Robert Clayton (1695–1758) was an Irish Protestant bishop, now known for his Essay on Spirit. In his own lifetime he was notorious for his unorthodox beliefs, which led his critics to question whether he could properly be called a Christian at all, and at the time of his death he was facing charges of heresy.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. A heretic is a proponent of such claims or beliefs. Heresy is distinct from both apostasy, which is the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy, which is an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things.
Clayton was born at Dublin in 1695, a descendant of the Claytons of Fulwood, Lancashire, whose estates came to him by inheritance. He was the eldest of eight children of Dr. Robert Clayton, minister of St. Michael's Church, Dublin, and dean of Kildare, and Eleanor, daughter of John Atherton of Busie. Zachary Pearce educated him privately, at Westminster School.
Fulwood is a township in Lancashire, England, forming much of the northern half of the unparished area of the City of Preston district. It had a population of 33,171 in 2001.
St. Michael's Church was a Roman Catholic and later Church of Ireland church which was located in High Street, Dublin, Ireland.
Zachary Pearce, sometimes known as Zachariah, was an English Bishop of Bangor and Bishop of Rochester. He was a controversialist and a notable early critical writer defending John Milton, attacking Richard Bentley's 1732 edition of Paradise Lost the following year.
Clayton entered Trinity College, Dublin, became B.A. 1714, a fellow the same year, M.A. 1717, LL.D. 1722, and D.D. 1730. He made a tour of Italy and France, and on his father's death in 1728 came into possession of a good estate and married Katherine, daughter of Lord Chief Baron Nehemiah Donnellan and his second wife Martha Ussher. He gave his wife's fortune to her sister Anne (who used it to fund the Donnellan Memorial Lectures at Trinity College), and doubled the bequest, under his father's will, to his own three sisters. A wealthy man, he lived in Dublin in what is now Iveagh House.One of the two houses (No. 80) that make up the current Iveagh House was designed for Clayton by Richard Castle, and built in 1736–7.
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, it lies within the province of Leinster. It is bordered on the south by the Dublin Mountains, a part of the Wicklow Mountains range. It has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region as of 2016 was 1,347,359. The population of the Greater Dublin Area was 1,904,806 per the 2016 census.
Iveagh House is the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in Dublin. It is also sometimes used colloquially as a metonym referring to the department itself.
A gift to a distressed scholar recommended to him by Samuel Clarke brought him Clarke's friendship. Clayton embraced Clarke's Arian doctrines and held to them through life. Queen Caroline, hearing from Clarke of Clayton, had him appointed bishop of Killala and Achonry in 1729–1730. In 1735 he was translated to the diocese of Cork and Ross, and in 1745 to the diocese of Clogher. In 1752 he was made Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, having some years before been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Samuel Clarke was an English philosopher and Anglican clergyman. He is considered the major British figure in philosophy between John Locke and George Berkeley.
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was Queen consort of Great Britain as the wife of King George II.
The Bishop of Killala and Achonry was the Ordinary of the Church of Ireland diocese of Killala and Achonry in the Ecclesiastical Province of Tuam. The diocese comprised part of Counties Mayo and Sligo in Ireland.
Clayton proposed, 2 February 1756, in the Irish House of Lords, that the Athanasian creed and Nicene creed should be removed from the liturgy of the Church of Ireland.Despite the controversy this aroused, no proceedings were taken against him until the publication of the third part of the 'Vindication of ... the Old and New Testament,' Dublin, 1757, when he renewed his attack on the Trinity and advanced doctrines contrary to the Thirty-nine Articles. Horace Walpole said caustically that his Vindication seemed calculated to destroy anyone's faith in the Testaments. The government, by now seriously alarmed by the heterodoxy of Clayton's opinions, ordered that he be prosecuted for heresy: a meeting of Irish prelates was called at the house of the Primate of Ireland, and Clayton was summoned to attend. Before the appointed time he died, on 26 February 1758.
The Irish House of Lords was the upper house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from medieval times until 1800. It was also the final court of appeal of the Kingdom of Ireland.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a communal response to and participation in the sacred through activity reflecting praise, thanksgiving, supplication or repentance. It forms a basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy.
The Church of Ireland is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second largest Christian church on the island after the Catholic Church. Like other Anglican churches, it has retained elements of pre-Reformation practice, notably its episcopal polity, while rejecting the primacy of the Pope. In theological and liturgical matters, it incorporates many principles of the Reformation, particularly those espoused during the English Reformation. The church self-identifies as being both catholic and Reformed. Within the church, differences exist between those members who are more Catholic-leaning and those who are more Protestant-leaning (evangelical). For historical and cultural reasons, the Church of Ireland is generally identified as a Protestant church.
Horace Walpole, in a satirical sketch of the Bishop's life, attributes his death to panic at the thought of having to defend his religious notions, but acknowledges that he was at least sincere in his beliefs, even if nobody else was able to understand what they were. His wife Katherine Donnellan had a reputation for arrogance: the artist and letter-writer Mary Delaney described her as giving herself "the airs of a Queen" after her husband was made a bishop.
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, also known as Horace Walpole, was an English writer, art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
His first publication was a letter in the Philosophical Transactions , August 1738. In 1739 he published 'The Bishop of Corke's Letter to his Clergy,' Dublin, and 'A Sermon preached before the Judges of Assize,' Cork, and in 1740 'The Religion of Labour,' Dublin, for the Society for Promoting English Protestant Schools in Ireland. In 1743 he published ' A Replication . . . with the History of Popery,' &c., Dublin, directed against the author of 'A Brief Historical Account of the Vaudois.' In 1747 appeared 'The Chronology of the Hebrew Bible vindicated ... to the Death of Moses,' London, pp. 494. In 1749 he published 'A Dissertation on Prophesy . . . with an explanation of the Revelations of St. John,' Dublin; reprinted London. This work aimed at reconciling the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation , and proving that the ruin of popery and the end of the dispersion of the Jews would take place in 2000. Two letters followed, printed separately, then together, 1751, London, 'An Impartial Enquiry into the Time of the Coming of the Messiah.'
