally famous musicians recorded at Gennett's Richmond facility, including Jelly Roll Morton, Bix Beiderbecke, Duke Ellington, and Fats Waller. [12] Gennett also recorded Klan musicians. [13] [14]

A group of artists in the area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries came to be known as the Richmond Group. They included John Elwood Bundy, Charles Conner, George Herbert Baker, Maude Kaufman Eggemeyer and John Albert Seaford. The Richmond Art Museum has a collection of regional and American art. [15] Many consider the most significant painting in the collection to be a self-portrait of Indiana-born William Merritt Chase. [16]

The city was connected to the National Road, the first road built by the federal government and a major route west for pioneers of the 19th century. [17] It became part of the system of National Auto Trails. The highway is now known as U.S. Route 40. One of the extant Madonna of the Trail monuments was dedicated at Richmond on October 28, 1928. [18] It sits in a corner of Glen Miller Park adjacent to US 40.

Richmond's cultural resources include two of Indiana's three Egyptian mummies. One is held by the Wayne County Historical Museum and the other by Earlham College's Joseph Moore Museum, leading to the local nickname "Mummy capital of Indiana". [19] [20]

The arts were supported by a strong economy increasingly based on manufacturing. Richmond was once known as "the lawnmower capital" because it was a center for manufacturing of lawnmowers from the late 19th century through the mid-20th century. Manufacturers included Davis, Motomower, Dille-McGuire and F&N. The farm machinery builder Gaar-Scott was based in Richmond. The Davis Aircraft Co., [21] [22] builder of a light parasol wing monoplane, operated in Richmond beginning in 1929.

After starting out in nearby Union City, Wayne Agricultural Works moved to Richmond. Wayne manufactured horse-drawn vehicles, including the "kid hack", a precursor of the motorized school bus. From the early 1930s through the 1940s, Richmond had several automobile designers and manufacturers. Among the automobiles locally manufactured were the Richmond, built by the Wayne Works; the "Rodefeld"; the Davis; the Pilot; the Westcott; and the Crosley.

In the 1950s Wayne Works changed its name to Wayne Corporation, by then a well-known bus and school-bus manufacturer. In 1967 it relocated to a site adjacent to Interstate 70. The company was a leader in school-bus safety innovations, but closed in 1992 during a period of school-bus manufacturing industry consolidations. [23]

Richmond was known as the "Rose City" because of the many varieties once grown there by Hill's Roses. The company had several sprawling complexes of greenhouses, with a total of about 34 acres (14 ha) under glass. The annual Richmond Rose Festival honored the rose industry and was a popular summer attraction. [24]

Downtown explosion

On April 6, 1968, an explosion triggered by a natural gas leak destroyed or damaged several downtown blocks and killed 41 people; more than 150 were injured. [25] The event is documented in the book Death in a Sunny Street.

Geography

Richmond is located at 39°49′49″N84°53′26″W / 39.830189°N 84.890668°W / 39.830189; -84.890668 . [26]

According to the 2010 census, Richmond has a total area of 24.067 square miles (62.33 km2), of which 23.91 square miles (61.93 km2) (or 99.35%) is land and 0.157 square miles (0.41 km2) (or 0.65%) is water. [27]

Richmond is located about 12 miles S of Hoosier Hill, the highest point in Indiana.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1840 2,070
1850 1,443−30.3%
1860 6,608357.9%
1870 9,44542.9%
1880 12,74234.9%
1890 16,60830.3%
1900 18,2269.7%
1910 22,82425.2%
1920 26,76517.3%
1930 32,49321.4%
1940 35,1478.2%
1950 39,53912.5%
1960 44,14911.7%
1970 43,999−0.3%
1980 41,349−6.0%
1990 38,705−6.4%
2000 39,1241.1%
2010 36,812−5.9%
2020 35,720−3.0%
Source: US Census Bureau

2010 census

As of the census [28] of 2010, there were 36,812 people, 15,098 households, and 8,909 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,539.0 inhabitants per square mile (594.2/km2). There were 17,649 housing units at an average density of 737.8 per square mile (284.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.9% White, 8.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, and 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population.

