River Severn

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River Severn
SevernFromCastleCB.JPG
The river seen from Shrewsbury Castle
RiverSevernMap.jpg
Tributaries (light blue) and major settlements on and near the Severn (bold blue)
Location
Country England and Wales
Region Mid Wales, West Midlands, South West
Counties Powys, Shropshire, Worcestershire, Gloucestershire
Cities Shrewsbury, Worcester, Gloucester, Bristol
Physical characteristics
Source 
  location Plynlimon, Powys, Wales
  coordinates 52°29′36″N3°44′05″W / 52.493464°N 3.734597°W / 52.493464; -3.734597
  elevation610 m (2,000 ft)
Mouth Severn Estuary
  location
Bristol Channel, United Kingdom
  elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length354 km (220 mi)
Basin size11,420 km2 (4,410 sq mi)
Discharge 
  location Bewdley, Worcs. SO 7815 7622 [1]
  average61.17 m3/s (2,160 cu ft/s) [1]
  maximum533.48 m3/s (18,840 cu ft/s)max recorded on 1947-03-21 [2]
Discharge 
  location Apperley, Glos.
  average107 m3/s (3,800 cu ft/s)
Discharge 
  location Montford, Shrops. [3]
  average43.46 m3/s (1,535 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Tributaries 
  left Vyrnwy, Tern, Stour, Warwickshire Avon, Bristol Avon
  right Teme, Leadon, Wye

The River Severn (Welsh : Afon Hafren ), at 220 miles (354 km) long, is the longest river in Great Britain. [4] [5] It is also the river with the most voluminous flow of water by far in all of England and Wales, discharging an average of 107 m3/s (3,800 cu ft/s) into the Celtic Sea at Apperley, Gloucestershire.

Contents

The Severn rises in the Cambrian Mountains in mid Wales, specifically it rises, at an altitude of 2,001 feet (610 m), on the massif Plynlimon, which lies close to the Ceredigion/Powys border near Llanidloes. The river then flows through Shropshire, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire. Along its banks lie the county towns of Shrewsbury, Worcester and Gloucester.

The Severn's major tributaries are: the Vyrnwy, the Tern, the Teme, the Warwickshire Avon, and the Worcestershire Stour.

By convention, the River Severn is usually considered to end, and the Severn Estuary to begin, after the Second Severn Crossing, between Severn Beach in South Gloucestershire and Sudbrook, Monmouthshire.

The total area of the Estuary’s drainage basin is 4,409 square miles (11,419 km2). That figure excludes the area of the River Wye and the Bristol Avon, both of which flow into the Severn Estuary. The Estuary discharges into the Bristol Channel, which opens into the Celtic Sea and from there into the Atlantic Ocean.

Etymology and mythology

The name Severn is thought to derive from an earlier, Celtic name, *sabrinnā, [6] which may in turn derive from *samarina, meaning "land of summertime fallow”, but this derivation is uncertain, and no other possible meaning of *sabrinna has been suggested. [7] Sabrinna was then modified, becoming Sabrina to the ancient Romans, Hafren in Welsh, and Severn in English. “Sabrina” became the name of the goddess of the River Severn in Celtic mythology. Later, a folk story arose saying that a nymph named Sabrina had drowned in the river, and that it was named for her. [8] . The story of the nymph Sabrina is featured in Milton's 1634 masque Comus . [9] And in Shrewsbury, there is now a statue of Sabrina in the Dingle Gardens at the Quarry, as well as a metal sculpture erected in 2013. [10] There is a different deity associated with the Severn Estuary: Nodens, represented as mounted on a seahorse, riding on the crest of the Severn bore. [11]

Geography and geology

The River Severn's current form is the result of glaciation during the last ice age in the Pleistocene epoch of the Quaternary period. [12] An ice sheet that stretched from the Irish Sea to continental Europe blocked the northern tributaries of the Severn forming Lake Lapworth. When it overflowed southwards, the resulting flood cut Ironbridge Gorge, permanently diverting the northern part of the Severn drainage basin to the south through the Bristol Channel. [13]

Tributary rivers

The River Stour rises in the north of Worcestershire in the Clent Hills, near St Kenelm's Church at Romsley. It flows north into the adjacent West Midlands at Halesowen. It then flows westwards through Cradley Heath and Stourbridge where it leaves the Black Country. It is joined by the Smestow Brook at Prestwood before it winds around southwards to Kinver, and then flows back into Worcestershire. It then passes through Wolverley, Kidderminster and Wilden to its confluence with the Severn at Stourport-on-Severn.

