Robert Moses

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    The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York is a 1974 biography of Robert Moses by Robert Caro. The book focuses on the creation and use of power in New York local and state politics, as witnessed through Moses' use of unelected positions to design and implement dozens of highways and bridges, sometimes at great cost to the communities he nominally served. It has been repeatedly named one of the best biographies of the 20th century, and has been highly influential on city planners and politicians throughout the United States. The book won a Pulitzer Prize in 1975.

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    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Long Island Sound link</span>

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    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Brooklyn Heights Promenade</span> Esplanade in Brooklyn, New York

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    References

    1. Robert Caro, The Power Broker, 1975.
    2. Goldberger, Paul (July 30, 1981). "Robert Moses, Master Builder, is Dead at 92". The New York Times . Retrieved November 11, 2009.
    3. "Mary Grady Moses, 77". The New York Times . September 4, 1993. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
    4. 1 2 Caro, Robert A. (July 22, 1974). "Annals of Power". The New Yorker . Retrieved September 1, 2011.
    5. Sarachan, Sydney (January 17, 2013). "The legacy of Robert Moses". Need to Know | PBS. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
    6. "Jones Beach". Long Island Exchange. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
    7. "Robert Moses, Master Builder, is Dead at 92". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
    8. 1 2 Caro 1974, pp. 29.
    9. DeWan, George (2007). "The Master Builder". Long Island History. Newsday. Archived from the original on December 11, 2006. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
    10. Caro 1974, pp. 35.
    11. "Robert Moses".
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    13. "Moses Resigns State Position". Cornell Daily Sun. Ithaca, NY. December 19, 1928. p. 8.
    14. Gutfreund, Owen. "Moses, Robert". Anb.org. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
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    16. "New York City Parks Commissioners : NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
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    20. Caro 1974, pp. 106, 260.
    21. Stern, Robert A. M.; Gilmartin, Patrick; Mellins, Thomas (1987). New York 1930: Architecture and Urbanism Between the Two World Wars. New York: Rizzoli. p. 717. ISBN   978-0-8478-3096-1. OCLC   13860977.
    22. 1 2 3 Caro, Robert (1974). The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York . New York: Knopf. p. 456. ISBN   978-0-394-48076-3. OCLC   834874.
    23. "23 Bathing Pools Planned by Moses; Nine to Be Begun in a Month to Meet Shortage of Facilities Caused by Pollution". The New York Times. July 23, 1934. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved August 9, 2019.
    24. "Public Swimming Facilities in New York City" (PDF) (Press release). New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. July 23, 1934. p. 3 (PDF p. 30). Retrieved January 6, 2021.
    25. "City to Construct 9 Pools To Provide Safe Swimming". New York Daily News. July 23, 1934. p. 8. Retrieved August 18, 2019 via newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
    26. 1 2 "History of Parks' Swimming Pools". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
    27. Shattuck, Kathryn (August 14, 2006). "Big Chill of '36: Show Celebrates Giant Depression-Era Pools That Cool New York". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 8, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    28. "Park Work Is Begun on 2 Bathing Pools; Construction Under Way at High Bridge and Hamilton Fish – 7 Others to Be Started Soon" (PDF). The New York Times. October 4, 1934. p. 48. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 13, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    29. "Revisiting The 11 Pools Whose Gala Openings Defined 1936". Curbed NY. August 29, 2013.
