Riverside County, California

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Coordinates: 33°44′N115°59′W / 33.73°N 115.98°W / 33.73; -115.98


Riverside County
County of Riverside
Riverside 06Skyline.JPG
Riverside County Courthouse, 1903.jpg
Downtown Palm Springs CA.JPG
Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains 283.jpg
Old Town Temecula Entrance.jpg
Blythe Intaglio (4858).jpg
Images, from top down, left to right: Riverside skyline, Riverside County Courthouse, Downtown Palm Springs, Lake Perris, the North face of the San Jacinto Mountains in the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument, Old Town Temecula, the Blythe Intaglios
Flag of Riverside County, California.png
Seal of Riverside County, California.png
Map of California highlighting Riverside County.svg
Location in the state of California
Map of USA CA.svg
California's location in the United States
Country United States
State California
Region Inland Empire
Incorporated May 9, 1893
Named for The City of Riverside, and its reference to the city's location on the Santa Ana River
County seat Riverside
Largest city (population)Riverside
  Board of Supervisors
  Total7,303 sq mi (18,910 km2)
  Land7,206 sq mi (18,660 km2)
  Water97 sq mi (250 km2)
Highest elevation
10,843 ft (3,305 m)
Lowest elevation
234 ft (−71 m)
(2018) [4]
  Density300/sq mi (120/km2)
Time zone UTC−8 (Pacific Time Zone)
  Summer (DST) UTC−7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
FIPS code06-065
Website www.CountyOfRiverside.us

Riverside County is a county located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,189,641, [3] making it the fourth-most populous county in California and the 11th-most populous in the United States. The name was derived from the city of Riverside, which is the county seat. [5]

Riverside County is included in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario Metropolitan Statistical Area, also known as the Inland Empire. The county is also included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach Combined Statistical Area.

Roughly rectangular, Riverside County covers 7,208 square miles (18,670 km2) in Southern California, spanning from the greater Los Angeles area to the Arizona border. Geographically, the county is mostly desert in the central and eastern portions, but has a Mediterranean climate in the western portion. Most of Joshua Tree National Park is located in the county.

The resort cities of Palm Springs, Palm Desert, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Rancho Mirage, and Desert Hot Springs are all located in the Coachella Valley region of central Riverside County. Large numbers of Los Angeles area workers have moved to the county in recent years (data from the US Census Bureau for 2007 through 2011) to take advantage of relatively affordable housing. [6] Along with neighboring San Bernardino County, it was one of the fastest growing regions in the state prior to the recent changes in the regional economy. In addition, smaller, but significant, numbers of people have been moving into southwest Riverside County from the San Diego metropolitan area. The cities of Temecula and Murrieta accounted for 20% of the increase in population of the county between 2000 and 2007.[ citation needed ]


Riverside County was named for the Santa Ana River in 1870. [7]


Early history

The indigenous peoples of what is now Riverside County are the Luiseño, Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians. [8] The Luiseño territory includes the Aguanga and Temecula Basins, Elsinore Trough and eastern Santa Ana Mountains and southward into San Diego County. The Cahuilla territory is to the east and north of the Luiseño in the inland valleys, in the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains and the desert of the Salton Sink.

The first European settlement in the county was a Mission San Luis Rey de Francia estancia or farm, at the Luiseño village of Temecula. Grain and grapes were grown here. In 1819, the Mission granted land to Leandro Serrano, mayordomo of San Antonio de Pala Asistencia for the Mission of San Luis Rey for Rancho Temescal.

Following Mexican independence and the 1833 confiscation of Mission lands, more ranchos were granted. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, El Rincon in 1839, Rancho San Jacinto Viejo in 1842, Rancho San Jacinto y San Gorgonio in 1843, Ranchos La Laguna, Pauba, Temecula in 1844, Ranchos Little Temecula, Potreros de San Juan Capistrano in 1845, Ranchos San Jacinto Sobrante, La Sierra (Sepulveda), La Sierra (Yorba), Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero in 1846.

New Mexican colonists founded the town of La Placita on the east side of the Santa Ana River at the northern extremity of what is now the city of Riverside in 1843.