The River Vyrnwy, which begins at Lake Vyrnwy, flows eastwards through Powys before forming part of the border between England and Wales, joining the Severn near Melverley, Shropshire. The Rea Brook flows north from its source in the Stiperstones and joins the Severn at Shrewsbury. The River Tern, after flowing south from Market Drayton and being joined by the River Meese and the River Roden, meets the Severn at Attingham Park.

The River Worfe joins the Severn, just above Bridgnorth. The River Stour rising on the Clent Hills and flowing through Halesowen, Stourbridge, and Kidderminster, joins the Severn at Stourport. On the opposite bank, the tributaries are only brooks, Borle Brook, Dowles Brook draining the Wyre Forest, Dick Brook and Shrawley Brook.

The River Teme flows eastwards from its source in Mid Wales, straddling the border between Shropshire and Herefordshire, it is joined by the River Onny, River Corve and River Rea before it finally joins the Severn slightly downstream of Worcester. Shit Brook near Much Wenlock was culverted to flow into the Severn.

One of the several rivers named Avon, in this case the Warwickshire Avon, flows west through Rugby, Warwick and Stratford-upon-Avon. It is then joined by its tributary the River Arrow, before finally joining the Severn at Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire.

The port of Bristol is on the Severn Estuary, where another River Avon flows into it through the Avon Gorge.

The River Wye, from its source in Plynlimon in Wales (2 miles (3 km) from the source of the Severn), flows generally south east through the Welsh towns of Rhayader and Builth Wells. It enters Herefordshire, flows through Hereford, and is shortly afterwards joined by the River Lugg, before flowing through Ross-on-Wye and Monmouth, and then southwards where it forms part of the boundary between England (Forest of Dean) and Wales. It flows into the Severn near the town of Chepstow, slightly upstream of the Bristol Avon on the opposite bank.

The River Usk flows into the Severn Estuary just south of Newport.

The Rad Brook is a small river in Shropshire, England. It flows through Shrewsbury and enters the River Severn there.

Settlements

Post marked as the source of the River Severn on Plynlimon, Wales. The wording is in both English and Welsh. Severnsource.jpg
Post marked as the source of the River Severn on Plynlimon, Wales. The wording is in both English and Welsh.
Rowing boat (8-man + cox) at Worcester
Worcester Cathedral overlooking the Severn Worcester cathedral night2.jpg
Worcester Cathedral overlooking the Severn
High Town, Bridgnorth. High Town, Bridgnorth.jpg
High Town, Bridgnorth.

Below is a list of major towns and cities that the Severn flows through (in order running downstream):

Through Powys:

Through Shropshire:

Through Worcestershire:

Through Gloucestershire:

Transport

Bridges

The Welsh Bridge (background) and Frankwell Footbridge (foreground) in Shrewsbury, Shropshire. ShrewsburyBridges.JPG
The Welsh Bridge (background) and Frankwell Footbridge (foreground) in Shrewsbury, Shropshire.
The Severn bridged by the A49 road just outside Shrewsbury. The village of Uffington, Shropshire is in the foreground. UffingtonShropshire.JPG
The Severn bridged by the A49 road just outside Shrewsbury. The village of Uffington, Shropshire is in the foreground.

The Severn is bridged at many places, and many of these bridges are notable in their own right, with several designed and built by the engineer Thomas Telford. There also is the Iron Bridge at Ironbridge, which was the world's first iron arch bridge.

The two major road bridges of the Severn crossing link south eastern Wales with the southern counties of England.

Prior to the construction of the first bridge in 1966, the channel was crossed by the Aust Ferry.

Other notable bridges include:

Rail

The Severn Tunnel, completed in 1886 by John Hawkshaw on behalf of the Great Western Railway, lies near the Second Severn Crossing road bridge, and carries the South Wales Main Line section of the Great Western Main Line under the channel. The original line built before the Severn Tunnel was the South Wales Railway from Gloucester, that followed the estuary alongside present day stations of Lydney, Chepstow, Caldicot and Severn Tunnel Junction to Newport.

Cars could also be transported through the Severn Tunnel. In the 1950s three trains a day made round trips between Severn Tunnel Junction and Pilning. The vehicles were loaded onto open flat bed carriages and pulled by a small pannier tank locomotive, although sometimes they were joined to a scheduled passenger train. The prudent owner paid to cover the vehicle with a sheet, as sparks often flew when the steam locomotive tackled the slope leading to the tunnel exit. A railway coach was provided for passengers and drivers. Reservations could be made and the fee for the car was about thirty shillings (£1.50) in the early 1950s.

