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In the mathematical field of differential geometry, the **Riemann curvature tensor** or **Riemann–Christoffel tensor** (after Bernhard Riemann and Elwin Bruno Christoffel) is the most common way used to express the curvature of Riemannian manifolds. It assigns a tensor to each point of a Riemannian manifold (i.e., it is a tensor field). It is a local invariant of Riemannian metrics which measure the failure of second covariant derivatives to commute. A Riemannian manifold has zero curvature if and only if it is *flat*, i.e. locally isometric to the Euclidean space.^{ [1] } The curvature tensor can also be defined for any pseudo-Riemannian manifold, or indeed any manifold equipped with an affine connection.

- Definition
- Geometric meaning
- Informally
- Formally
- Coordinate expression
- Symmetries and identities
- Ricci curvature
- Special cases
- Surfaces
- Space forms
- See also
- Citations
- References

It is a central mathematical tool in the theory of general relativity, the modern theory of gravity, and the curvature of spacetime is in principle observable via the geodesic deviation equation. The curvature tensor represents the tidal force experienced by a rigid body moving along a geodesic in a sense made precise by the Jacobi equation.

Let (*M*, g) be a Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian manifold, and be the space of all vector fields on M. We define a map by the following formula^{ [2] } which is in terms of the Levi-Civita connection :

or equivalently

where [*X*, *Y*] is the Lie bracket of vector fields and is a commutator of differential operators. For each pair of tangent vectors *u*, *v*, *R*(*u*, *v*) is a linear transformation of the tangent space of the manifold. It is linear in *u* and *v*, and so defines a tensor. Occasionally, the curvature tensor is defined with the opposite sign.

If and are coordinate vector fields then and therefore the formula simplifies to

The curvature tensor measures *noncommutativity of the covariant derivative*, and as such is the integrability obstruction for the existence of an isometry with Euclidean space (called, in this context, *flat* space). The linear transformation is also called the **curvature transformation** or **endomorphism**.

The curvature formula can also be expressed in terms of the second covariant derivative defined as:^{ [3] }

which is linear in *u* and *v*. Then:

Thus in the general case of non-coordinate vectors *u* and *v*, the curvature tensor measures the noncommutativity of the second covariant derivative.

One can see the effects of curved space by comparing a tennis court and the Earth. Start at the lower right corner of the tennis court, with a racket held out towards north. Then while walking around the outline of the court, at each step make sure the tennis racket is maintained in the same orientation, parallel to its previous positions. Once the loop is complete the tennis racket will be parallel to its initial starting position. This is because tennis courts are built so the surface is flat. On the other hand, the surface of the Earth is curved: we can complete a loop on the surface of the Earth. Starting at the equator, point a tennis racket north along the surface of the Earth. Once again the tennis racket should always remain parallel to its previous position, using the local plane of the horizon as a reference. For this path, first walk to the north pole, then turn 90 degrees and walk down to the equator, and finally turn 90 degrees and walk back to the start. However now the tennis racket will be pointing backwards (towards the east). This process is akin to parallel transporting a vector along the path and the difference identifies how lines which appear "straight" are only "straight" locally. Each time a loop is completed the tennis racket will be deflected further from its initial position by an amount depending on the distance and the curvature of the surface. It is possible to identify paths along a curved surface where parallel transport works as it does on flat space. These are the geodesic of the space, for example any segment of a great circle of a sphere.

The concept of a curved space in mathematics differs from conversational usage. For example, if the above process was completed on a cylinder one would find that it is not curved overall as the curvature around the cylinder cancels with the flatness along the cylinder, this is a consequence of Gaussian curvature and the Gauss–Bonnet theorem. A familiar example of this is a floppy pizza slice which will remain rigid along its length if it is curved along its width.

The Riemann curvature tensor is a way to capture a measure of the intrinsic curvature. When you write it down in terms of its components (like writing down the components of a vector), it consists of a multi-dimensional array of sums and products of partial derivatives (some of those partial derivatives can be thought of as akin to capturing the curvature imposed upon someone walking in straight lines on a curved surface).