When the initial 27 California counties were established in 1850, the area today known as Riverside County was divided between Los Angeles County and San Diego County. In 1853, the eastern part of Los Angeles County was used to create San Bernardino County. Between 1891 and 1893, several proposals and legislative attempts were put forth to form new counties in Southern California. These proposals included one for a Pomona County and one for a San Jacinto County. None of the proposals were adopted until a measure to create Riverside County was signed by Governor Henry H. Markham on March 11, 1893. [9]

County history

The new county was created from parts of San Bernardino County and San Diego County. On May 2, 1893, seventy percent of voters approved the formation of Riverside County. Voters chose the city of Riverside as the county seat, also by a large margin. Riverside County was officially formed on May 9, 1893, when the Board of Commissioners filed the final canvass of the votes. [9]

Riverside County is the birthplace of lane markings, thanks to Dr. June McCarroll in 1915 when she suggested her idea to the state government.

The county is also the location of the March Air Reserve Base, one of the oldest airfields continuously operated by the United States military. Established as the Alessandro Flying Training Field in February 1918, it was one of thirty-two U.S. Army Air Service training camps established after the United States entry into World War I in April 1917. The airfield was renamed March Field the following month for 2d Lieutenant Peyton C. March, Jr., the recently deceased son of the then-Army Chief of Staff, General Peyton C. March, who was killed in an air crash in Texas just fifteen days after being commissioned. March Field remained an active Army Air Service, then U.S. Army Air Corps installation throughout the interwar period, later becoming a major installation of the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II. Renamed March Air Force Base in 1947 following the establishment of the U.S. Air Force, it was a major Strategic Air Command (SAC) installation throughout the Cold War. In 1996, it was transferred to the Air Force Reserve Command and gained its current name as a major base for the Air Force Reserve and the California Air National Guard.[ citation needed ]

Riverside county was a major focal point of the Civil Rights Movements in the US, especially the African-American sections of Riverside and heavily Mexican-American communities of the Coachella Valley visited by Cesar Chavez of the farm labor union struggle.

Riverside county has also been a focus of modern Native American Gaming enterprises. In the early 1980s, the county government attempted to shut down small bingo halls operated by the Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians and the Cabazon Band of Mission Indians. The tribes joined forces and fought the county all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled in the tribes' favor on February 25, 1987. [10] In turn, Congress enacted the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act in 1988 to establish a legal framework for the relationship between Indian gaming and state governments. Naturally, both tribes now operate large casinos in the county: the Morongo Casino, Resort & Spa and the Fantasy Springs Resort Casino adjacent to Spotlight 29 Casino.

The county's population surpassed one million people in 1990 (year-round, would be 1980 with seasonal residents) when the current trend of high population growth as a major real estate destination began in the 1970s. Once strictly a place for long distance commuters to L.A. and later Orange County, the county and city of Riverside started becoming more of a place to establish new or relocated offices, corporations and finance centers in the late 1990s and 2000s. More light industry, manufacturing and truck distribution centers became major regional employers in the county. [ citation needed ]


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 7,303 square miles (18,910 km2), of which 7,206 square miles (18,660 km2) is land and 97 square miles (250 km2) (1.3%) is water. [11] It is the fourth-largest county in California by area. At roughly 180 miles (290 km) wide in the east-west dimension, the area of the county is massive. Riverside County, California is roughly the size of the State of New Jersey in total area. County government documents frequently cite the Colorado River town of Blythe as being a "three-hour drive" from the county seat, Riverside. Some view the areas west of San Gorgonio Pass as the Inland Empire portion of the county and the eastern part as either the Mojave Desert or Colorado Desert portion. There are probably at least three geomorphic provinces: the Inland Empire western portion, the Santa Rosa Mountains communities such as Reinhardt Canyon, and the desert region. Other possible subdivisions include tribal lands, the Colorado River communities, and the Salton Sea.

Flora and fauna

Yucca pines near Ryan Mountain Trail in Joshua Tree National Park Yucca pines near Ryan Mountain Trail, Joshua Tree National Park, CA.jpg
Yucca pines near Ryan Mountain Trail in Joshua Tree National Park

There is a diversity of flora and fauna within Riverside County. Vegetative plant associations feature many desert flora, but there are also forested areas within the county. The California endemic Blue oak, Quercus douglasii is at the southernmost part of its range in Riverside County. [12]

National protected areas

There are 19 official wilderness areas in Riverside County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Some are integral parts of the above protected areas, most (11 of the 19) are managed solely by the Bureau of Land Management, and some share management between the BLM and the relevant other agencies. Some extend into neighboring counties:

State parks

County parks and trails



Places by population, race, and income


Historical population
1900 17,897
1910 34,69693.9%
1920 50,29745.0%
1930 81,02461.1%
1940 105,52430.2%
1950 170,04661.1%
1960 306,19180.1%
1970 459,07449.9%
1980 663,16644.5%
1990 1,170,41376.5%
2000 1,545,38732.0%
2010 2,189,64141.7%
Est. 20182,450,758 [4] 11.9%
U.S. Decennial Census [24]
1790–1960 [25] 1900–1990 [26]
1990–2000 [27] 2010–2018 [3]

