River Tweed

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River Tweed
The River Tweed at Abbotsford - geograph.org.uk - 1545874.jpg
The River Tweed at Abbotsford
Country United Kingdom
Part Scotland, England
Physical characteristics
SourceTweed's Well
  location Tweedsmuir, Scottish Borders, Scotland
  coordinates 55°26′42″N3°29′46″W / 55.445°N 3.496°W / 55.445; -3.496
Mouth North Sea
Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland, England
55°45′55″N1°59′27″W / 55.7652°N 1.9909°W / 55.7652; -1.9909 Coordinates: 55°45′55″N1°59′27″W / 55.7652°N 1.9909°W / 55.7652; -1.9909
Length156 km (97 mi)

The River Tweed, or Tweed Water (Scottish Gaelic : Abhainn Thuaidh, Scots : Watter o Tweid, Welsh : Tuedd), is a river 97 miles (156 km) long that flows east across the Border region in Scotland and northern England. Tweed (cloth) derives its name from its association with the River Tweed. [1] The Tweed is one of the great salmon rivers of Britain and the only river in England where an Environment Agency rod licence is not required for angling. The river generates a large income for the local borders region, attracting anglers from all around the world, acting as one of the best salmon rivers in Scotland [2] . Tweed is an Old Brythonic (Celtic) name meaning "border" [3] .



The catchment area of the Tweed Tweed.tributaries.jpg
The catchment area of the Tweed

It flows primarily through the scenic Borders region of Scotland, and eastwards from the settlements on opposing banks of Birgham and Carham forms the historic boundary between Scotland and England.

It rises in the Lowther Hills at Tweed's Well near to where the Clyde, draining northwest (10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Tweed's Well), and the Annan draining south (1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the Tweed's Well) also rise. "Annan, Tweed and Clyde rise oot the ae hillside" is a saying from the Border region. [4] East of Kelso, it becomes a section of the eastern part of the border. Entering England, its lower reaches are in Northumberland, where it enters the North Sea at Berwick-upon-Tweed.


The river's valley floor is a drumlin field. It is the relic of a paleo-ice stream that flowed through the area during the last glaciation. Major towns through which the Tweed flows include Innerleithen, Peebles, Galashiels, Melrose, Kelso, Coldstream and Berwick-upon-Tweed, where it flows into the North Sea. Tweed tributaries include:

The upper parts of the catchment of the Tweed in Scotland form the area known as Tweeddale, part of which is protected as the Upper Tweeddale National Scenic Area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection from inappropriate development. [5]

See also


  1. "Article on Tweed Cloth". Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2014-12-16.
  2. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-33844266
  3. "University of Wales Dictionary". University of Wales Dictionary. University of Wales. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  4. The Tweed: Take a trip on a river flowing with history Archived 2019-07-31 at the Wayback Machine , The Independent, 21 April 2007
  5. "National Scenic Areas". Scottish Natural Heritage. Archived from the original on 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-01-17.

Related Research Articles

Berwick-upon-Tweed Human settlement in England

Berwick-upon-Tweed is a town in the county of Northumberland. It is the northernmost town in England, at the mouth of the River Tweed on the east coast, 2 12 miles (4 km) south of the Scottish border. Berwick is approximately 56 miles (90 km) east-south east of Edinburgh, 65 miles (105 km) north of Newcastle upon Tyne and 345 miles (555 km) north of London.

Scottish Borders Council area of Scotland

The Scottish Borders is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the City of Edinburgh, Dumfries and Galloway, East Lothian, Midlothian, South Lanarkshire, West Lothian and, to the south-west, south and east, the English counties of Cumbria and Northumberland. The administrative centre of the area is Newtown St Boswells.

Innerleithen Human settlement in Scotland

Innerleithen is a civil parish and a small town in the committee area of Tweeddale, in the Scottish Borders. It was formerly in the historic county of Peeblesshire or Tweeddale.

Roxburghshire Historic county in Scotland

Roxburghshire or the County of Roxburgh is a historic county and registration county in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. It borders Dumfriesshire to the west, Selkirkshire and Midlothian to the north-west, and Berwickshire to the north. To the south-west it borders Cumberland and to the south-east Northumberland, both in England.

