River Ouse, Yorkshire

Last updated

River Ouse
Ouse York.jpg
The River Ouse in York
River Ouse map.png
River Ouse catchment
Location
Country England
County Yorkshire
Physical characteristics
Source River Ure
  locationCuddy Shaw Reach, near Linton-on-Ouse
  coordinates 54°2′4″N1°16′30″W / 54.03444°N 1.27500°W / 54.03444; -1.27500
  elevation33 ft (10 m)
Mouth Humber Estuary
  location
Trent Falls
  coordinates
53°42′8″N0°41′46″W / 53.70222°N 0.69611°W / 53.70222; -0.69611 Coordinates: 53°42′8″N0°41′46″W / 53.70222°N 0.69611°W / 53.70222; -0.69611
  elevation
0 ft (0 m)
Length52 mi (84 km)
Basin size4,133 sq mi (10,704 km2)
Discharge 
  location Skelton [1]
  average1,830 cu ft/s (51.7 m3/s)
River Ouse, Yorkshire
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River Ure
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Cuddy Shaw Reach
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Linton Lock
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Beningbrough Hall
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River Nidd
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Skelton Bridge
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A1237
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Clifton Bridge
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Scarborough Bridge
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Lendal Bridge
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Ouse Bridge
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Skeldergate Bridge
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River Foss
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Millennium Bridge
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A64
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Naburn Swing Bridge
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Naburn Marina
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Naburn Lock
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River Wharfe
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Cawood Bridge
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A19
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Selby Swing Bridge
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Selby Canal
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A63
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River Derwent
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River Aire
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A614
Boothferry Bridge
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UK-Motorway-icon.svg M62 Ouse Bridge
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Howden Dyke Island
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Goole railway bridge
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Goole Docks
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Dutch River
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River Trent
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Trent Falls
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Humber Estuary

The River Ouse ( /ˈz/ OOZ) is a river in North Yorkshire, England. Hydrologically, the river is a continuation of the River Ure, and the combined length of the River Ure and River Ouse makes it, at 129 miles (208 km), the sixth longest river of the United Kingdom and (including the Ure) the longest to flow entirely in one county. The length of the Ouse alone is about 52 miles (84 km).

Contents

The river is formed at the confluence of the River Ure and the much smaller Ouse Gill Beck at Cuddy Shaw Reach near Linton-on-Ouse, about six miles downstream of the confluence of the River Swale with the River Ure. It then flows through the city of York and the towns of Selby and Goole before joining with the River Trent at Trent Falls, near the village of Faxfleet, to form the Humber Estuary.

The Ouse's system of tributaries (which includes the Derwent, Aire, Don, Wharfe, Rother, Nidd, Swale, Ure, and Foss) drains a large upland area of northern England, including much of the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors.

The Ouse valley is a wide, flat plain; heavy rainfall in the river's catchment area can bring severe flooding to nearby settlements. In recent years, York, Selby, and villages in between have been very badly hit.

Sources

The traditional source of the Ouse is in the village of Great Ouseburn, and is marked by a stone column reading "OUSE RIVER HEAD... OUSEGILL SPRING Ft. YORK 13 miles BOROUGHBRIDGE 4 miles". [2] The site is 38 yards (35 m) from the present course of Ouse Gill Beck, a small stream earlier known as Usekeld Beck, meaning "Spring or source of the Ouse" (from Old Norse kelda "spring"). [3]

The start of the Ouse is now considered to be the point where Ouse Gill Beck joins the River Ure, 1.6 miles (2.5 km) south east of Great Ouseburn.

Etymology

The origin of the name is uncertain. The name was first recorded in about 780 as Usa. It has been speculated that the name is of Brythonic-Celtic origin, from an assumed word udso-, assumed to be derived from the Indo-European root wed-, meaning "water". [4] Other sources prefer a Proto-Celtic. [5]

It has been suggested that the Ouse was once known as the 'Ure', but there seems to be no supporting evidence for this claim. The suggestion that the name derives from the Celtic name of the Ure, assumed to be Isurā from the Roman name for Aldborough, and over time evolved into Isis and finally the Saxon Ouse, would go some way to explaining how the little tributary Ouse Gill Beck usurps the name of the much larger River Ure. [6] However the form Ouse is little changed from the eighth century.

The York district was settled by Norwegian and Danish people, so parts of the place names could be old Norse. Referring to the etymological dictionary "Etymologisk ordbog", ISBN   82-905-2016-6 dealing with the common Danish and Norwegian languages - roots of words and the original meaning: Os - the mouth of a river. The old Norse wording oss, gradation form ouso.