There were 15,098 households, of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.0% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.91.

The median age in the city was 38.4 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.4% were from 25 to 44; 25.6% were from 45 to 64; and 16.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female.

2000 census

As of the census [3] of 2000, there were 39,124 people, 16,287 households, and 9,918 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,685.3 inhabitants per square mile (650.7/km2). There were 17,647 housing units at an average density of 760.2 per square mile (293.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 86.78% White, 8.87% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, and 2.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.03% of the population.

Richmond lies on the flat lands of eastern Indiana. Richmond-indiana-from-above.jpg
Richmond lies on the flat lands of eastern Indiana.

There were 16,287 households, out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.4% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,210, and the median income for a family was $38,346. Males had a median income of $30,849 versus $21,164 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,096. About 12.1% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.8% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.

Architecture

Wayne County Court House WayneCountyCourthouse.jpg
Wayne County Court House

Richmond is noted for its rich stock of historic architecture. In 2003, a book entitled Richmond Indiana: Its Physical Development and Aesthetic Heritage to 1920 by Cornell University architectural historians, Michael and Mary Raddant Tomlan, was published by the Indiana Historical Society. Particularly notable buildings are the 1902 Pennsylvania Railroad Station designed by Daniel H. Burnham of Chicago and the 1893 Wayne County Court House designed by James W. McLaughlin of Cincinnati. Local architects of note include John A. Hasecoster, William S. Kaufman and Stephen O. Yates.

The significance of the architecture has been recognized. Five large districts, such as the Depot District, and several individual buildings are listed in the National Register of Historic Places, the Historic American Buildings Survey and the Historic American Engineering Record.

Educational institutions

Carpenter Hall at Earlham College, founded in 1847 Earlham Cupola.jpg
Carpenter Hall at Earlham College, founded in 1847

The Richmond Japanese Language School (リッチモンド(IN)補習授業校 Ritchimondo(IN)Hoshū Jugyō Kō) a part-time Japanese school, holds its classes at the Highland Heights School. [29] [30]

The town has a lending library, the Morrisson Reeves Library. [31]

Religious groups

Transportation

Air

Richmond Municipal Airport is a public-use airport five nautical miles (6 mi, 9 km) southeast of Richmond's central business district. It is owned by the Richmond Board of Aviation Commissioners. It is also an exclave of Richmond. [32]

Richmond's closest airport with commercial service is Dayton International Airport, just under an hour's drive to the east. To the west is Indianapolis International Airport, which is slightly farther away.

Road

Richmond is served by Interstate 70 at exits 149, 151, 153, and 156. Public transit service is provided by city-owned Roseview Transit, operating daily except Sundays and major holidays. [33]

Rail

Into the late 1960s Richmond's Pennsylvania Railroad station was a hub for Pennsylvania Railroad, and later, Penn Central, trains bound for Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, Indianapolis, Cincinnati and New York City. The last train at the station was Amtrak's National Limited (Kansas City - New York City). [34]

Media

The daily newspaper is the Gannett-owned Palladium-Item .

Full-power radio stations include WKBV, WFMG, WQLK, WKRT, and Earlham College's student-run public radio station WECI. Richmond is also served by WJYW which is repeated on 94.5 and 97.7. Area NPR radio stations include WBSH in Hagerstown, Indiana, and WMUB in Oxford, OH.

Richmond is considered to be within the Dayton, Ohio, television market and has one full-power television station, WKOI, which is an Ion owned and operated station. The city also has one county-wide public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable television station, Whitewater Community Television. [35]

Points of interest

Hicksite Friends Meeting House, 1150 North A Street, Richmond, Indiana. Now houses the Wayne County Historical Museum. Hicksite Friends Meeting House Richmond IN.jpg
Hicksite Friends Meeting House, 1150 North A Street, Richmond, Indiana. Now houses the Wayne County Historical Museum.