The 2010 United States Census reported that Riverside County had a population of 2,189,641. The racial makeup of Riverside County was 1,335,147 (61.0%) White (40.7% Non-Hispanic White), 140,543 (6.4%) African American, 23,710 (1.1%) Native American, 130,468 (6.0%) Asian (2.3% Filipino, 0.8% Chinese, 0.7% Vietnamese, 0.6% Korean, 0.5% Indian, 0.2% Japanese, 0.1% Cambodian, 0.1% Laotian, 0.1% Pakistani), 6,874 (0.3%) Pacific Islander, 448,235 (20.5%) from other races, and 104,664 (4.8%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 995,257 persons (45.5%); 39.5% of Riverside County is Mexican, 0.8% Salvadoran, 0.7% Honduran, 0.6% Puerto Rican, 0.3% Cuban, and 0.2% Nicaraguan. [28]


As of the census [29] of 2000, there were 1,545,387 people, 506,218 households, and 372,576 families residing in the county. The population density was 214 people per square mile (83/km²). There were 584,674 housing units at an average density of 81 per square mile (31/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 65.6% White, 6.2% Black or African American, 1.2% Native American, 3.7% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 18.7% from other races, and 4.4% from two or more races. 36.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 9.2% were of German, 6.9% English, 6.1% Irish and 5.0% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 67.2% spoke English and 27.7% Spanish as their first language.

In 2006 the county had a population of 2,026,803, up 31.2% since 2000. In 2005 45.8% of the population was non-Hispanic whites. The percentages of African Americans, Asians and Native Americans remained relatively similar to their 2000 figures. The percentage of Pacific Islanders had majorly risen to 0.4. Hispanics now constituted 41% of the population.

There were 506,218 households out of which 38.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.4% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.0 and the average family size was 3.5.

In the county, the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $42,887, and the median income for a family was $48,409. Males had a median income of $38,639 versus $28,032 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,689. About 10.7% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.5% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.

Government and law enforcement


Riverside County is organized as a General Law County under the provision of the California Government Code. The county has five supervisorial districts, and one supervisor is elected from each district every four years. [30]

Riverside County Historic Courthouse Riverside County Courthouse, 1903.jpg
Riverside County Historic Courthouse

In 1999, the County Board of Supervisors approved a multimillion-dollar planning effort to create the Riverside County Integrated Plan (RCIP) which was to encompass a completely new General Plan, regional transportation plan (CETAP) and Habitat Conservation Plan. The resultant General Plan adopted in 2003 was considered groundbreaking for its multidisciplinary approach to land use and conservation planning. [31] [32]


The Riverside Superior Court is the state trial court for Riverside County with 14 courthouses: Riverside Historic Courthouse, Riverside Hall of Justice, Riverside Family Law Court, Riverside Juvenile Court, Southwest Justice Center – Murrieta, Moreno Valley Court, Banning Court, Hemet Court, Corona Court, Temecula Court, Larson Justice Center – Indio, Indio Juvenile Court, Palm Springs Court and Blythe Court. [33]

The main courthouse is the Riverside Historic Courthouse. This landmark, erected in 1903, was modeled after the Grand and Petit Palais in Paris, France. The courthouse, designed by Los Angeles architects Burnham and Bliesner, has a classical design – including a great hall that connects all the departments (courtrooms). [34] In 1994, the courthouse was closed for seismic retrofits due to the 1992 Landers and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. The courthouse was reopened and rededicated in September 1998. [35]

Riverside County hands down 1 in 6 death sentences in the US, in spite of it having less than 1% of the population. [36]

Law enforcement


The Riverside County Sheriff provides court protection, jail administration, and coroner services for all of Riverside County. It provides patrol, detective, and other police services for the unincorporated areas of the county plus by contract to the cities and towns of Coachella, Eastvale, Indian Wells, Jurupa Valley, La Quinta, Lake Elsinore, Menifee, Moreno Valley, Norco, Palm Desert, Perris, Rancho Mirage, San Jacinto, Temecula and Wildomar. [37]

Municipal Police

Municipal departments within the county are Banning, Beaumont, Blythe, Calimesa, Cathedral City, Corona, Desert Hot Springs, Hemet, Indio, Murrieta, Palm Springs, Riverside, Riverside Community College.