The Ouse is navigable throughout its length. Seagoing vessels use the river as far as Goole, where there is an inland port and access to the Aire and Calder Navigation. At Selby there is access to the Selby Canal. The river is tidal up to Naburn; the resultant tidal bore is known locally as "the Aegir". [7]

At Naburn there is a weir with locks, so that boats of 150 feet (45.7 m) length and 15 feet (4.6 m) beam can reach York. [8] [9] Above York there is another weir with locks at Linton-on-Ouse, which allows boats of 66 feet (20 m) length to proceed to the River Ure Navigation. [10] Adjacent to the lock is Linton Lock Hydro plant. This is capable of generating enough electricity to power 450 homes.

The navigation authority is Associated British Ports from Trent Falls to Goole railway swing bridge at Skelton, and the Canal & River Trust upstream from there. [10]

In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was considerable commercial traffic on the river, mainly from Selby, which then had a custom house, downstream. After the 1826 opening of the Aire and Calder Navigation, most traffic became concentrated on the port of Goole. This continues, although the coal trade which formed the backbone of the river trade has ceased.

Settlements

The A64 crossing the River Ouse, Bishopthorpe, York The A64 crossing the river Ouse - geograph.org.uk - 1220879.jpg
The A64 crossing the River Ouse, Bishopthorpe, York
The River Ouse in the city of York, viewed from Skeldergate Bridge with Ouse Bridge in the background River Ouse in York.JPG
The River Ouse in the city of York, viewed from Skeldergate Bridge with Ouse Bridge in the background

(From the confluence of Swale and Ure)

(Joins Trent at Trent Falls to form Humber) [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

River Aire river in the United Kingdom

The River Aire is a major river in Yorkshire, England, 148 kilometres (92 mi) in length. The Handbook for Leeds and Airedale (1890) notes that the distance from Malham to Howden is 58 miles (93 km) direct, but the river's meanderings extend that to 90 miles (140 km). Between Malham Tarn and Airmyn, the river drops 400 metres (1,300 ft). Part of the river below Leeds is canalised, and is known as the Aire and Calder Navigation.

Aire and Calder Navigation canal in Leeds, United Kingdom

The Aire and Calder Navigation is the canalised section of the Rivers Aire and Calder in West Yorkshire, England. The first improvements to the rivers above Knottingley were completed in 1704 when the Aire was made navigable to Leeds and the Calder to Wakefield, by the construction of 16 locks. Lock sizes were increased several times, as was the depth of water, to enable larger boats to use the system. The Aire below Haddlesey was bypassed by the opening of the Selby Canal in 1778. A canal from Knottingley to the new docks and new town at Goole provided a much shorter route to the River Ouse from 1826. The New Junction Canal was constructed in 1905, to link the system to the River Don Navigation, by then part of the Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation.

Goole Town and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England

Goole is a town, civil parish and inland port located at junction 36 off the M62 via the A614 and approximately 45 miles (72 km) from the North Sea at the confluence of the rivers Don and Ouse in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, although historically within the West Riding of Yorkshire. Goole lies 19 miles (31 km) south of York and 29 miles (47 km) west of Hull.

River Ure river in North Yorkshire, England

The River Ure in North Yorkshire, England is approximately 74 miles (119 km) long from its source to the point where it changes name to the River Ouse. It is the principal river of Wensleydale, which is the only major Dales now named after a village rather than its river. The old name for the valley was Yoredale after the river that runs through it.

Acaster Selby village in United Kingdom

Acaster Selby is a village in the Selby district of North Yorkshire, England. It is part of the joint civil parish with Appleton Roebuck. It is situated about 6 miles (9.7 km) south from York, on the west back of the River Ouse; near the opposite bank is the settlement of Stillingfleet, and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) to the north-west is Appleton Roebuck.

Adlingfleet Village in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England

Adlingfleet is a village in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, that forms part of the civil parish of Twin Rivers. It is situated approximately 7 miles (11 km) to the east of Goole town centre.

Appleton Roebuck village in United Kingdom

Appleton Roebuck is a village and civil parish in the Selby district of North Yorkshire, England. It had a population of 692 according to the 2001 census, increasing to 792 in the 2011 census and including Acaster Selby. The village is about 9 miles (14 km) south-west of York. It covers an area of around 2,900 acres (1,200 ha).

Blacktoft Village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England

Blacktoft is a village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The village is situated on the north bank of the River Ouse, 1 mile (1.6 km) west from where it joins the River Trent and becomes the Humber. It is approximately 6 miles (10 km) east from Howden and 23 miles (37 km) south-east from the county town of York. Blacktoft lies within the Parliamentary constituency of Haltemprice and Howden an area that mainly consists of middle class suburbs, towns and villages. The area is affluent, placed as the 10th most affluent in the country in a 2003 Barclays Private Clients survey, and has one of the highest proportions of owner-occupiers in the country.