    30. Gutman, M. (2008). "Race, Place, and Play: Robert Moses and the WPA Swimming Pools in New York City". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 67 (4): 532–561. doi:10.1525/jsah.2008.67.4.532. JSTOR   10.1525/jsah.2008.67.4.532.
    31. Brozan, Nadine (July 30, 1990). "A Crumbling Pool Divides a Neighborhood". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 11, 2021.
    32. Schuster, Karla (August 3, 2007). "After 71 years Astoria Pool is among 10 outdoor public pools that the city is designating as landmarks" . Newsday. ProQuest   280156824 . Retrieved May 12, 2021 via ProQuest.
    33. 1 2 Caro 1974, pp. 318–319.
    34. Doig, Jameson W. (November 15, 2002). Empire on the Hudson . Columbia University Press. ISBN   978-0-231-07677-7.
    35. 1 2 Carion, Carlos. "Robert Moses" (PDF). Nexus.umn.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 26, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
    36. "Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (I-478)". Nycroads.com. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
    37. 1 2 "Queens-Midtown Tunnel". NYCRoads.com. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
    38. Mesh, Aaron (November 5, 2014). "Feb. 4, 1974: Portland kills the Mount Hood Freeway". Willamette Week . Retrieved November 21, 2014. Every great civilization has an origin story. For modern Portland, it is an exodus from Moses. That's Robert Moses, the master builder of New York City's grid of expressways and bridges who brought the Big Apple its car commuters, smog and sprawl. In 1943, the city of Portland hired Moses to design its urban future. Moses charted a highway loop around the city's core with a web of spur freeways running through neighborhoods. The city and state embraced much of the plan. The loop Moses envisioned became Interstate 405 as it links with I-5 south of downtown and runs north across the Fremont Bridge.
    39. Asimov, Isaac (1979). "Eccentricities". Isaac Asimov's Book of Facts. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. p. 105. ISBN   978-0-448-15776-4.
    40. Fetter, Henry D. (Winter 2008). "Revising the Revisionists: Walter O'Malley, Robert Moses, and the End of the Brooklyn Dodgers". New York History (New York State Historical Association). Archived from the original on May 5, 2010.
    41. 1 2 Murphy, Robert (June 24, 2009). "OMalley-vs-Moses". Huffington Post.
    42. Lopate, Phillip (March 13, 2007). "Rethinking Robert Moses". Metropolis Magazine . Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
    43. 1 2 Kay, Jane Holtz (April 24, 1989). "Robert Moses: The Master Builder" (PDF). The Nation. 248 (16): 569. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2004. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
    44. "Environmental and Urban Economics: Robert Moses: New York City's Master Builder?". Greeneconomics.blogspot.com. May 6, 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
    45. "The Next American System — The Master Builder (1977)". PBS. February 3, 2010.
    46. "Robert Moses: Long Island's Master Builder". YouTube. Archived from the original on November 14, 2021. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
    47. 1 2 "Robert Moses". Learn.columbia.edu. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
    48. Lopate, Phillip (February 11, 2007). "A Town Revived, a Villain Redeemed". The New York Times . Section 14, col. 1. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
    49. 1 2 Boeing, G. (2017). "We Live in a Motorized Civilization: Robert Moses Replies to Robert Caro". SSRN: 1–13. arXiv: 2104.06179 . doi:10.2139/ssrn.2934079. S2CID   164717606 . Retrieved August 13, 2017.
    50. Glaeser, Edward (January 19, 2007). "Great Cities Need Great Builders". The New York Sun . Retrieved October 9, 2010.
    51. Caro 1974, pp. 510, 514.
    52. 1 2 Chaldekas, Cynthia (March 16, 2010). "Wrestling with Moses: How Jane Jacobs Took on New York's Master Builder and Transformed the American City". New York Public Library . Retrieved October 9, 2010.
    53. 1 2 Powell, Michael (May 6, 2007). "A Tale of Two Cities". The New York Times . Retrieved August 1, 2010. As for the pool-cooling, Mr. Caro interviewed Moses's associates on the record ("You can pretty well keep them out of any pool if you keep the water cold enough," he quotes Sidney M. Shapiro, a close Moses aide, as saying).
    54. Purnick, Joyce (August 1, 1981). "Legacy of Moses Hailed". The New York Times . Section 2, col. 1, p. 29. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