In 1751 appeared the most notable work written by him (though often asserted to be that of a young clergyman of his diocese), 'Essay on Spirit . . . with some remarks on the Athanasian and Nicene Creeds,' London, 1751. This book, full of Arian doctrine, led to a long controversy. It was attacked by William Jones of Nayland, William Warburton (who described it as 'the rubbish of old heresies'), Nathaniel Lardner, and others. The Duke of Dorset, the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, refused on account of this work to appoint him to the vacant archbishopric of Tuam. Several editions appeared in (1752, 1753, and 1759). In 1752 a work having appeared called 'A Sequel to the Essay on Spirit,' London; Clayton published 'The Genuine Sequel to the Essay,' &c., Dublin.
His next work was 'A Vindication of the Histories of the Old and New Testament, in answer to the Objections of . . . Bolingbroke,' pt. i., Dublin, 1752. In 1753 he published 'A Journey from Grand Cairo to Mount Sinai, and back again. In Company with some Missionaries de propaganda Fide,' &c., translated from a manuscript which had been mentioned by Edward Pococke in his 'Travels.' It included an account of the supposed inscriptions of the Israelites in the Gebel el Mokatab. The work was addressed to the Society of Antiquaries, and the author offered to assist an exploration in Mount Sinai, but the society took no steps in the matter. Edward Wortley Montagu, however, was induced to visit the spot and give an account of the inscriptions. The same year Clayton published 'A Defence of the Essay on Spirit,' London. His next work was 'Some Thoughts on Self-love, Innate Ideas, Freewill,' &c., occasioned by David Hume's works, London, 1754. The same year he brought out the second part of the 'Vindication of ... the Old and New Testament,' Dublin. This produced Alexander Catcott's attack on his theories of the earth's form and the deluge. In 1756 appeared 'Letters which passed between . . . the Bishop of Clogher and Mr. William Penn concerning Baptism,' London, in which he asserted the cessation of baptism by the Holy Ghost. Clayton's friend William Bowyer obtained a copy of the correspondence and published it.
Thomas Barnard, later bishop of Limerick, who married Clayton's niece, and was his executor, had several of his works in manuscript, but they were not published. He gave copyright of all Clayton's works for England to the printer Bowyer, who issued the three parts of the 'Vindication' and the 'Essay on Spirit,' with additional notes and index to the scripture texts, London, 1759.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God. Arian teachings were first attributed to Arius, a Christian presbyter in Alexandria of Egypt. The term "Arian" is derived from the name Arius; and like "Christian", it was not a self-chosen designation but bestowed by hostile opponents—and never accepted by those on whom it had been imposed. The nature of Arius's teaching and his supporters were opposed to the theological views held by Homoousian Christians, regarding the nature of the Trinity and the nature of Christ. The Arian concept of Christ is based on the belief that the Son of God did not always exist but was begotten within time by God the Father.
Johann Jakob Wettstein was a Protestant Swiss theologian, best known as a New Testament critic.
Daniel Cosgrove Waterland was an English theologian. He became Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge in 1714, Chancellor of the Diocese of York in 1722, and Archdeacon of Middlesex in 1730.
Richard Pococke was an English prelate and anthropologist. He was the Bishop of Ossory (1756–65) and Meath (1765), both dioceses of the Church of Ireland. However, he is best known for his travel writings and diaries.
Richard Smalbroke was an English churchman, Bishop of St David's and then of Lichfield and Coventry.
William FitzGerald (1814–1883) was an Anglican bishop, first of Cork, Cloyne and Ross and then of Killaloe and Clonfert.
John Joseph Hornyold was an English Catholic bishop, titular Bishop of Phiomelia, and Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, England for twenty-two years.
John Curry was an Irish doctor of medicine, historian, and Roman Catholic activist.
Nicholas Walsh was Bishop of Ossory in the Church of Ireland, noted for having introduced prayer-books and catechisms printed in the Irish language. He began the work of translating the Bible into Irish but was not able to complete this before his murder in 1585.
William Daniel D.D. was an Irish clergyman who served as the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Tuam from 1609 until his death in 1628.
Sir James Donnellan was an Irish lawyer and politician, who became Chief Justice of the Irish Common Pleas in 1660.He was unusual among the Irish judges of the time in being of Gaelic descent; and more remarkable in that his service as a judge under Oliver Cromwell did not disqualify him from service after the Restoration of Charles II.
Nehemiah Donnellan was an Irish lawyer and judge.
Thomas Elrington (1760–1835) was Provost of Trinity College Dublin from 1811 to 1820, Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert and Aghadoe from 1820 to 1822, and Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin from then until his death in Liverpool on 12 July 1835.
Thomas Rutherforth (1712–1771) was an English churchman and academic, Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge from 1745, and Archdeacon of Essex from 1752.
Malcolm Flemyng, M.D., was a Scottish physiologist.
Thomas Prior was an Irish author, known as the founder of the Royal Dublin Society.
John Jackson (1686–1763) was an English clergyman, known as a controversial theological writer.
Joseph Clarke was an English cleric and academic, known as a controversialist. He was particularly concerned to oppose followers of Samuel Clarke.
John Rotheram (1725–1789) was an English cleric, known as a theological writer.
The Rt Rev. Dr Philip Twysden, M.A., D.C.L. (1713–1752), was an Anglican clergyman who served in the Church of Ireland as Lord Bishop of Raphoe from 1747 to 1752. The circumstances of his death later became the subject of scandalous rumour.