Notable people

.

Academia

Actors

Artists and designers

Business

Musicians

Politicians, activists, and civic leaders

Science

Sports

Writers and journalists

Sister cities

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wayne County, Indiana</span> County in Indiana, United States

Wayne County is a county located in east central Indiana, United States, on the border with Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 68,917. The county seat is Richmond.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Union County, Indiana</span> County in Indiana, United States

Union County is a county in the U.S. state of Indiana. As of the 2020 United States census, the population was 7,087. The county seat is Liberty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Randolph County, Indiana</span> County in Indiana, United States

Randolph County is a county located in the central section of U.S. state of Indiana, on its eastern border with Ohio. As of 2010, the population was 26,171. The county seat is Winchester.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fayette County, Indiana</span> County in Indiana, United States

Fayette County is one of 92 counties in U.S. state of Indiana located in the east central portion of the state. As of 2020, the population was 23,398. Most of the county is rural; land use is farms, pasture and unincorporated woodland. The county seat and only incorporated town is Connersville, which holds a majority of the county's population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hartford City, Indiana</span> City in Indiana, United States

Hartford City is a city in the U.S. state of Indiana, and the county seat of Blackford County. Located in the northeast central portion of the state, the small farming community underwent a dramatic 15-year economic boom beginning in the late 1880s. The Indiana Gas Boom resulted from the discovery and exploitation of natural gas in the area. The rural economy was transformed to one that included manufacturing. The boom attracted workers and residents, retail establishments, and craftspeople. The increased population was a catalyst for the construction of roads, schools, and churches. After the boom came a long period of growth and stability. Agriculture remained as the basis for the economy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Auburn, Indiana</span> City in Indiana, United States

Auburn is a city in DeKalb County, Indiana, United States. The population was 13,820 at the 2020 census. Founded in 1836 by Wesley Park (1811–1868), the city is the county seat of DeKalb County. Auburn is also known as Home of the Classics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Connersville, Indiana</span> City in Indiana, United States

Connersville is a city in Fayette County, east central Indiana, United States, 66 miles (106 km) east by southeast of Indianapolis. The population was 13,481 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of and the largest and only incorporated town in Fayette County. The city is in the center of a large rural area of east central Indiana; the nearest significant city is Richmond, 26 miles (42 km) to the northeast by road. Connersville is home to the county's one and only high school. The economy is supported by local manufacturing, retail and healthcare. Employment and population have been declining since the 1960s and it is among the poorest areas of the state in median household income and other economic measures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Huntington, Indiana</span> City in Indiana, United States

Huntington, known as the "Lime City", is the largest city in and the county seat of Huntington County, Indiana, United States. It is in Huntington and Union townships. It is also part of Fort Wayne, Indiana's metropolitan area. The population was 17,022 at the 2020 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shelbyville, Indiana</span> City in Indiana, United States

Shelbyville is a city in Addison Township, Shelby County, in the U.S. state of Indiana and is the county seat. The population was 20,067 as of the 2020 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cambridge City, Indiana</span> Town in Indiana, United States

Cambridge City is a town in Jackson Township, Wayne County, in the U.S. state of Indiana. The population was 1,870 at the 2010 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Centerville, Indiana</span> Town in Indiana, United States

Centerville is a town in Center Township, Wayne County, in the U.S. state of Indiana. The population was 2,552 at the 2010 United States Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earlham, Iowa</span> City in Iowa, United States

Earlham is a city in Madison County, Iowa, United States. The population was 1,410 at the time of the 2020 census. It is part of the Des Moines–West Des Moines Metropolitan Statistical Area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Richmond, Missouri</span> City in Missouri, United States

Richmond is a city in Ray County, Missouri, and part of the Kansas City metropolitan area within the United States. The population was 6,013 at the 2020 census. It is the county seat of Ray County.