    55. "Robert Moses, Master Builder, is Dead at 92". The New York Times . July 30, 1981. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
    56. "New York's 'shadow government' debt rises to $140 billion". The Post-Standard . Syracuse. Associated Press. September 2, 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
    57. Caro 1974, pp. 952.
    58. Campanella, Thomas (July 9, 2017). "How Low Did He Go?". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
    59. Woolgar, Steve; Cooper, Geoff (1999). "Do Artefacts Have Ambivalence? Moses' Bridges, Winner's Bridges and Other Urban Legends in S&TS". Social Studies of Science. 29 (3): 433–449. doi:10.1177/030631299029003005. ISSN   0306-3127. JSTOR   285412. S2CID   143679977 . Retrieved November 17, 2021.
    60. Joerges, Bernward (June 1, 1999). "Do Politics Have Artefacts?". Social Studies of Science. 29 (3): 411–431. doi:10.1177/030631299029003004. hdl:10419/71061. ISSN   0306-3127. S2CID   145677328 . Retrieved November 17, 2021.
    61. Wiltse, Jeff (2009). Contested Waters: A Social History of Swimming Pools in America. University of North Carolina Press. p. 140. ISBN   978-0-8078-8898-8 . Retrieved January 10, 2021.
    62. Riess, Steven A. (1991). City Games: The Evolution of American Urban Society and the Rise of Sports. An Illini book. University of Illinois Press. p. 148. ISBN   978-0-252-06216-2.
    63. Caro 1974, pp. 512–514.
    64. Gutman, Marta (November 1, 2008). "Race, Place, and Play: Robert Moses and the WPA Swimming Pools in New York City". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. University of California Press. 67 (4): 538. doi:10.1525/jsah.2008.67.4.532. ISSN   0037-9808.
    65. Glaeser, Edward (January 19, 2007). "Great Cities Need Great Builders". The New York Sun . Retrieved August 1, 2010.
    66. 1 2 Pogrebin, Robin (January 28, 2007). "Rehabilitating Robert Moses". The New York Times . p. 1, Section 2, col. 3. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
    67. Spitzer, Eliot (May 5, 2006). "Downstate Transportation Issues Speech" (PDF). Regional Plan Association. Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved February 15, 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
    68. "John Forster: the Ballad of Robert Moses". AllMusic . Retrieved January 5, 2018.
    69. Pape, Allie (May 19, 2017). "Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt Recap: Furiosity". Vulture. New York, NY: New York Media.
    70. "Sick of It All: Robert Moses was a racist". Discogs . Retrieved April 19, 2019.
    71. "Vancouver duo Bob Moses on going from a parking lot to the Grammy Awards".
    72. Rubinstein, Dana (May 28, 2020). "Lights. Camera. Makeup. And a Carefully Placed 1,246-Page Book". The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
    73. Hornaday, Ann. "'West Side Story' is an urgent, utterly beautiful revival". Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2022.

    Bibliography

    Other sources

    Robert Moses
    Robert Moses with Battery Bridge model.jpg
    Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge
    49th Secretary of State of New York
    In office
    January 17, 1927 January 1, 1929
    Political offices
    Preceded by Secretary of State of New York
    January 17, 1927 – January 1, 1929
    Succeeded by
    Civic offices
    Preceded by
    Unified
    Commissioner of the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation
    January 18, 1934 – May 23, 1960
    Succeeded by
    Government offices
    Preceded by
    Established
    Chairman of the New York State Council of Parks
    April 30, 1924 - January 1, 1963
    Succeeded by
    Preceded by
    Nathan Burkan
    Chairman of the Triborough Bridge Authority
    November 14, 1936 – April 25, 1946
    Succeeded by
    Merged into Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority
    Preceded by
    Unified
    Chairman of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority
    April 26, 1946 – February 29, 1968
    Succeeded by
    Preceded by
    John E. Burton
    Chairman of the New York Power Authority
    March 8, 1954 - January 1, 1963
    Succeeded by
    James A. FitzPatrick
    Party political offices
    Preceded by Republican Nominee for Governor of New York
    1934
    Succeeded by