The Marquess of Salisbury
| Member of the House of Lords |
4 April 1947 –23 February 1972
|Preceded by||The 4th Marquess of Salisbury|
|Succeeded by||The 6th Marquess of Salisbury|
21 January 1941 –4 April 1947
as Baron Cecil of Essendon
|Preceded by||James Gascoyne-Cecil (by writ of acceleration )|
| Member of Parliament |
for South Dorset
30 May 1929 –21 January 1941
|Preceded by||Robert Yerburgh|
|Succeeded by||Victor Montagu|
|Born||27 August 1893|
|Died||23 February 1972 78)(aged|
|Alma mater||Christ Church,Oxford|
Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil,5th Marquess of Salisbury, KG , PC , DL , FRS  (27 August 1893 –23 February 1972),known as Viscount Cranborne from 1903 to 1947,was a British Conservative politician.   
Nicknamed "Bobbety",Salisbury was the eldest son of James Gascoyne-Cecil,4th Marquess of Salisbury,by his wife Lady Cicely Gore,daughter of the 5th Earl of Arran,and the grandson of the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury,Prime Minister 1895–1902. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church,Oxford,receiving an honorary Doctorate of Civil Laws in 1951.
Salisbury served in the Army during the First World War. He was commissioned as a Lieutenant into the Grenadier Guards (SR) in 1915 and served until the war's end. He was awarded the Croix de Guerre and Chevalier Order of the Crown of Belgium. When the war ended,he worked at the Westminster Bank. In 1928,he was appointed a director and to the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts;he was promoted to chairman of the commission in 1957.
Salisbury,as Viscount Cranborne,was elected as a Conservative to the House of Commons as MP for South Dorset in 1929. As Parliamentary Secretary to the Lord Privy Seal in 1934 in Ramsay MacDonald's National Government,he was promoted serving as Joint Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1935 to 1938. He was made Paymaster-General by Winston Churchill in May 1940 for the duration of the Battle of Britain but was appointed Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs from 1940 to 1942.
In 1941,he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in one of his father's titles as Baron Cecil of Essendon. He was Secretary of State for the Colonies in February–November 1942,Lord Privy Seal between 1942 and 1943,Leader of the House of Lords between 1942 and 1945 and again Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs between 1943 and 1945. As a friend of Churchill,in 1943,he was appointed President of the English-Speaking Union to promote the universality of the language throughout the British Empire. His final wartime appointment was as President of the University College of the South West for a statutory ten years before it was converted to university status.
In 1947,King George VI made Salisbury a Knight of the Order of the Garter,and he succeeded his father in the marquessate shortly afterwards. He became High Steward of Hertfordshire,where he lived,in 1947,shortly before the office was abolished.
During the 1950s,when his party returned to office,successively,he served Churchill,Anthony Eden,and Harold Macmillan as Lord Privy Seal from 1951 to 1952;Leader of the House of Lords from 1951 to 1957;Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations in 1952 and Lord President of the Council from December 1952 to 1957. During the period of the coronation of Elizabeth II,he was appointed Acting Foreign Secretary,as Eden was then seriously ill after a series of botched operations on his bile duct.
In November 1951,he received an honorary doctorate of law from the University of Liverpool. 
Lord Salisbury was known as a hardline imperialist. In 1952,as Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations,he tried to make permanent the exile of Seretse Khama,kgosi (leader) of the Bamangwato people in Bechuanaland,for marrying a white British woman. During the 1960s,Lord Salisbury continued to be a staunch defender of the white-dominated governments in South Africa and in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and was granted the Freedom of the City of Salisbury (which had been named after his grandfather) on a visit in 1956. He was also a fierce opponent of liberal-left attempts to reform the House of Lords,but he created what is known as the Salisbury Convention,under which the House of Lords will not oppose the second or third reading of any government legislation promised in its election manifesto.
In January 1957,Eden resigned as prime minister. The two candidates were Rab Butler and Harold Macmillan. The Queen took advice from Winston Churchill (who backed Macmillan),Edward Heath (who,as Chief Whip,was aware of backbench opinion),and Salisbury,who interviewed the Cabinet one by one and with his famous speech impediment,asked each one whether he was for "Wab or Hawold" (it is thought that only between one and three were for "Wab"). To the surprise of the media,the advice was overwhelmingly to appoint Macmillan as Prime Minister instead of Butler.
Lord Salisbury resigned from his position as Leader of the House of Lords in opposition to the Government's decision to release Archbishop Makarios from his detention in Seychelles. Makarios,the Archbishop of Cyprus,had been arrested because the British perceived that he was encouraging inter-communal violence and terrorism in Cyprus during the so-called 'Cyprus Question'. He became the first president of the Conservative Monday Club in January 1962,when he stated "there was never a greater need for true conservatism than there is today".  He held the post until his death in 1972.
Salisbury's cultural pursuits were recognised when he was made a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Arts that year.  These artistic credentials were enhanced as a Trustee of the National Gallery from 1960 to 1966.
Apart from his political career,Salisbury was Chancellor of the University of Liverpool from 1951 until 1971. In 1970,students at the university staged an occupation at Senate House to demand his removal over his support for apartheid and other views.
Lord Salisbury married Elizabeth Vere Cavendish,daughter of Lord Richard Cavendish (grandson of the 7th Duke of Devonshire) and his wife Lady Moyra de Vere Beauclerk (a daughter of The 10th Duke of St Albans),[ citation needed ] on 8 December 1915. They had three sons,two of whom predeceased their parents:[ citation needed ]
Lord Salisbury died in February 1972,at 78,and was succeeded by his eldest and only surviving son,Robert,who became the 6th Marquess. Lady Salisbury died on 5 June 1982. 
