Robert, Duke of Bar

Last updated
Robert I
Duke of Bar
Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson
Robert Bar.jpg
Robert I of Bar
Born(1344-11-08)8 November 1344
Died12 April 1411(1411-04-12) (aged 66)
Noble family House of Scarponnois
Spouse(s) Marie of Valois
Father Henry IV of Bar
Mother Yolande of Flanders

Robert I of Bar (8 November 1344 – 12 April 1411) was Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson and Count and then Duke of Bar. He succeeded his elder brother Edward II of Bar as count in 1352. His parents were Henry IV of Bar and Yolande of Flanders. [1]

Duchy of Bar duchy

The County of Bar was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire encompassing the pays de Barrois and centred on the city of Bar-le-Duc. It was held by the House of Montbéliard from the 11th century. Part of the county, the so-called Barrois mouvant, became a fief of the Kingdom of France in 1301 and was elevated to the Duchy of Bar in 1354. The Barrois non-mouvant remained a part of the Empire. From 1480, it was united to the imperial Duchy of Lorraine.

Contents

When Robert was less than a year old, his father died and his elder brother, Edward II of Bar, became Count of Bar under their mother's regency. As neither Robert nor Edward had a strong constitution, Yolande obtained a papal dispensation from Clement VI to allow them to eat meat during periods of abstinence. When his brother Edward died, Robert was still only seven years old and political problems associated with his mother's continued position as regent had arisen.

In the jurisprudence of canon law of the Catholic Church, a dispensation is the exemption from the immediate obligation of law in certain cases. Its object is to modify the hardship often arising from the rigorous application of general laws to particular cases, and its essence is to preserve the law by suspending its operation in such cases.

Pope Clement VI (1291–1352) fourth of the Avignon Popes, 1342–1352

Pope Clement VI, born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352. He was the fourth Avignon pope. Clement reigned during the first visitation of the Black Death (1348–1350), during which he granted remission of sins to all who died of the plague.

Yolande was on the point of remarrying to Philip of Navarre, count of Longueville, a member of the Navarre family which was attempting to claim the French crown from John the Good. Joan of Bar, Robert's grandaunt, made known to the king that she was ready to replace Yolande and assume the regency. The Parliament of Paris, by decree of 5 June 1352, declared that the county was under the king's control. John the Good then entrusted the regency to Joan on 27 July of that year. Yolande initially renounced the regency, but then went back on her decision, levying troops to fight Joan. John the Good intervened to force Yolande to renounce the regency again on 2 July 1353.

John II of France monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1350 until his death

John II, called John the Good, was King of France from 1350 until his death. He was the second monarch from the House of Valois.

Joan of Bar was a French-English noble. She acted as regent of the County of Bar from 1344 until 1353.

In 1354 the County of Bar was raised to the status of duchy by King John the Good. [2] That same year another possession, Pont-à-Mousson, was raised to a marquisate by Emperor Charles IV. [2] Subsequent emperors recognised Robert's ducal title and his state's right to a vote in the Imperial Diet. It is unclear if Robert was regarded as a Peer of France after becoming duke.

Pont-à-Mousson Commune in Grand Est, France

Pont-à-Mousson is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.

Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire) general assembly of the Holy Roman Empire

The Imperial Diet was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire. It was not a legislative body in the contemporary sense; its members envisioned it more like a central forum where it was more important to negotiate than to decide.

The defeat of Poitiers and the capture of John the Good in 1356 deprived Joan of John's support and Yolande retook the regency. Robert was knighted in December 1356 and declared of age on 8 November 1359. He assisted at the coronation of Charles V of France at Reims on 9 May 1364, then at that of Charles VI of France on 4 November 1380. During Charles V's reign he fought in several engagements in 1374 during the campaign to eject the English from Normandy. In 1401, Robert ceded his duchy to his son Edward, but reserved the usufruct on it, bypassing his grandson Robert (son of Henry of Bar). The younger Robert unsuccessfully opposed this in the parliament of Paris that ran from 1406 to 1409. Charles VI's madness put him under the control of the Duke of Orleans and Duke of Burgundy. The elder Robert supported the duke of Orleans, and after that duke's assassination was more and more inclined to remain within his duchy. In his later years he suffered from attacks of gout that prevented him from walking.

