Robert II, Count of Artois

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Robert II, Count of Artois
Robert2Artois.jpg
Robert II, Count of Artois
BornSeptember 1250
Died11 July 1302(1302-07-11) (aged 51)
Battle of the Golden Spurs, near Kortrijk
Noble family House of Artois
Spouse(s)
Issue
Father Robert I of Artois
Mother Matilda of Brabant

Robert II (September 1250 – 11 July 1302) was the Count of Artois, the posthumous son and heir of Robert I and Matilda of Brabant. [1] He was a nephew of Louis IX of France. He died at the Battle of the Golden Spurs.

The Count of Artois was the ruler over the County of Artois from the 9th century until the abolition of the countship by the French revolutionaries in 1790.

Louis IX of France 13th-century King of France

Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France, the ninth from the House of Capet, and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII; his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom as regent until he reached maturity. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and obtained a definitive victory in the Albigensian Crusade which had started 20 years earlier.

Battle of the Golden Spurs

The Battle of the Golden Spurs was a military confrontation between France and Flanders on 11 July 1302 during the Franco-Flemish War (1297–1305). It took place near the town of Kortrijk (Courtrai) in modern-day Belgium and resulted in an unexpected victory for the Flemish. It is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Courtrai.

Contents

Life

An experienced soldier, he took part in the Aragonese Crusade and attempted an invasion of Sicily in 1287. [2] In 1288 Robert began work on a great park at Hesdin. The park contained a menagerie, aviaries, fishponds, orchards, an enclosed garden and facilities for tournaments. [3] It also contained mechanical statues including waving monkeys draped in skins. [4]

Aragonese Crusade

The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragon, a part of the larger War of the Sicilian Vespers, was declared by Pope Martin IV against the King of Aragon, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. Because of the recent conquest of Sicily by Peter, the Pope declared a crusade against him and officially deposed him as king, on the grounds that Aragon was a papal fief: Peter's grandfather and namesake, Peter II, had surrendered the kingdom as a fief to the Holy See. Martin bestowed Aragon on Charles, Count of Valois, son of the French king, Philip III, and nephew of Peter III.

Hesdin Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Hesdin is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.

He defeated the Flemings in 1297 at the Battle of Furnes. [5] He was again sent into Flanders in July 1302, where he began to ravage the countryside and attempted to take the town of Kortrijk (Courtrai).

Flanders Community and region of Belgium

Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history, and sometimes involving neighbouring countries. The demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, and the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as (Flemish) culture and education.

Battle of Furnes

The Battle of Furnes was fought on 20 August 1297 between French and Flemish forces.

Kortrijk Municipality in Flemish Region, Belgium

Kortrijk is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders.

Battle of the Golden Spurs

He then met the Flemish army at the Battle of the Golden Spurs. His infantry advanced with great success against the Flemings (mostly city militia), but he ordered their recall to allow his cavalry to make the final, victorious charge. But on the broken, marshy ground, his knights were unable to gain enough momentum to break the Flemish shieldwall, and they were knocked down and slaughtered. Robert led some of the reserves in a second charge in an attempt to reverse their fortunes. Artois was unhorsed by Willem van Saeftinghe. He and his troops were cut down by the Flemish infantry. [6]

Willem van Saeftinghe politician

Willem van Saeftinghe was a lay brother in the Cistercian abbey of Ter Doest in Lissewege, West Flanders, Belgium. He fought at the Battle of the Golden Spurs, and became a Flemish folk hero.

Family

In 1262 in Paris Robert married Amicie de Courtenay (1250–1275), [7] daughter of Pierre de Courtenay, Seigneur de Conches, a great-grandson of Louis VI, and Perronelle de Joigny. They had three children:

Paris Capital city of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, as well as the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018. The city is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.

Amicie of Courtenay (1250–1275) was a French noblewoman and a member of the Capetian House of Courtenay, a cadet line of the House of Capet.

Louis VI of France King of France

Louis VI, called the Fat or the Fighter, was King of the Franks from 1108 to 1137, the fifth from the House of Capet. Chronicles called him "roi de Saint-Denis".

Philip of Artois was the son of Robert II of Artois, Count of Artois, and Amicie de Courtenay. He was the Lord of Conches, Nonancourt, and Domfront.

After Amicie's death, Robert married twice more: first, in 1277, to Agnes of Dampierre (1237–1288), heiress of Bourbon, [7] and then, on 18 October 1298 to Margaret (died 1342), [7] daughter of John II, Count of Hainaut. After Robert's death, his daughter Mahaut inherited Artois, but his grandson Robert III unsuccessfully tried to claim it. [1]

Ancestry

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References

  1. 1 2 Henneman Jr. 1995, p. 143.
  2. Housley 1992, p. 204.
  3. Landsberg 1995, p. 22.
  4. Macdougall 1986, p. 117,127.
  5. Funck-Brentano 1922, p. 375.
  6. Dunbabin 1991, p. 178.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Dunbabin 2011, p. xiv.

Sources

Robert II, Count of Artois
Born: September 1250 Died: 11 July 1302
Preceded by
Robert I
Count of Artois
1250–1302
Succeeded by
Mahaut
disputed by Robert III