When a vector in a Euclidean space is parallel transported around a loop, it will again point in the initial direction after returning to its original position. However, this property does not hold in the general case. The Riemann curvature tensor directly measures the failure of this in a general Riemannian manifold. This failure is known as the non-holonomy of the manifold.

Let *x*_{t} be a curve in a Riemannian manifold *M*. Denote by τ_{xt} : T_{x0}*M* → T_{xt}*M* the parallel transport map along *x*_{t}. The parallel transport maps are related to the covariant derivative by

for each vector field *Y* defined along the curve.

Suppose that *X* and *Y* are a pair of commuting vector fields. Each of these fields generates a one-parameter group of diffeomorphisms in a neighborhood of *x*_{0}. Denote by τ_{tX} and τ_{tY}, respectively, the parallel transports along the flows of *X* and *Y* for time *t*. Parallel transport of a vector *Z* ∈ T_{x0}*M* around the quadrilateral with sides *tY*, *sX*, −*tY*, −*sX* is given by

This measures the failure of parallel transport to return *Z* to its original position in the tangent space T_{x0}*M*. Shrinking the loop by sending *s*, *t* → 0 gives the infinitesimal description of this deviation:

where *R* is the Riemann curvature tensor.

Converting to the tensor index notation, the Riemann curvature tensor is given by

where are the coordinate vector fields. The above expression can be written using Christoffel symbols:

(see also the list of formulas in Riemannian geometry).

The Riemann curvature tensor is also the commutator of the covariant derivative of an arbitrary covector with itself:^{ [4] }^{ [5] }

since the connection is torsionless, which means that the torsion tensor vanishes.

This formula is often called the *Ricci identity*.^{ [6] } This is the classical method used by Ricci and Levi-Civita to obtain an expression for the Riemann curvature tensor.^{ [7] } In this way, the tensor character of the set of quantities is proved.

This identity can be generalized to get the commutators for two covariant derivatives of arbitrary tensors as follows ^{ [8] }

This formula also applies to tensor densities without alteration, because for the Levi-Civita (*not generic*) connection one gets:^{ [6] }

where

It is sometimes convenient to also define the purely covariant version by

The Riemann curvature tensor has the following symmetries and identities:

Skew symmetry | ||
---|---|---|

Skew symmetry | ||

First (algebraic) Bianchi identity | ||

Interchange symmetry | ||

Second (differential) Bianchi identity |

where the bracket refers to the inner product on the tangent space induced by the metric tensor.

The first (algebraic) Bianchi identity was discovered by Ricci, but is often called the **first Bianchi identity** or **algebraic Bianchi identity**, because it looks similar to the Bianchi identity below. (Also, if there is nonzero torsion, the first Bianchi identity becomes a differential identity of the torsion tensor.) . It is often written:

where the brackets denote the antisymmetric part on the indicated indices. This is equivalent to the previous version of the identity because the Riemann tensor is already skew on its last two indices.

The first three identities form a complete list of symmetries of the curvature tensor, i.e. given any tensor which satisfies the identities above, one can find a Riemannian manifold with such a curvature tensor at some point. Simple calculations show that such a tensor has independent components.^{ [9] } Interchange symmetry follows from these. The algebraic symmetries are also equivalent to saying that *R* belongs to the image of the Young symmetrizer corresponding to the partition 2+2.

On a Riemannian manifold one has the covariant derivative and the Bianchi identity (often called the second Bianchi identity or differential Bianchi identity) takes the form of the last identity in the table.

The Ricci curvature tensor is the contraction of the first and third indices of the Riemann tensor.