Disasters

Tewkesbury during the 2007 floods TewkesburyFloods210707.jpg
Tewkesbury during the 2007 floods

There have been many disasters on the Severn, which have claimed perhaps 300 lives, depending on sources, especially during the 20th century. The Severn Railway Bridge was badly damaged by the collision of two river barges in 1960, which led to its demolition in 1970. Five crew members of both the Arkendale H and Wastdale H died in the accident. [14] More recently the river flooded during the 2007 United Kingdom floods and the 2019–20 United Kingdom floods.

Navigation light on Chapel Rock near Beachley St Twrog's Chapel ruins on Chapel Rock - geograph.org.uk - 545622.jpg
Navigation light on Chapel Rock near Beachley

There is a public right of navigation between Pool Quay, near Welshpool, and Stourport. However this stretch of the river has little traffic, other than small boats, canoes and some tour boats in Shrewsbury. Below Stourport, where the river is more navigable for larger craft, users must obtain permits from the Canal & River Trust, who are the navigation authority. During spring freshet the river can be closed to navigation.

At Upper Parting above Gloucester, the river divides into two, and flows either side of Alney Island to Lower Parting. The West Channel is no longer navigable. The East Channel is navigable as far as Gloucester Docks, from where the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal provides a navigable channel south. Between the docks and Lower Parting Llanthony Weir marks the Normal Tidal Limit (NTL) of the East Channel of the river. [15]

In the tidal section of the river below Gloucester, the Gloucester Harbour Trustees are the competent harbour authority. The Trustees maintain navigation lights at various points along the river (including on Chapel Rock and Lyde Rock, and leading lights at Slime Road, Sheperdine and Berkeley Pill).

Locks

There are locks on the lower Severn to enable seagoing boats to reach as far as Stourport. The most northerly lock is at Lincombe, about 1 mile (1.6 km) downstream from Stourport.

Associated canals

River Severn
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Bewdley
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Limit of navigation
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Stourport-on-Severn
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Stourport basins
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Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal
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Lincombe lock
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Holt lock
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River Salwarpe
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Droitwich Canal
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Bevere lock and weir
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Cotswold Line
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Worcester
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Worcester and Birmingham Canal
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Diglis weir and locks
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River Avon
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Avon lock
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Tewkesbury
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Upper Lode lock
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Coombe Hill Canal
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Maisemore weir and lock
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Herefordshire and Gloucestershire Canal
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South Wales Railway
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Llanthony lock
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Llanthony weir
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Gloucester lock
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Gloucester Dock and Victoria Basin
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Gloucester and Sharpness Canal
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New Swing Bridge
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Stroudwater Canal
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River Severn
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Sharpness Old Lock
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Sharpness Lock
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Lydney Canal
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UK-Motorway-icon.svg M48 Severn Bridge
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River Wye
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Severn Tunnel
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Severn Estuary
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River Avon
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Bristol Channel

The Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, (both narrow beam) and the Herefordshire and Gloucestershire Canal join the Severn at Stourport, Worcester and Gloucester respectively. The Droitwich Barge Canal, a broad beam canal, joins the Severn at Hawford, near to the River Salwarpe, and connects to the Droitwich Canal (narrow beam) in the name town, which then forms a link to the Worcester and Birmingham Canal. The two Droitwich canals re-opened in 2010 after major restoration.

The Gloucester and Sharpness Canal connects the Severn at Gloucester to the Severn at Sharpness, avoiding a stretch of the tidal river which is dangerous to navigate. The Stroudwater Navigation used to join the tidal Severn at Framilode, but since the 1920s has connected to the Severn only via the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal.

The Lydney Canal is a short canal which connects Lydney to the river.

The section of the river between Tewkesbury and Worcester forms part of the Avon Ring, a 109-mile (175 km) circular cruising route which includes 129 locks and covers parts of three other waterways.

Passenger transport

The tidal river

Paddle steamers were operated in the Severn Estuary from the mid 19th century to the late 1970s by P & A Campbell of Bristol. The vessels, Cardiff Queen, Bristol Queen, Glen Usk, Glen Gower and Britannia all operated on this route in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1986 Waverley Excursions has operated occasional sailings to Sharpness and Lydney by the MV Balmoral . [16]

A number of ferries were also operated on the tidal river, for example at New Passage, Purton and Arlingham. The last ferry was the Aust Ferry, which closed in 1966 when the Severn Bridge opened. One of the Aust ferries, Severn Princess, is still in Chepstow although largely derelict.

