Robert Noyce

Last updated

Robert Noyce
Robert Noyce with Motherboard 1959.png
Born
Robert Norton Noyce

(1927-12-12)December 12, 1927
DiedJune 3, 1990(1990-06-03) (aged 62)
Alma mater Grinnell College
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
OccupationCo-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel
Spouse(s)Elizabeth Bottomley
Ann Bowers
ChildrenWilliam B. Noyce
Pendred Noyce
Priscilla Noyce
Margaret Noyce
Parent(s)Ralph Brewster Noyce
Harriet May Norton
Awards Faraday Medal (1979)
Harold Pender Award (1980)
John Fritz Medal (1989)

Robert Norton Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley," was an American physicist who co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel Corporation in 1968. He is also credited with the realization of the first monolithic integrated circuit or microchip, which fueled the personal computer revolution and gave Silicon Valley its name. [1] [nb 1]

Fairchild Semiconductor American company

Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957 as a division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, it became a pioneer in the manufacturing of transistors and of integrated circuits. Schlumberger bought the firm in 1979 and sold it to National Semiconductor in 1987; Fairchild was spun off as an independent company again in 1997. In September 2016, Fairchild was acquired by ON Semiconductor.

Silicon Valley Region in California, United States

Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology, innovation, and social media. It corresponds roughly to the geographical Santa Clara Valley, although its boundaries have increased in recent decades. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the third-largest in California, and the tenth-largest in the United States. Other major Silicon Valley cities include Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Redwood City, Cupertino, Santa Clara, Mountain View, and Sunnyvale. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third-highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution.

Contents

Early life

Noyce was born on December 12, 1927, in Burlington, Iowa [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] the third of four sons [4] of the Rev. Ralph Brewster Noyce. [7] His father graduated from Doane College, Oberlin College, and the Chicago Theological Seminary and was also nominated for a Rhodes Scholarship. [8] In the 1930s and 1940s, the Reverend Noyce worked as a Congregational clergyman and as the associate superintendent of the Iowa Conference of Congregational Churches.

Burlington, Iowa City in Iowa, United States

Burlington is a city and the county seat of Des Moines County, Iowa, United States. The population was 25,663 in the 2010 census, a decline from the 26,839 population in the 2000 census. Burlington is the center of a micropolitan area including West Burlington, Iowa, and Middletown, Iowa, and Gulfport, Illinois. Burlington is the home of Snake Alley, once labelled the crookedest alley in the world.

Oberlin College Private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio, United States

Oberlin College is a private liberal arts college and conservatory of music in Oberlin, Ohio. It is the oldest coeducational liberal arts college in the United States and the second oldest continuously operating coeducational institute of higher learning in the world. The Oberlin Conservatory of Music is the oldest continuously operating conservatory in the United States. In 1835 Oberlin became one of the first colleges in the United States to admit African Americans, and in 1837 the first to admit women. Today, it its known for its progressive student activism.

Chicago Theological Seminary Christian ecumenical seminary located in Chicago, Illinois, U.S.

The Chicago Theological Seminary (CTS) is a Christian ecumenical American seminary located in Chicago, Illinois, and is one of several seminaries historically affiliated with the United Church of Christ. It is the oldest institution of higher education in Chicago, originally established in 1855 under the direction of the abolitionist Stephen Peet and the Congregational Church by charter of the Illinois legislature. In addition to being a seminary of the United Church of Christ, CTS offers students coursework necessary to be ordained by both the United Methodist Church and the Metropolitan Community Church denominations.

His mother, Harriet May Norton, was the daughter of the Rev. Milton J. Norton, a Congregational clergyman, and Louise Hill. She was a graduate of Oberlin College and prior to her marriage, she had dreams of becoming a missionary. [9] She has been described[ by whom? ] as an intelligent woman with a commanding will. [10]

Noyce had three siblings: Donald Sterling Noyce, Gaylord Brewster Noyce and Ralph Harold Noyce. [4] [11] His earliest childhood memory involved beating his father at ping pong and feeling absolutely shocked when his mother reacted to the thrilling news of his victory with a distracted "Wasn't that nice of Daddy to let you win?" Even at the age of five, Noyce felt offended by the notion of intentionally losing at anything. "That's not the game", he sulked to his mother. "If you're going to play, play to win!" [11]

Table tennis Racket sport

Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, the rules are generally as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce one time on their side of the table, and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. A point is scored when a player fails to return the ball within the rules. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage.