Battle of Poitiers A battle during the Hundred Years War

The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War. It was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France. Edward, the Black Prince, led an army of English, Welsh, Breton and Gascon troops, many of them veterans of the Battle of Crécy. They were attacked by a larger French force led by King John II of France, which included allied Scottish forces. The French were heavily defeated; an English counter-attack captured King John II along with his youngest son and much of the French nobility.

Charles V of France King of France

Charles V, called "the Wise", was King of France from 1364 to his death, the third from the House of Valois. His reign marked a high point for France during the Hundred Years' War, with his armies recovering much of the territory held by the English, and successfully reversed the military losses of his predecessors.

Reims Subprefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Reims, a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies 129 km (80 mi) east-northeast of Paris. The 2013 census recorded 182,592 inhabitants in the city of Reims proper, and 317,611 inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Its primary river, the Vesle, is a tributary of the Aisne.

Marriage and issue

In 1364 he married Marie of Valois, the daughter of king John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. [3] Their children were:

Bonne of Luxembourg second daughter of John the Blind of Luxemburg, king of Bohemia, and his first wife, Elisabeth of Bohemia. She was the first wife of King John II of France

Bonne of Luxemburg or Jutta of Luxemburg, was born Jutta (Judith), the second daughter of John the Blind, king of Bohemia, and his first wife, Elisabeth of Bohemia. She was the first wife of King John II of France; however, as she died a year prior to his accession, she was never a French queen. Jutta was referred to in French historiography as Bonne de Luxembourg. She was a member of the House of Luxembourg. Among her children were Charles V of France, Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, and Joan, Queen of Navarre.

Notes

  1. Brachmann 2011, p. 156.
  2. 1 2 Brachmann 2011, p. 155.
  3. d'Arras 2012, p. 234.
  4. Lanz 2002, p. 59-60.
  5. 1 2 Vaughan 2009, p. 264.
  6. Souchal 1974, p. 124.
  7. Brachmann 2011, p. 158.

Sources

German nobility
Preceded by
Edward II
Count of Bar
1352 – 1354
Elevated to duchy
New title Duke of Bar
1354 – 1411
Succeeded by
Edward III

Related Research Articles

René of Anjou 15th-century French prince, briefly King of Naples

René of Anjou, also known as René I of Naples and Good King René, was count of Piedmont, Duke of Bar (1430–80), Duke of Lorraine (1431–53), Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence (1434–80), briefly King of Naples, titular King of Jerusalem (1438–80) and Aragon including Sicily, Majorca and Corsica (1466–70).

Arthur II, Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany

Arthur II, of the House of Dreux, was Duke of Brittany from 1305 to his death. He was the first son of John II and Beatrice, daughter of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence.

Edward I, was the Count of Bar from 1302 to his death. He was a minor when he succeeded his father, Henry III, as count so ruled initially under the regency of his uncles, John of Puisaye, Theobald, Bishop of Liège, and Renaud, Bishop of Metz.

Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine French duchess

Isabella was suo jure Duchess of Lorraine, from 25 January 1431 to her death in 1453. She was also Queen of Naples by marriage to René of Anjou. Isabella ruled the Kingdom of Naples and her husband's domains in France as regent during his imprisonment in Burgundy in 1435-1438.

Philip I, Duke of Brabant Duke of Brabant

Philip I, Duke of Brabant, also known as Philip of Saint Pol, was the younger son of Antoine, Duke of Brabant and Jeanne of Saint-Pol, and succeeded his brother John IV as Duke of Brabant in 1427. He had already been given Saint-Pol and Ligny as an appanage on the death of his grandfather, Waleran III of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny, in 1415 at the Battle of Agincourt.

Marie of France, Duchess of Bar French princess

Marie of France was the sixth child and second daughter of John II of France and Bonne of Bohemia.