John Elwood Bundy was an American Impressionist painter known as the "dean" of the Richmond Group of painters in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Central Indiana</span>

East Central Indiana is a region in Indiana east of Indianapolis, Indiana, and borders the Ohio state line. The Indiana Gas Boom, which took place during the 1890s, changed much of the area from small agricultural communities to larger cities with economies that included manufacturing. Companies such as Ball Corporation and Overhead Door once had their headquarters in the region. Glass manufacturing was the first industry to be widespread in the area, because of the natural gas. As the glass industry faded, many of the skilled workers became employed at auto parts factories in cities such as Muncie and Anderson. With the decline of the American automobile industry, East Central Indiana became part of the Rust Belt. Many communities have been forced to reinvent themselves with a focus on services or a return to agriculture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Starr Historic District</span> Historic district in Indiana, United States

The Starr Historic District is a neighborhood of historic buildings and national historic district located at Richmond, Wayne County, Indiana. The district encompasses 102 contributing buildings in a predominantly residential section of Richmond. It developed between about 1853 and 1915 and includes representative examples of Greek Revival, Italianate, Second Empire, and Queen Anne style architecture. Included in the district is a former Hicksite Quaker Meeting House, now the Wayne County Historical Museum and the Reid Memorial Presbyterian Church and Andrew F. Scott House. Other notable buildings include the Miller-Mendenhall House (1875), Dickinson Log House (1825), Starr-Cadwalader House (1861), and Clem Gaar House (1883).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Main Street–Glen Miller Park Historic District</span> Historic district in Indiana, United States

The East Main Street–Glen Miller Park Historic District is a neighborhood of historic residential buildings and national historic district located at Richmond, Wayne County, Indiana. The district encompasses 84 contributing buildings, 11 contributing structures, and 5 contributing objects along the National Road and sometimes called Millionaire's Row. A portion of the district is recognized by the City of Richmond's Historic Preservation Commission as the Linden Hill conservation district. It developed between about 1830 and 1937 and includes representative examples of Italianate, Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, Tudor Revival, Classical Revival, and Bungalow / American Craftsman style architecture. Located in the district is the separately listed Henry and Alice Gennett House. Other notable contributing resources include elaborate iron bridges and "Madonna of the Trail" statue located in Glen Miller Park, Isham Sedgwick House (1884-1885), John A. Hasecoster House (1895), William H. Campbell House (1905), Howard Campbell House (1909), E.G. Hill House, Crain Sanitarium, and Dr. T. Henry Davis House.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hagerstown, Indiana</span> Town in Indiana, United States

Hagerstown is a town in Jefferson Township, Wayne County, in the U.S. state of Indiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,787.

Mary B. Thistlethwaite Birdsall (1828–1894) was born in Pennsylvania to English immigrants. She grew up on a farm near Richmond, Indiana, where she married Thomas Birdsall in 1848. They had three sons together. She was a journalist, a suffragist, and a temperance worker. She began her journalism career as the woman's editor at the Indiana Farmer newspaper. For about five years she owned The Lily, a newspaper for women, which she purchased from suffragist Amelia Bloomer in 1854. She helped organize the second women's rights convention in Indiana. At that Indiana convention in 1852, she was elected as secretary for the newly-formed Indiana Woman's Rights Association (renamed the Indiana Woman's Suffrage Association in 1869, and eventually became president of the organization. Birdsall was a vice-president at the fourth National Women's Rights Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1853. She was among the first three women to address the Indiana legislature in 1859 to present a women's rights petition, speaking for a half-hour in support of women's suffrage. Birdsall died in Philadelphia in 1894 and interred at Earlham Cemetery in Richmond. Her Richmond home, a model of progressive architecture as espoused by Catherine Beecher, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marcus Mote</span> American painter

Marcus Mote was a Quaker artist who worked in Ohio and Indiana.