The upper river

In Worcester, the Worcester River Cruises have boat trips up and down the river between Tewkesbury and Stourport, operating the boats The Pride of the Midlands and The Earl Grosvenor. [17]

The Cathedral Ferry, a foot passenger ferry, also operates on summer weekends from the steps of Worcester Cathedral. [18]

In Shropshire the Hampton Loade Ferry operated across the river though it has not been run recently (as of 2017) prompting speculation that it is permanently closed. This has not been confirmed by any reliable news sources but according to the nearby Severn Valley Railway it has ceased operation. [19]

In Shrewsbury, boat trips around the loop of the town centre are at present provided by the Sabrina and depart from Victoria Quay near the Welsh Bridge during the summer. [20]

Severn Estuary

The Severn bridges crossing near the mouth of the River Severn Severn Aerial.jpg
The Severn bridges crossing near the mouth of the River Severn

The river becomes tidal close to Maisemore, on the West Channel just north of Gloucester, and at Llanthony Weir on the East Channel. The tidal river downstream from Gloucester is sometimes referred to as the Severn Estuary, but the river is usually considered to become the Severn Estuary after the Second Severn Crossing near Severn Beach, South Gloucestershire (the point to which the jurisdiction of the Gloucester Harbour Trustees extends), or at Aust, the site of the Severn Bridge.

The Severn Estuary extends to a line from Lavernock Point (south of Cardiff) to Sand Point near Weston-super-Mare. West of this line is the Bristol Channel. In the Severn Estuary (or the Bristol Channel in the last two cases, depending where the boundary is drawn) are the rocky islands called Denny Island, Steep Holm and Flat Holm.

The estuary is about 2 miles (3 km) wide at Aust, and about 9 miles (14 km) wide between Cardiff and Weston-super-Mare.

Severn Sea

Until Tudor times the Bristol Channel was known as the Severn Sea, and it is still known as this in both Welsh and Cornish (Môr Hafren and Mor Havren respectively, with Môr meaning Sea).

Severn bore

Bore hitting the riverbank in 1994 SevernBore1994.jpg
Bore hitting the riverbank in 1994

A phenomenon associated with the lower reaches of the Severn is the tidal bore, [21] which forms upstream of the port of Sharpness.

It is frequently asserted that the river's estuary, which empties into the Bristol Channel, has the second largest tidal range in the world—48 feet (15 m), [22] [23] exceeded only by the Bay of Fundy. However a tidal range greater than that of the Severn is recorded from the lesser known Ungava Bay in Canada. [24] During the highest tides, the rising water is funnelled up the Severn estuary into a wave that travels rapidly upstream against the river current. The largest bores occur in spring, but smaller ones can be seen throughout the year. The bore is accompanied by a rapid rise in water level which continues for about one and a half hours after the bore has passed.

Industry

A 3-mile (4.8 km) stretch of the River Severn in Shropshire, is known as Ironbridge Gorge. It was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986. Its historic importance is due to its role as the centre of the iron industry in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution. The gorge and the village of Ironbridge get their name from the Iron Bridge across the Severn, built in 1779, which was the first cast-iron arch bridge ever constructed. [25]

Two nuclear power stations are situated on the river, in the area of South Gloucestershire. Oldbury Nuclear Power Station and Berkeley Nuclear Power Station both made use of the River Severn as part of the power generation and nuclear cooling processes. Both are now decommissioned. [26]

Wildlife

The sides of the estuary are also important feeding grounds for waders, notably at the Bridgwater Bay National Nature Reserve and the Slimbridge Wildfowl Trust. River shingle habitat can also be found on the lower estuary, notable for its population of the endangered 5-spot Ladybird. [27]

The river forms part of the Severn-Trent flyway, a route used by migratory birds to cross Great Britain. [28]

Literary and musical allusions

The River Severn is named several times in A.E. Housman's A Shropshire Lad (1896): "It dawns in Asia, tombstones show/And Shropshire names are read;/And the Nile spills his overflow/Beside the Severn's dead" (“1887"); "Severn stream" (“The Welsh Marches"); and "Severn shore" (“Westward from the high-hilled plain...”).