Voter registration

Cities by population and voter registration


Riverside has historically been regarded as a Republican county in presidential and congressional elections. In 1932, it was one of only two counties (the other being Benton County, Oregon) on the entire Pacific coast of the United States to vote for Hoover over Roosevelt. [39] In 2008, Barack Obama narrowly carried the county, becoming the first Democrat to do so since Bill Clinton in 1992, and only the fourth to do so since Roosevelt's national landslide of 1936. In 2012, Obama again carried the county, this time with a plurality of the vote.

Presidential election results
Riverside County vote
by party in presidential elections
Year GOP DEM Others
2016 44.35% 333,24349.73%373,6955.92% 44,453
2012 47.97% 318,12749.62%329,0632.40% 15,926
2008 47.90% 310,04150.21%325,0171.89% 12,241
2004 57.83%322,47341.04% 228,8061.13% 6,300
2000 51.42%231,95544.90% 202,5763.68% 16,596
1996 45.61%178,61143.05% 168,57911.34% 44,423
1992 37.06% 159,45738.64%166,24124.30% 104,577
1988 59.46%199,97939.58% 133,1220.97% 3,247
1984 63.48%182,32435.53% 102,0430.99% 2,835
1980 59.87%145,64231.51% 76,6508.63% 20,986
1976 49.24%97,77448.46% 96,2282.29% 4,556
1972 58.00%108,12038.41% 71,5913.59% 6,693
1968 52.90%83,41438.78% 61,1468.31% 13,110
1964 43.14% 61,16556.79%80,5280.07% 95
1960 56.15%65,85543.38% 50,8770.46% 544
1956 62.16%56,76637.34% 34,0980.51% 465
1952 65.08%51,69233.93% 26,9480.99% 788
1948 55.66%32,20940.28% 23,3054.06% 2,350
1944 53.94%23,16845.26% 19,4390.81% 346
1940 51.39%21,77947.20% 20,0031.41% 598
1936 48.89% 16,67449.88%17,0111.24% 422
1932 50.20%14,11245.37% 12,7554.43% 1,245
1928 77.94%17,60021.12% 4,7690.94% 212
1924 61.99%9,6198.49% 1,31829.51% 4,579
1920 69.55%9,12421.33% 2,7989.12% 1,196
1916 54.64%7,45233.44% 4,56111.92% 1,626
1912 1.23% 12429.33% 2,96369.45%7,016
1908 57.24%3,22924.36% 1,37418.40% 1,038
1904 65.23%2,63816.77% 67818.00% 728
1900 61.14%2,32929.77% 1,1349.08% 346
1896 53.06%2,06343.31% 1,6843.63% 141

In the United States House of Representatives, Riverside County is split between 4 congressional districts: [41]

In the California State Senate, the county is split between 3 legislative districts: [42]

In the California State Assembly, the county is split between 7 legislative districts: [43]

Riverside County voted 64.8% in favor of Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages.[ citation needed ]


The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

Cities by population and crime rates


Universities and colleges

The 161-foot, 48-bell, carillon tower at the University of California, Riverside. Ucr-belltower.jpg
The 161-foot, 48-bell, carillon tower at the University of California, Riverside.


Major highways

Public transportation

Amtrak trains stop in Riverside and Palm Springs, and Amtrak California provides bus connections to the San Joaquins in Riverside, Beaumont, Palm Springs, Thousand Palms, Indio, Moreno Valley, Perris, Sun City, and Hemet.

Metrolink trains serve nine stations in Riverside County: Riverside-Downtown, Riverside-La Sierra, North Main-Corona, West Corona, Pedley Station, Hunter Park/UCR, March Field-Moreno Valley, Perris-Downtown, and Perris-South. [60] These trains provide service to Orange, San Bernardino and Los Angeles counties seven days a week, with a primarily commuter-oriented schedule.