Tweeddale Scottish lieutenancy area and former local government district, part of Scottish Borders region

Tweeddale is a committee area and lieutenancy area in the Scottish Borders Council district, southeastern Scotland. Its boundaries correspond to the historic county of Peeblesshire.

Roxburgh Human settlement in Scotland

Roxburgh, also known as Rosbroch, is a civil parish and now-destroyed royal burgh, in the historic county of Roxburghshire in the Scottish Borders. It was an important trading burgh in High Medieval to early modern Scotland. In the Middle Ages it had at least as much importance as Edinburgh, Stirling, Perth, or Berwick-upon-Tweed, for a time acting as de facto capital.

River Annan river in the United Kingdom

The River Annan is a river in south-west Scotland. It rises Annanhead Hill and flows through the Devil's Beef Tub, Moffat and Lockerbie, reaching the sea at Annan, Dumfries and Galloway.

River Teviot river in Scotland

The River Teviot, or Teviot Water, is a river of the Scottish Borders area of Scotland, and is the largest tributary of the River Tweed by catchment area. The Teviot is an important river for wildlife, especially the Atlantic salmon, but in recent years, has witnessed at least four extreme flooding events.

Southern Uplands region in Scotland

The Southern Uplands are the southernmost and least populous of mainland Scotland's three major geographic areas. The term is used both to describe the geographical region and to collectively denote the various ranges of hills and mountains within this region. An overwhelmingly rural and agricultural region, the Southern Uplands are partly forested and contain many areas of open moorland.

Tweedmouth Human settlement in England

Tweedmouth is part of the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed in Northumberland, England. It is located on the south bank of the River Tweed and is connected to Berwick town centre, on the north bank, by two road bridges and a railway bridge. Tweedmouth has historically always been part of England, in contrast to the walled town of Berwick which came under Scottish control for several periods in the Middle Ages. The local nickname for people from Tweedmouth is "Twempies".

Berwick-upon-Tweed railway station Railway station in Northumberland, England

Berwick-upon-Tweed railway station is on the East Coast Main Line in England, serving the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland. It is 335 miles 56 chains (540.3 km) down the line from London King's Cross and is situated between Chathill to the south and Dunbar to the north.

Whiteadder Water river in south-east Scotland

Whiteadder Water is a river in East Lothian and Berwickshire, Scotland. It also flows for a very short distance through Northumberland before joining the River Tweed. In common with the adwaters of the Biel Water it rises on the low hillside of Clints Dod in the Lammermuir Hills, just ESE of Whitecastle Hillfort and 3 km (1.9 mi) south-east of the village of Garvald.

Carter Bar crossing-point on the border between Scotland and England

Carter Bar is a point on the England–Scotland border, in the Scottish Borders and Northumberland.

TD postcode area Postcode area within the United Kingdom

The TD postcode area, also known as the Galashiels postcode area, is a group of 15 consecutive postcode districts in Scotland and England covering Tweeddale for post towns Berwick-upon-Tweed, Cockburnspath, Coldstream, Cornhill-on-Tweed, Duns, Earlston, Eyemouth, Galashiels, Gordon, Hawick, Jedburgh, Kelso, Lauder, Melrose, Mindrum, Newcastleton and Selkirk.

Anglo-Scottish border 96 mile long border between England and Scotland

The Anglo-Scottish border runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west.

Paxton, Scottish Borders Human settlement in Scotland

Paxton is a small village near the B6461 and the B6460, in the pre-1975 ancient county of Berwickshire, now an administrative area of the Scottish Borders region of Scotland. It lies 1 mile west of the border with Northumberland, near Berwick-upon-Tweed. It is a traditional, country village surrounded by farmland, and its closest market towns are Duns and Berwick-upon-Tweed.

The Kelso and Jedburgh railway branch lines

The Railway of Kelso and Jedburgh branch lines were three distinct railways serving Kelso in the borders of Scotland.

Upper Tweeddale National Scenic Area

The Upper Tweeddale National Scenic Area lies in the Borders region of Scotland. It is one of 40 national scenic areas (NSA) in Scotland, which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure their protection from inappropriate development. The designated area covers 12,770 ha of countryside surrounding the upper reaches of the River Tweed between Broughton and Peebles.

Berwick Sevens is an annual rugby sevens event held by Berwick RFC, in Berwick upon Tweed, England. The Berwick Sevens was the last of the Border Sevens tournaments to be instated, in 1983; but the first in England.