When Noyce was 12 years old in the summer of 1940, he and his brother built a boy-sized aircraft, which they used to fly from the roof of the Grinnell College stables. Later he built a radio from scratch and motorized his sled by welding a propeller and an engine from an old washing machine to the back of it. [12] His parents were both religious but Noyce became an agnostic and irreligious in later life. [13]

Education

Noyce grew up in Grinnell, Iowa. While in high school, he exhibited a talent for mathematics and science and took the Grinnell College freshman physics course in his senior year. He graduated from Grinnell High School in 1945 and entered Grinnell College in the fall of that year. He was the star diver on the 1947 Midwest Conference Championship swim team. [10] While at Grinnell College, Noyce sang, played the oboe and acted. In Noyce's junior year, he got in trouble for stealing a 25-pound pig from the Grinnell mayor's farm and roasting it at a school luau. The mayor sent a letter home to Noyce's parents stating that “In the agricultural state of Iowa, stealing a domestic animal is a felony which carries a minimum penalty of a year in prison and a fine of one dollar.” So essentially, Noyce would have to be expelled from school. Grant Gale, Noyce's physics professor and president of the college, did not want to lose a student with Robert's potential. They were able to compromise with the mayor so that Grinnell would compensate him for the pig, Noyce would only be suspended for one semester, and no further charges would be pressed. He returned in February 1949. [14] He graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a BA in physics and mathematics in 1949. He also received a signal honor from his classmates: the Brown Derby Prize, which recognized "the senior man who earned the best grades with the least amount of work". [15]

Grinnell, Iowa City in Iowa, United States

Grinnell is a city in Poweshiek County, Iowa, United States. The population was 9,218 at the 2010 census.

Grinnell College Liberal arts college in Iowa, United States

Grinnell College is a private liberal arts college in Grinnell, Iowa. It was founded in 1846 when a group of New England Congregationalists established the Trustees of Iowa College. Grinnell is known for its rigorous academics, innovative pedagogy, and commitment to social justice.

Luau Traditional Hawaiian feast

A luau is a traditional Hawaiian party or feast that is usually accompanied by entertainment. It may feature food such as poi, Kalua pig, poke, lomi salmon, opihi, and haupia, beer, and entertainment such as traditional Hawaiian music and hula. Among people from Hawaiʻi, the concepts of "luau" and "party" are often blended, resulting in graduation luaus, wedding luaus, and birthday luaus.

While Noyce was an undergraduate, he was fascinated by the field of physics and took a course in the subject that was taught by professor Grant Gale. Gale obtained two of the very first transistors ever to come out of Bell Labs and showed them off to his class. Noyce was hooked. [10] [16] [17] Gale suggested that he apply to the doctoral program in physics at MIT, which he did. [18]

Noyce had a mind so quick that his graduate school friends called him "Rapid Robert." [19] He received his doctorate in physics from MIT in 1953.

Career

Noyce and Gordon Moore in front of the Intel SC1 building in Santa Clara in 1970. Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore at SC1 1970.png
Noyce and Gordon Moore in front of the Intel SC1 building in Santa Clara in 1970.

After graduating from MIT in 1953, Noyce took a job as a research engineer at the Philco Corporation in Philadelphia. He left in 1956 to join William Shockley, a co-inventor of the transistor and eventual Nobel Prize winner, at the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory [20] in Mountain View, California.

Noyce left a year later with the "traitorous eight" [21] upon having issues with Shockley's management style, and co-founded the influential Fairchild Semiconductor corporation. According to Sherman Fairchild, Noyce's impassioned presentation of his vision was the reason Fairchild had agreed to create the semiconductor division for the traitorous eight.

After Jack Kilby invented the first hybrid integrated circuit (hybrid IC) in 1958, [22] Noyce in 1959 independently invented a new type of integrated circuit, the monolithic integrated circuit (monolithic IC). [23] [24] It was more practical than Kilby's implementation. Noyce's design was made of silicon, whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium. Noyce's invention was the first monolithic integrated circuit chip. [25] Unlike Kilby's IC which had external wire connections and could not be mass-produced, Noyce's monolithic IC chip put all components on a chip of silicon and connected them with copper lines. [24] The basis for Noyce's monolithic IC was the planar process, developed in early 1959 by Jean Hoerni. In turn, the basis for Hoerni's planar process were the silicon surface passivation and thermal oxidation methods developed by Mohamed Atalla in 1957. [26] [27]