Military air bases

Commercial airports

General aviation airports

Military installations

Points of interest



2018 [65]
Median household income,
2013 [66]
Banning 191331,253$36,509
Beaumont 191249,241$69,151
Blythe 191619,959$43,472
Calimesa 19908,937$44,911
Canyon Lake 199011,267$80,145
Cathedral City 198154,902$46,282
Coachella 194645,839$40,299
Corona 1896168,819$80,557
Desert Hot Springs 196328,885$32,260
Eastvale 201064,822$113,154
Hemet 191085,275$29,679
Indian Wells 19675,440$111,078
Indio 193091,240$41,082
Jurupa Valley 2011108,393$61,250
Lake Elsinore 188868,183N/A
La Quinta 198241,535$67,444
Menifee 200892,595$56,735
Moreno Valley 1984209,050$53,018
Murrieta 1991114,985$72,496
Norco 196426,610$79,279
Palm Desert 197353,185$50,267
Palm Springs 193848,375$45,418
Perris 191179,133$36,229
Rancho Mirage 197318,336$76,261
Riverside 1883330,063$51,331
San Jacinto 188848,867$44,851
Temecula 1989114,742$66,869
Wildomar 200837,280$60,125

Unincorporated communities

Ghost towns

Indian reservations

Riverside County has 12 federally recognized Indian reservations, which ties it with Sandoval County, New Mexico for second most of any county in the United States. (Sandoval County, however, has two additional joint-use areas, shared between reservations. San Diego County, California has the most, with 18 reservations.)

Population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Riverside County. [68]

county seat

RankCity/Town/etc.Municipal typePopulation (2010 Census)

1 Riverside City303,871
2 Moreno Valley City193,365
3 Corona City152,374
4 Murrieta City103,466
5 Temecula City100,097
6 Hemet City78,657
7 Menifee City77,519
8 Indio City76,036
9 Perris City68,386
10 Eastvale City53,668
11 Lake Elsinore City51,821
12 Cathedral City City51,200
13 Palm Desert City48,445
14 Palm Springs City44,552
15 San Jacinto City44,199
16 Coachella City40,704
17 La Quinta City37,467
18 Beaumont City36,877
19 Jurupa Valley City34,280
20 Wildomar City32,176
21 Banning City29,603
22 Norco City27,063
23 Desert Hot Springs City25,938
24 Agua Caliente Indian Reservation [69] AIAN 24,781
25 French Valley CDP23,067
26 Temescal Valley CDP22,535
27 Mira Loma (became part of Jurupa Valley in 2011)CDP21,930
28 Blythe City20,817
29 Glen Avon (became part of Jurupa Valley in 2011)CDP20,199
30 Mead Valley CDP18,510
31 East Hemet CDP17,418
32 Rancho Mirage City17,218
33 Valle Vista CDP14,578
34 Woodcrest CDP14,347
35 Pedley (became part of Jurupa Valley in 2011)CDP12,672
36 El Sobrante CDP12,669
37 Home Gardens CDP11,570
38 Lakeland Village CDP11,541
39 Canyon Lake City10,561
40 Good Hope CDP9,192
41 Mecca CDP8,577
42 Calimesa City7,879
43 Thousand Palms CDP7,715
44 Garnet CDP7,543
45 Bermuda Dunes CDP7,282
46 Desert Palms CDP6,957
47 Oasis CDP6,890
48 Nuevo CDP6,447
49 Cherry Valley CDP6,362
50 Homeland CDP5,969
51 Lake Mathews CDP5,890
52 Torres-Martinez Reservation [70] AIAN5,594
53 Sunnyslope CDP5,153
54 El Cerrito CDP5,100
55 Indian Wells City4,958
56 Highgrove CDP3,988
57 Idyllwild-Pine Cove CDP3,874
58 Desert Edge CDP3,822
59 North Shore CDP3,477
60 Meadowbrook CDP3,185
61 Anza CDP3,014
62 Vista Santa Rosa CDP2,926
63 Thermal CDP2,865
64 Warm Springs CDP2,676
65 Coronita CDP2,608
66 Cabazon CDP2,535
67 Winchester CDP2,534
68 Sky Valley CDP2,406
69 Lakeview CDP2,104
70 Green Acres CDP1,805
71 Colorado River Indian Reservation [71] AIAN1,687
72 Romoland CDP1,684
73 Lake Riverside CDP1,173
74 March ARB CDP1,159
75 Aguanga CDP1,128
76 Mesa Verde CDP1,023
77 Indio Hills CDP972
78 Morongo Reservation [72] AIAN913
79 Whitewater CDP859
80 Cabazon Reservation [73] AIAN835
81 Ripley CDP692
82 Soboba Reservation [74] AIAN482
83 Crestmore Heights CDP384
84 Pechanga Reservation [75] AIAN346
85 Desert Center CDP204
86 Cahuilla Reservation [76] AIAN187
87 Santa Rosa Reservation [77] AIAN71
88 Mountain Center CDP63
89 Romona Village [78] AIAN13
90 Twenty-Nine Reservation [79] AIAN12
91 Agustine Reservation [80] AIAN11

See also


  1. Other = Some other race + Two or more races
  2. Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native
  3. 1 2 Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.
  4. Population for this city obtained by summing the populations of Glen Avon, Mira Loma, Pedley, Rubidoux and Sunnyslope; see Jurupa Valley
  5. Only larceny-theft cases involving property over $400 in value are reported as property crimes.