He is portrayed by Clive Francis in the Netflix series The Crown .
Marquess of Salisbury is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1789 for the 7th Earl of Salisbury. Most of the holders of the title have been prominent in British political life over the last two centuries,particularly the 3rd Marquess,who served three times as Prime Minister in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil,3rd Marquess of Salisbury was a British statesman and Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom three times for a total of over thirteen years. He was also Foreign Secretary for much of his tenure,and during his last two years of office he was Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. He avoided alignments or alliances,maintaining the policy of "splendid isolation".
The leader of the House of Lords is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Lords. The post is also the leader of the majority party in the House of Lords who acts as the government party chairperson in the house. The role is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position,usually one of the sinecure offices of Lord President of the Council,Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Unless the Leader is also a departmental minister,being Leader constitutes the bulk of their government responsibilities,but it has never been an independent salaried office. The Office of the Leader of the House of Lords is a ministerial department.
James Brownlow William Gascoyne-Cecil,2nd Marquess of Salisbury,,styled Viscount Cranborne until 1823,was a British Conservative politician. He held office under The Earl of Derby as Lord Privy Seal in 1852 and Lord President of the Council between 1858 and 1859. He was the father of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil,3rd Marquess of Salisbury,three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom,and grandfather of Arthur Balfour,who also served as Prime Minister.
Robert Michael James Gascoyne-Cecil,7th Marquess of Salisbury,Baron Gascoyne-Cecil,,is a British Conservative politician. From 1979 to 1987 he represented South Dorset in the House of Commons,and in the 1990s he was Leader of the House of Lords under his courtesy title of Viscount Cranborne. Lord Salisbury lives in one of England's largest historic houses,the 17th-century Hatfield House in Hertfordshire,and currently serves as Chancellor of the University of Hertfordshire.
James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil,4th Marquess of Salisbury,,known as Viscount Cranborne from 1868 to 1903,was a British statesman.
The Carlton Club is a private members' club in St James's,London. It was the original home of the Conservative Party before the creation of Conservative Central Office. Membership of the club is by nomination and election only.
Stanley Baldwin of the Conservative Party formed the second Baldwin ministry upon his reappointment as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by King George V after the 1924 general election. His second ministry ended following the so-called "Flapper Election" of May 1929.
Lord Rupert Ernest William Gascoyne-Cecil was Bishop of Exeter from 1916 to 1936. He was the second son of the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury. Educated at Eton and Oxford,he was rector of Hatfield for 28 years before being appointed a bishop. Married in 1887,he had three daughters and four sons,three of whom were killed in the First World War. As bishop he was generally liked,but had a reputation for eccentricity.
Mary Alice Cavendish,Duchess of Devonshire,was a British courtier who served as Mistress of the Robes to Queen Elizabeth II from 1953 to 1967. She was the granddaughter of Prime Minister Robert Gascoyne-Cecil,3rd Marquess of Salisbury.
James Cecil,1st Marquess of Salisbury,,styled Viscount Cranborne until 1780 and known as The Earl of Salisbury between 1780 and 1789,was a British nobleman and politician.
Robert Edward Peter Gascoyne-Cecil,6th Marquess of Salisbury,,styled Viscount Cranborne from 1947 to 1972,was a British landowner and Conservative politician.
Winston Churchill formed the third Churchill ministry in the United Kingdom after the 1951 general election. He was reappointed as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by King George VI and oversaw the accession of Queen Elizabeth II in 1952 and her coronation.
William Cecil,2nd Earl of Salisbury,,known as Viscount Cranborne from 1605 to 1612,was an English peer,nobleman,and politician.
Ernest George Pretyman,,known as E. G. Pretyman,was a British soldier and Conservative Party politician.
Lord Richard Valentine Gascoyne-Cecil was a British soldier,Conservative politician and freelance journalist who was killed in Rhodesia whilst covering the country's Bush War. The second son of the 6th Marquess of Salisbury,Cecil was in Rhodesia with a freelance film-maker,Nick Downie,recording material for a television documentary about the war. Carrying a rifle and wearing a Rhodesian Army uniform,he was shot dead at close range by a member of the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army. The Rhodesian government reported that Cecil had been "killed in action";his body was returned to the United Kingdom for burial.
Hugh Richard Heathcote Gascoyne-Cecil,1st Baron Quickswood PC,styled Lord Hugh Cecil until 1941,was a British Conservative Party politician.
Roundell Cecil Palmer,3rd Earl of Selborne,CH,PC,known as "Top Wolmer" and styled Viscount Wolmer from 1895 to 1941,was a British administrator,intelligence officer and Conservative politician.
Lieutenant-Colonel Orlando Bridgeman,5th Earl of Bradford,DL,JP,styled Viscount Newport from 1898 to 1915,was a British peer,Conservative politician and soldier. He was a major landowner,owning up to 20,000 acres (8,100 ha).
Georgina Charlotte Gascoyne-Cecil,Marchioness of Salisbury,was the wife of British Prime Minister Robert Gascoyne-Cecil,3rd Marquess of Salisbury. The eldest daughter of a judge,her lack of wealth and social connections earned the disapproval of the 2nd Marquess of Salisbury;despite this,Alderson married his son Robert in 1857.