Noyce and Gordon Moore founded Intel in 1968 when they left Fairchild Semiconductor. [19] [28] Arthur Rock, the chairman of Intel's board and a major investor in the company, said that for Intel to succeed, the company needed Noyce, Moore and Andrew Grove. And it needed them in that order. Noyce: the visionary, born to inspire; Moore: the virtuoso of technology; and Grove: the technologist turned management scientist. [29] The relaxed culture that Noyce brought to Intel was a carry-over from his style at Fairchild Semiconductor. He treated employees as family, rewarding and encouraging teamwork. Noyce's management style could be called "roll up your sleeves". He shunned fancy corporate cars, reserved parking spaces, private jets, offices, and furnishings in favor of a less-structured, relaxed working environment in which everyone contributed and no one received lavish benefits. By declining the usual executive perks he stood as a model for future generations of Intel CEOs.

At Intel, he oversaw Ted Hoff's invention of the microprocessor, which was his second revolution. [30] [31]

Personal life

In 1953, Noyce married Elizabeth Bottomley, [32] who was a 1951 graduate of Tufts University. While living in Los Altos, California they had four children: William B., Pendred, Priscilla, and Margaret. Elizabeth loved New England, so the family acquired a 50-acre coastal summer home in Bremen, Maine. Elizabeth and the children would summer there. [33] Robert would visit during the summer, but he continued working at Intel during the summer. They divorced in 1974. [34]

On November 27, 1974, Noyce married Ann Schmeltz Bowers. Bowers, a graduate of Cornell University, [35] also received an honorary Ph.D. from Santa Clara University, where she was a trustee for nearly 20 years. She was the first Director of Personnel for Intel Corporation and the first Vice President of Human Resources for Apple Inc. She currently serves as Chair of the Board and the founding trustee of the Noyce Foundation. [36]

Noyce kept active his entire life. He enjoyed reading Hemingway, and he flew his own airplane and also participated in hang-gliding and scuba diving. Noyce believed that microelectronics would continue to advance in complexity and sophistication well beyond its current state; this led to the question of what use society would make of the technology. In his last interview, Noyce was asked what he would do if he were "emperor" of the United States. He said that he would, among other things, "…make sure we are preparing our next generation to flourish in a high-tech age. And that means education of the lowest and the poorest, as well as at the graduate school level." [37]

Death

Noyce suffered a heart attack at age 62 at home on June 3, 1990, and later died at the Seton Medical Center in Austin, Texas. [38]

Awards and honors

In July 1959, he filed for U.S. Patent 2,981,877 "Semiconductor Device and Lead Structure", a type of integrated circuit. This independent effort was recorded only a few months after the key findings of inventor Jack Kilby. For his co-invention of the integrated circuit and its world-transforming impact, three presidents of the United States honored him.

Noyce was a holder of many honors and awards. President Ronald Reagan awarded him the National Medal of Technology in 1987. [39] Two years later, he was inducted into the U.S. Business Hall of Fame sponsored by Junior Achievement, [40] during a black tie ceremony keynoted by President George H. W. Bush. [41] In 1990 Noyce along with, among others, Jack Kilby and transistor inventor John Bardeen  received a "Lifetime Achievement Medal" during the bicentennial celebration of the Patent Act.

Noyce received the Franklin Institute's Stuart Ballantine Medal in 1966. [42] He was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1978 "for his contributions to the silicon integrated circuit, a cornerstone of modern electronics." [43] [44] In 1979, he was awarded the National Medal of Science. Noyce was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1980. [45] The National Academy of Engineering awarded him its 1989 Charles Stark Draper Prize. [46]

The science building at his alma mater, Grinnell College, is named after him.

On December 12, 2011, Noyce was honored with a Google Doodle celebrating the 84th anniversary of his birth. [47]

December 8, 2000 According to the book 'The Innovators' Noyce was mentioned/credited as the honorary co-recipient in the Nobel Prize acceptance speech given by Kilby http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2000/kilby-lecture.html

Legacy

The Noyce Foundation was founded in 1990 by his family. The foundation was dedicated to improving public education in mathematics and science in grades K-12. [36] The foundation announced that it would end operations in 2015. [48]

Patents

Noyce was granted 15 patents. Patents are listed in order issued, not filed.