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The San Bernardino National Forest is a United States National Forest in Southern California encompassing 823,816 acres (3,333.87 km2) of which 677,982 acres (2,743.70 km2) are federal. The forest is made up of two main divisions, the eastern portion of the San Gabriel Mountains and the San Bernardino Mountains on the easternmost of the Transverse Ranges, and the San Jacinto and Santa Rosa Mountains on the northernmost of the Peninsular Ranges. Elevations range from 2,000 to 11,499 feet. The forest includes seven wilderness areas: San Gorgonio, Cucamonga, San Jacinto, South Fork San Jacinto, Santa Rosa, Cahuilla Mountain and Bighorn Mountain. Forest headquarters are located in the city of San Bernardino. There are district offices in Lytle Creek, Idyllwild, and Fawnskin.

San Bernardino Valley valley in California, United States of America

The San Bernardino Valley is a valley in Southern California. It lies at the south base of the Transverse Ranges. It is bordered on the north by the eastern San Gabriel Mountains and the San Bernardino Mountains; on the east by the San Jacinto Mountains; and on the south by the Temescal Mountains and Santa Ana Mountains; and on the west by the Pomona Valley. Elevation varies from 180 metres (590 ft) on valley floors near Chino, where it gradually increases to about 420 metres (1,380 ft) near San Bernardino and Redlands. The valley floor houses roughly over 80% of the over 4 million total human population in the Inland Empire region.

The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of the Cahuilla, located in Riverside County, California. They inhabited the Coachella Valley desert and surrounding mountains between 5000 BCE and 500 AD. With the establishment of the reservations, the Cahuilla were officially divided into 10 sovereign nations, including the Agua Caliente Band.

Cahuilla County was a proposed county initiated by the residents of eastern Riverside County, California in the 1980s. It was named after the Cahuilla people, being the homeland of the Native American Tribe for over 2,000 years.

Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument protected area in California

The Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument is a National Monument in southern California. It includes portions of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto mountain ranges, the northernmost ones of the Peninsular Ranges system. The national monument covers portions of Riverside County, west of the Coachella Valley, approximately 100 miles (160 km) southeast of downtown Los Angeles.

Serrano people Native American people of California

The Serrano are an indigenous people of California. They use the autonyms of Taaqtam, meaning "people"; Maarrênga’yam, "people from Morongo"; and Yuhaviatam, "people of the pines." Today the Maarrênga'yam are enrolled in the Morongo Band of Mission Indians, and the Yuhaviatam are enrolled in the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians. Additionally, some Serrano people are enrolled in the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians.

Riverside County Sheriffs Department

The Riverside County Sheriff's Department, also known as the Riverside Sheriff's Office (RSO), is a law enforcement agency in Riverside County, in the U.S. state of California. Overseen by an elected sheriff-coroner, the department serves unincorporated areas of Riverside County as well as some of the incorporated cities in the county by contract. 17 of the county's 26 cities, with populations ranging from 4,958 to 193,365, contract with the department for police services. The county hospital and one tribal community also contract with the department for proactive policing. Riverside County is home to 12 federally recognized Indian reservations. Absent proactive policing and traffic enforcement, the department is responsible for enforcing criminal law on all Native American tribal land within the county. This function is mandated by Public Law 280, enacted in 1953, which transferred the responsibility of criminal law enforcement on tribal land from the federal government to specified state governments including California. The department also operates the county's jail system.

San Timoteo Canyon

San Timoteo Canyon is a river valley canyon southeast of Redlands, in the far northwestern foothills of the San Jacinto Mountains in the Inland Empire region of Southern California.

San Diego County, California County in California, United States

San Diego County, officially the County of San Diego, is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313. making it California's second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States. Its county seat is San Diego, the eighth-most populous city in the United States. It is the southwesternmost county in the 48 contiguous United States.

The Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians is a federally recognized tribe of Cahuilla Indians, located in Imperial and Riverside counties in California. Their autonym is Mau-Wal-Mah Su-Kutt Menyil, which is said to mean "among the palms, deer moon."

Juan Antonio (1783–1863), Cahuilla name: Cooswootna, Yampoochee,, was a major chief of the Mountain Band of the Cahuilla from the 1840s to 1863.


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Further reading