Naburn Village and civil parish in North Yorkshire, England

Naburn is a small village and civil parish in the unitary authority of the City of York in North Yorkshire, England. It lies on the eastern side of the River Ouse about 4 miles (6.4 km) south of York. According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 470, increasing to 516 at the 2011 census. It was historically part of the East Riding of Yorkshire until 1974. Between 1974 and 1996 it had been part of the Selby district.

River Kyle river in the United Kingdom

The River Kyle is a small river in North Yorkshire, England. At just under 6 miles (9.7 km) long, it is one of the shortest classified main rivers in the country.

Trent Falls watercourse in United Kingdom

Trent Falls is the confluence of the River Ouse and the River Trent which forms the Humber between Lincolnshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire in England.

Faxfleet Hamlet in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England

Faxfleet is a hamlet in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated approximately 6 miles (10 km) west of Brough, and at the start of the Humber, on the north bank, where the River Ouse and the River Trent meet.

Yokefleet village in United Kingdom

Yokefleet is a hamlet in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It forms part of the civil parish of Blacktoft and a very small part of the civil parish of Laxton. It is situated on the north bank of the River Ouse, downstream from York, Selby and Goole.

Little Ouseburn village in United Kingdom

Little Ouseburn is a small village and civil parish in the Harrogate district of North Yorkshire, England. It is situated near the A1(M) motorway and 6 miles (9.7 km) south-east of Boroughbridge. It consists of two roads, Main Street which is the residential area, and Church Lane which contains a Holy Trinity Church that is a grade I listed building. It also has a small brick bridge over a stream which leads to Great Ouseburn. According to the 2011 census data the total population of Little Ouseburn is 264.

Stillingfleet Village and civil parish in North Yorkshire, England

Stillingfleet is a village and civil parish in the Selby district of North Yorkshire, England. It was historically part of the East Riding of Yorkshire until 1974. It is about 6 miles (10 km) south of York and nearby settlements include Acaster Selby, Naburn and Appleton Roebuck.

Selby Canal

The Selby Canal is a 6-mile (9.7 km) canal with 2 locks which bypasses the lower reaches of the River Aire in Yorkshire, England, from the village of West Haddlesey to the town of Selby where it joins the River Ouse. It opened in 1778, and provided the main outlet for the Aire and Calder Navigation until 1826, when it was bypassed by a new cut from Ferrybridge to Goole. Selby steadily declined after that, although traffic to York still used the canal.

Ripon Canal

The Ripon Canal is located in North Yorkshire, England. It was built by the canal engineer William Jessop to link the city of Ripon with the navigable section of the River Ure at Oxclose Lock, from where boats could reach York and Hull. It opened in 1773, and was a moderate success. It was sold to the Leeds and Thirsk Railway in 1847, and was effectively closed by 1906, due to neglect. It was not nationalised with most canals and railways in 1948, and was abandoned in 1956.

Topographical areas of Yorkshire

In Yorkshire there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the geological period in which they were formed. The Pennine chain of Hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age while the Yorkshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands. The plain of Holderness and the Humberhead levels both owe their present form to the Quaternary ice ages.

The Hull and Doncaster Branch is a secondary main railway line in England, connecting Kingston upon Hull to South Yorkshire and beyond via a branch from the Selby Line near Gilberdyke to a connection to the Barnsley to Barnetby Line at a junction near Thorne 8 miles northeast of Doncaster.

References

  1. Ouse at Skelton gauging station. This station only covers 1,280 sq mi (3,315 km2) or 31% of the catchment area.
  2. "Great Ouseburn Parish Website" . Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  3. Smith, A.H. (1961). The Place-names of the West Riding of Yorkshire. 5. Cambridge University Press. p. 5.
  4. Smith, A.H. (1962). The Place-names of the West Riding of Yorkshire. 7. Cambridge University Press. pp. 133–134.
  5. Watts, Victor, ed. (2010). "Ouse". The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names. Cambridge University Press. p. 456. ISBN   978 0 521 16855 7.
  6. Ekwall, E. English River Names (Oxford University Press: 1928). Waite, Alice. Exploring the Yorkshire Ouse (Countryside Productions: 1988)
  7. Lewis, David (2017). River Ouse Bargeman (1 ed.). Barnsley: Pen & Sword. pp. 15–16. ISBN   978-1-47388-069-6.
  8. Szyca, G. (2011). Comprehensive Methods of the Minimum Safe Under Keel Clearance Valuation to the Restricted Tidal Waters. In: Weintrit, A. and Neumann, T. (Eds.) Methods and Algorithms in Navigation: Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation. London: Taylor and Francis Group, pp. 51–56.
  9. Broadhead, I.E. (1982). Portrait of the Yorkshire Ouse. London: Hale, p. 126.
  10. 1 2 3 "Yorkshire Ouse". Waterways Association. Retrieved 5 November 2015.