References

  1. "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 16, 2022.
  2. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  3. 1 2 "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  4. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  5. "Starr-Gennett Foundation Homepage". Starr-gennett.org. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  6. Domenica Bongiovanni (July 27, 2020). "How a quirky Indiana studio was the first to record many of America's famous musicians". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  7. "Historical Timeline". WayNet. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  8. "Bicentennial Timeline 1795 to 1849". Morrison Reeves Library. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  9. Millicent Martin Emery (September 12, 2015). "RCS teacher hopes for a musical resurrection". pal-item.com. Palladium-Item. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
  10. Rebecca Gross (September 8, 2015). "In Step with Interlochen Center for the Arts". arts.gov. National Endowment for the Arts. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
  11. Giants in Their Time: Representative Americans from the Jazz Age to the Cold War, p. 13. Norman K. Risjord, ISBN   0742527859. 2005
  12. "Starr-Gennett Foundation Walk of Fame" . Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  13. Charlie Dahan (April 8, 2014). "April 8th in Gennett History, 1924: Vaughan Quartet Recorded "Wake Up America Kluck Kluck Kluck"". gennett.wordpress.com. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
  14. Charlie Dahan (August 2, 2015). "August 2nd in Gennett History, 1924: W. R. Rhinehart Recorded "Klucker And The Rain" and "Long Klucker"". Gennett Records Discography. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
  15. "Home". Richmond Art Museum. June 20, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  16. "Self-portrait: The Artist in his Studio, 1916 by William Merritt Chase". Archived from the original on September 5, 2005. Retrieved May 30, 2006.
  17. "Road through the Wilderness: The Making of the National Road". Archived from the original on June 13, 2006. Retrieved May 30, 2006.
  18. "Madonna of the Trail – Richmond, Indiana". Waynet.org. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  19. "Wayne County Historical Museum - Family fun for all ages!". Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
  20. "Joseph Moore Museum – Earlham College". Waynet.org. October 16, 2001. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  21. "Davis D-1-W". Airventuremuseum.org. November 22, 1933. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
  22. "Davis Monoplane". Davis Monoplane. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
  23. "The Wayne Works Story Part II". CoachBuilt. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  24. "Shut Up About the Rose Festival". IshMom.com. August 30, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  25. Archived January 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  26. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  27. "G001 – Geographic Identifiers – 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  28. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  29. "北米の補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在):文部科学省". March 30, 2014. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  30. "ページの本文に移動する". Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  31. "Indiana public library directory" (PDF). Indiana State Library. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  32. FAA Airport Form 5010 for RID PDF . Federal Aviation Administration. Effective May 31, 2012.
  33. "Roseview Transit". City of Richmond. October 21, 2007. Archived from the original on April 21, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
  34. "Pennsylvania Railroad, Tables 4, 5, 47, 49, 52". Official Guide of the Railways. National Railway Publication Company. 100 (5). October 1967.
  35. "WCTV | Whitewater Community Television". Wctv.info. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  36. "Tiffany Windows – Reid Memorial Presbyterian Church – Wayne County, Indiana". Waynet.org. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
  37. "Wendell M. Stanley – Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  38. "Jeff Hamilton - Drums - Jazz at Newport". Archived from the original on September 7, 2006. Retrieved September 9, 2006.
  39. 'Illinois Blue Book 1995-1996,' Biographical Sketch of Bill W. Balthis, pg. 105
  40. "Obituary, Vineyardist Dies At 92" . Los Angeles Times. June 5, 1960. p. 62. Retrieved January 6, 2021 via Newspapers.com.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  41. "Oliver P. Morton Biography Page". Civilwarhome.com. March 24, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  42. "D. Elton Trueblood, 1900 to 1994". Waynet.org. December 20, 1994. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  43. "Dr. Charles A. Hufnagel". Astro4.ast.vill.edu. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  44. "Weeb Ewbank | Pro Football Hall of Fame Official Site". Profootballhof.com. Retrieved January 7, 2017.