Rikichi Andō

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Rikichi Andō

Ando Rikichi.jpg

Japanese General Andō Rikichi in 1940
Born April 3, 1884
Miyagi Prefecture, Japan
Died April 19, 1946(1946-04-19) (aged 62)
Shanghai, Republic of China
Allegiance Empire of Japan
Service/branch War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg Imperial Japanese Army
Years of service 1914–1945
Rank General
Commands held Twenty-First Army
Southern China Area Army
Taiwan Army of Japan
Tenth Area Army
Battles/wars Second Sino-Japanese War
Other work Governor-General of Taiwan

Rikichi Andō(安藤 利吉,Andō Rikichi, 3 April 1884 19 April 1946) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and 19th and final Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan from 30 December 1944 to October 1945.

Imperial Japanese Army Official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan, from 1868 to 1945

The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.

Governor-General of Taiwan representative of the Emperor of Japan in the colony of Taiwan

The Governor–General of Taiwan was the head of the Government-General of Taiwan in the Japanese era when they were part of the Empire of Japan, from 1895 to 1945.

Contents

Biography

Early career

Andō was a native of Miyagi Prefecture. He served as an instructor at the Army War College from 1924-1925. From 1925-1927, he was sent to British India as a military attaché, and on his return to Japan, served in a number of staff assignments under the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff. He returned to the field in 1928 as commander of the 13th Infantry Regiment, and was promoted to Chief of Staff of the IJA 5th Division in 1930.

Miyagi Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Miyagi Prefecture is a prefecture in the Tōhoku region of Japan. The capital is Sendai.

Army War College (Japan) staff college of the Imperial Japanese Army

The Army War College; Short form: Rikudai (陸大) of the Empire of Japan was founded in 1882 in Minato, Tokyo to modernize and Westernize the Imperial Japanese Army. Much of the empire's elite including prime ministers during the period of Japanese militarism were graduates of the college.

Military attaché military expert who is attached to a diplomatic mission

A military attaché is a military expert who is attached to a diplomatic mission. This post is normally filled by a high-ranking military officer who retains the commission while serving in an embassy. Opportunities sometimes arise for service in the field with military forces of another state.

From 1931-1932, Andō returned to the General Staff, where he was Chief of Military Administration Section, Military Affairs Bureau. He was appointed military attaché to the United Kingdom from 1932-1934. After his return to Japan, he became Commandant of the Toyoma Army Infantry School, and subsequently commander of the 5th Independent Garrison Unit. From 1937-1938, he was Deputy Inspector-General of Military Training.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

The Inspectorate General of Military Training was responsible for all non-military aviation training of the Imperial Japanese Army. It was headed by an Inspector general who was responsible for overseeing technical and tactical training, and who reported directly to the Emperor of Japan via the Imperial General Headquarters rather than to the Army Minister or the Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office. The position of Inspector-General of Military Training was thus the third most powerful position within the Japanese Army.

The man who started the Pacific War

With the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Andō was given a field assignment as commander of his old unit, the IJA 5th Division in 1938. Later that year, he was promoted to commander in chief of the IJA 21st Army in China, which became part of the Japanese Southern China Area Army in 1939. The Japanese Southern China Area Army was largely a garrison force controlling Japanese-occupied Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces.

Second Sino-Japanese War military conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle.

The Japanese 21st Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

China State in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

In the midst of diplomatic negotiations between Japan and its ally, Vichy France over access to air strips and seaports in French Indochina, Andō took independent initiative and ordered his forces across the border, without prior authorization from the government in Tokyo. Japanese military and political leaders were outraged; however, as the invasion had already occurred, military and political considerations meant that the Japanese government had no choice but to follow through. The unauthorized invasion of French Indochina created a diplomatic confrontation with the West, which led to an oil embargo (and eventually the attack on Pearl Harbor). [1] Andō was recalled to Tokyo on 9 February 1941 and forced into retirement as punishment.

Vichy France officially the French State, was France during the regime of Marshal Philippe Pétain, during World War II

Vichy France is the common name of the French State headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. Evacuated from Paris to Vichy in the unoccupied "Free Zone" in the southern part of metropolitan France which included French Algeria, it remained responsible for the civil administration of France as well as the French colonial empire.

French Indochina Federal state in Southeast Asia

French Indochina, officially known as the Indochinese Union after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.

Attack on Pearl Harbor Surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy on the U.S. Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor in Hawaii

The Attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941. The attack, also known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, led to the United States' formal entry into World War II. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, and as Operation Z during its planning.

Taiwan

Chen Yi (right) accepting the receipt of Order No. 1 signed by Rikichi Ando (left), the last Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan, in Taipei City Hall. Ando Rikichi surrender.jpg
Chen Yi (right) accepting the receipt of Order No. 1 signed by Rikichi Andō (left), the last Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan, in Taipei City Hall.

In the fall of 1941, Andō was recalled to service, promoted to full general, and given command of the Japanese Tenth Area Army in Taiwan. The 10th Area Army was essentially the "Taiwan Army", as it had no additional combat forces assigned to it, and served as a garrison force for the island. Ando became the final Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan on 30 December 1944. [3] After the end of the war, the 10th Area Army was disbanded in September 1945. [4]

The Japanese Tenth Area Army was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

Taiwan state in East Asia

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Nearby states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations.

Arrested by Chinese authorities and charged with war crimes from his tenure in China, Andō committed suicide by taking poison while in prison in Shanghai before he could go to trial.

See also

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References

Books

Notes

  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2010-06-14. Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
  2. 中山堂受降檔案分析 Archived 2014-12-07 at the Wayback Machine .
  3. Wendel, Axis History Factbook
  4. Wendel, Axis History.com