Yolande II, Countess of Nevers Countess suo jure of Nevers

Yolande II or Yolande of Nevers, was the daughter of Odo of Burgundy, and Matilda II, Countess of Nevers.

Marie I de Coucy, Countess of Soissons French countess

Marie I de Coucy was Dame de Coucy and d'Oisy, and Countess of Soissons from 1397. She succeeded to the title of suo jure Countess of Soissons, on 18 February 1397, upon the death of her father, Enguerrand VII de Coucy. In addition to her titles, she also owned numerous estates in North-Eastern France. She was the wife of Henry of Bar, and the granddaughter of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.

Theobald II, Count of Bar French noble

Theobald II was a count of Bar. He was the son of Henry II of Bar and Philippa of Dreux. He became count of Bar when his father was killed in the Holy Land on 13 November 1239 in Theobald of Navarre's Crusade, but news of Henry's death only reached him at the start of 1240. As Theobald was still a minor, his mother ruled as regent until 17 March 1242. Theobald's own children included his successor Henry III and the bishop Reginald of Bar.

Henry of Bar was lord of Marle and the Marquis de Pont-à-Mousson. He was the eldest son of Robert I of Bar and Marie of Valois.

Edward III of Bar was made Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson by his father Robert I, Duke of Bar in 1399 and held it until his death. He then became heir to the Duchy of Bar following the death of his elder brothers Henry and Philippe at or soon after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.

Margaret of Baux was a Countess of Saint-Pol, of Brienne, and of Conversano. She was a member of the noble House of Baux of the Kingdom of Naples, which had its origins in Provence dating back to the 11th century. Her husband was Peter of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, of Brienne, and of Conversano. Margaret's descendants include English Queen Consort Elizabeth Woodville, King Henry IV of France, Mary, Queen of Scots, and all English monarchs after 1509.

Jeanne of Bar, Countess of Marle and Soissons Midieval countess

Jeanne de Bar, suo jure Countess of Marle and Soissons, Dame d'Oisy, Viscountess of Meaux, and Countess of Saint-Pol, of Brienne, de Ligny, and Conversano was a noble French heiress and Sovereign Countess. She was the only child of Robert of Bar, Count of Marle and Soissons, Sire d'Oisy, who was killed at the Battle of Agincourt when she was a baby, leaving her the sole heiress to his titles and estates. In 1430, at the age of fifteen, Jeanne was one of the three women placed in charge of Joan of Arc when the latter was a prisoner in the castle of John II of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny, Jeanne's stepfather.

Marguerite d'Enghien, suo jure Countess of Brienne and of Conversano, suo jure Heiress of Enghien, and Lady of Beauvois, was a wealthy noblewoman from the County of Hainaut in her own right, having inherited the counties of Brienne and of Conversano, and the Lordship of Enghien from her father Louis of Enghien on 17 March 1394. She was the wife of John of Luxembourg, Sire of Beauvois and the mother of Peter of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, Count of Brienne and of Conversano who inherited her fiefs, and John II of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny.

Philippa of Guelders, was a Duchess consort of Lorraine. She served as regent of Lorraine during the absence of her son.

Robert of Bar was Lord of Marle between 1397 and 1413, Count of Marle between 1413 and 1415 and Count of Soissons between 1412 and 1415.

Count of Vaudémont

The title Count of Vaudémont was granted to Gérard 1st of Vaudémont in 1070, after he supported the succession of his brother, Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine to the Duchy of Lorraine. Counts of Vaudémont served as vassals of the Dukes of Lorraine. After 1473 the title was held by the Duke of Lorraine and was bestowed on younger sons of the Duke. It was later restyled "Prince of Vaudémont".

Waleran III of Luxembourg Count of Ligny and Saint Pol, was a French nobleman and soldier.

Erard of Bar, was a monk by 1292 and then seigneur de Pierrepont et d'Ancerville by 1302. Erard was one of eight sons born to Theobald II, Count of Bar and his wife, Jeanne de Toucy.