For a two-dimensional surface, the Bianchi identities imply that the Riemann tensor has only one independent component, which means that the Ricci scalar completely determines the Riemann tensor. There is only one valid expression for the Riemann tensor which fits the required symmetries:

and by contracting with the metric twice we find the explicit form:

where is the metric tensor and is a function called the Gaussian curvature and *a*, *b*, *c* and *d* take values either 1 or 2. The Riemann tensor has only one functionally independent component. The Gaussian curvature coincides with the sectional curvature of the surface. It is also exactly half the scalar curvature of the 2-manifold, while the Ricci curvature tensor of the surface is simply given by

A Riemannian manifold is a space form if its sectional curvature is equal to a constant *K*. The Riemann tensor of a space form is given by

Conversely, except in dimension 2, if the curvature of a Riemannian manifold has this form for some function *K*, then the Bianchi identities imply that *K* is constant and thus that the manifold is (locally) a space form.

- ↑ Lee 2018, p. 193.
- ↑ Lee 2018, p. 196.
- ↑ Lawson, H. Blaine, Jr.; Michelsohn, Marie-Louise (1989).
*Spin Geometry*. Princeton U Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-691-08542-5. - ↑ Synge J.L., Schild A. (1949).
*Tensor Calculus*. first Dover Publications 1978 edition. pp. 83, 107. ISBN 978-0-486-63612-2. - ↑ P. A. M. Dirac (1996).
*General Theory of Relativity*. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01146-2. - 1 2 Lovelock, David; Rund, Hanno (1989) [1975].
*Tensors, Differential Forms, and Variational Principles*. Dover. p. 84,109. ISBN 978-0-486-65840-7. - ↑ Ricci, Gregorio; Levi-Civita, Tullio (March 1900), "Méthodes de calcul différentiel absolu et leurs applications",
*Mathematische Annalen*,**54**(1–2): 125–201, doi:10.1007/BF01454201 - ↑ Sandberg, Vernon D (1978). "Tensor spherical harmonics on S 2 and S 3 as eigenvalue problems" (PDF).
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*Introduction to the Theory of Relativity*. Dover. pp. 172–174. ISBN 978-0-486-63282-7.

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In theoretical physics, **Lovelock's theory of gravity** is a generalization of Einstein's theory of general relativity introduced by David Lovelock in 1971. It is the most general metric theory of gravity yielding conserved second order equations of motion in an arbitrary number of spacetime dimensions *D*. In this sense, Lovelock's theory is the natural generalization of Einstein's General Relativity to higher dimensions. In three and four dimensions, Lovelock's theory coincides with Einstein's theory, but in higher dimensions the theories are different. In fact, for *D* > 4 Einstein gravity can be thought of as a particular case of Lovelock gravity since the Einstein–Hilbert action is one of several terms that constitute the Lovelock action.

In mathematics, **Ricci calculus** constitutes the rules of index notation and manipulation for tensors and tensor fields on a differentiable manifold, with or without a metric tensor or connection. It is also the modern name for what used to be called the **absolute differential calculus**, developed by Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro in 1887–1896, and subsequently popularized in a paper written with his pupil Tullio Levi-Civita in 1900. Jan Arnoldus Schouten developed the modern notation and formalism for this mathematical framework, and made contributions to the theory, during its applications to general relativity and differential geometry in the early twentieth century.

**Lagrangian field theory** is a formalism in classical field theory. It is the field-theoretic analogue of Lagrangian mechanics. Lagrangian mechanics is used to analyze the motion of a system of discrete particles each with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Lagrangian field theory applies to continua and fields, which have an infinite number of degrees of freedom.

- Lee, John M. (2018).
*Introduction to Riemannian Manifolds*. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-319-91754-2. - Besse, A.L. (1987),
*Einstein Manifolds*, Springer, ISBN 0-387-15279-2 - Kobayashi, S.; Nomizu, K. (1963),
*Foundations of Differential Geometry*,**1**, Interscience - Misner, Charles W.; Thorne, Kip S.; Wheeler, John A. (1973),
*Gravitation*, W. H. Freeman, ISBN 978-0-7167-0344-0

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