In William Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1 , Henry Hotspur Percy recalls the valour of Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March in a long battle against Welshman Owain Glyndŵr upon the Severn's banks, claiming the flooding Severn "affrighted with (the warriors') bloody looks ran fearfully among the trembling reeds and hid his crisp head in the hollow bank, bloodstained with these valiant combatants."

The Severn was the inspiration for a number of works by Gloucestershire composer Ivor Gurney, including the songs "Western Sailors" (1925) and "Severn Meadows" (1917).

Gloucestershire writer and poet Brian Waters published Severn Tide with J. M. Dent in 1947 and followed it with Severn Stream in 1949. With anecdotal stories about his travels, both books tell of the lives of the people who lived and worked on and along the river, describing the landscape with a poet's eye. Waters links Nodens with the Seven Bore and the association of the Celtic deity with the river is explored at length by Rogers. [9]

Several 20th-century English composers wrote works inspired by the river. Gerald Finzi (1901-1956) wrote A Severn Rhapsody, his Opus 3, in 1923; taking the Severn River and its surrounding countryside as his inspiration. Edward Elgar (1857-1934) wrote The Severn Suite, Opus 87, in 1930. Elgar lived much of both his early life and his later life near Worcester, through which the Severn runs. Herbert Howells (1892-1983), born close to the Severn in Lydney, wrote the complex Missa Sabrinensis (Mass of the Severn) in 1954, and an earlier hymn tune simply entitled Severn.

The Severn is often mentioned in Ellis Peters' The Cadfael Chronicles , set in or around Shrewsbury Abbey, beside the river.

In Julian Barnes' 2011 novel, The Sense of an Ending , Tony, the main character, recalls "a river rushing nonsensically upstream, its wave and wash lit by half a dozen chasing torchbeams," an allusion to a visit to the Severn Bore.

See also

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The Shropshire Union Canal, nicknamed the "Shroppie", is a navigable canal in England. The Llangollen and Montgomery canals are the modern names of branches of the Shropshire Union (SU) system and lie partially in Wales.

Aust Human settlement in England

Aust is a small village in South Gloucestershire, England, about 10 miles (16 km) north of Bristol and about 28 miles (45 km) south west of Gloucester. It is located on the eastern side of the Severn estuary, close to the eastern end of the Severn Bridge, now part of the M48 motorway. The village has a chapel, a church and a public house. There is a large area of farmland on the river bank, which is sometimes flooded due to the high tidal range of the Severn. Aust Cliff, above the Severn, is located about 0.5 miles (0.80 km) from the village. The civil parish of Aust includes the villages of Elberton and Littleton-upon-Severn.

Trow Type of British river cargo boat

A trow was a type of cargo boat found in the past on the rivers Severn and Wye in Great Britain and used to transport goods.

Sharpness Human settlement in England

Sharpness is an English port in Gloucestershire, one of the most inland in Britain, and eighth largest in the South West. It is on the River Severn at grid reference SO669027, at a point where the tidal range, though less than at Avonmouth downstream, is still large.

Severn Estuary the estuary of the River Severn, the longest river in Great Britain; mouth of the Severn, Wye, Usk, and the Bristol Avon

The Severn Estuary is the estuary of the River Severn, the longest river in Great Britain. It is the confluence of four major rivers, being the Severn, Wye, Usk and Avon, and other smaller rivers. Its high tidal range, approximately 50 feet (15 m), means that it has been at the centre of discussions in the UK regarding renewable energy.

A canal ring is the name given to a series of canals that make a complete loop.

Severn Way

The Severn Way is a waymarked long-distance footpath in the United Kingdom, which follows the course of the River Severn through Mid Wales and western England.

Severn Valley river in the United Kingdom

The Severn Valley is a rural area of mid-western England, through which the River Severn runs and the Severn Valley Railway steam heritage line operates, starting at its northernmost point in Bridgnorth, Shropshire and running south for 16 miles (26 km) to Ribbesford, a few miles south of Bewdley, Worcestershire in the Wyre Forest.

Lydney Canal

This one-mile canal in Gloucestershire runs inland from the River Severn to Lydney. It was opened in 1813 to trans-ship iron and coal from the Forest of Dean. It was once connected by a horse drawn tramroad to Pidcock's Canal which brought materials down to the wharves by tub-boat.

Purton, Berkeley village in United Kingdom

Purton is a village on the east bank of the River Severn, 3 miles north of Berkeley, in Gloucestershire, England. The village is in the civil parish of Hinton. It lies opposite the hamlet of Purton on the west bank of the river.

References

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