Note: In 1960 Clevite Corporation acquired Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, a subsidiary of Beckman Instruments, for whom Noyce worked. [49]

Notes

  1. While Kilby's invention was six months earlier, neither man rejected the title of co-inventor.

Citations

  1. Lécuyer, p. 129
  2. Jones, 86
  3. Jones, 142
  4. 1 2 3 Berlin, p. 10
  5. Burt, 71
  6. Welles Gaylord, p. 130
  7. Jones, p. 625
  8. Berlin, p. 14
  9. Berlin, p. 9
  10. 1 2 3 Wolfe, Tom (December 1983). "The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce". Esquire Magazine: 346–74. Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  11. 1 2 Berlin, p. 12
  12. Berlin, p. 7
  13. Leslie Berlin (2005). The Man Behind The Microchip: Robert Noyce And The Invention Of Silicon Valley. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN   9780195163438. The minister, who had hidden himself in a closet, stepped forward to marry the couple in a ceremony from which Bowers had excised every reference to God. "Bob agreed to that. Neither of us could decide about God," Bowers says. "I remember Bob saying, 'Some people who believe in God are good, and some people who believe in God are not good. So where does that leave you?' He had [also] looked around and decided that religion is responsible for a lot of trouble in the world." Noyce, always pushing against the limits of accepted knowledge, told Bowers that what bothered him most about organized religions was that "people don't think in churches."
  14. Berlin, Leslie. "Adrenaline and Gasoline." The Man behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005. 22-23. Print.
  15. Berlin, p. 27
  16. Berlin, p. 22
  17. Berlin, p. 24
  18. Berlin, p. 106
  19. 1 2 Berlin, p. 1
  20. Shurkin, p. 170
  21. Shurkin, p. 181
  22. Saxena, Arjun N. (2009). Invention of Integrated Circuits: Untold Important Facts. World Scientific. p. 140. ISBN   9789812814456.
  23. "1959: Practical Monolithic Integrated Circuit Concept Patented". Computer History Museum . Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  24. 1 2 "Integrated circuits". NASA . Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  25. "1959: Practical Monolithic Integrated Circuit Concept Patented". Computer History Museum . Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  26. Bassett, Ross Knox (2007). To the Digital Age: Research Labs, Start-up Companies, and the Rise of MOS Technology. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 46. ISBN   9780801886393.
  27. Bassett, Ross Knox (2007). To the Digital Age: Research Labs, Start-up Companies, and the Rise of MOS Technology. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 46. ISBN   9780801886393.
  28. Shurkin, p. 184
  29. Tedlow, p. 405
  30. One-time Intel CEO Andy Grove on the other hand, believed in maximizing the productivity of his employees, and he and the company became known for his guiding motto: "Only the paranoid survive". He was notorious for his directness in finding fault and would question his colleagues so intensely as occasionally to border on intimidation.
  31. Garten, Jeffrey E. (April 11, 2005). "Andy Grove Made The Elephant Dance". Business Week. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  32. "Elizabeth B. Noyce, 65, Benefactor of Maine With Vast Settlement From Her Divorce". The New York Times . September 20, 1996. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  33. Berlin, Leslie (2005). The Man behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-516343-8., pp. [ page needed ]
  34. Berlin, Leslie, 1969- (2005). The man behind the microchip : Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 200–204. ISBN   0195163435. OCLC   57201649.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. "Class notes 1950-1959". Cornell Alumni Magazine. September–October 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  36. 1 2 "Noyce Foundation: About Us". Archived from the original on December 25, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  37. K. Krishna Murty (2005), Spice In Science, Pustak Mahal, p. 192, ISBN   978-81-223-0900-3 , retrieved December 12, 2011
  38. Hays, Constance L. (June 4, 1990). "An Inventor of the Microchip, Robert N. Noyce, Dies at 62". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  39. "The National Medal of Technology and Innovation Recipients - 1987". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  40. "U.S. Business Hall of Fame - Robert N. Noyce". Junior Achievement. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  41. "President Bush to honor Noyce and other laureates at U.S. Business Hall of Fame induction ceremony tonight in Colorado Springs". PR Newswire. March 16, 1989. Retrieved January 4, 2012.[ dead link ]
  42. "Franklin Laureate Database - Stuart Ballantine Medal 1966 Laureates". Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on December 10, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  43. "IEEE Medal of Honor Recipients" (PDF). IEEE . Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  44. "Robert Noyce". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2011.
  45. "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter N" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
  46. "Recipients of The Charles Stark Draper Prize". National Academy of Engineering . Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  47. "Robert Noyce Google Doodle: Logo conducts tribute to Intel co-founder and 'mayor of Silicon Valley'". The Washington Post . December 12, 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  48. http://www.noycefdn.org/news.php Archived July 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine , retrieved 22 July 2015
  49. "Clevite Corp. Acquires Shockley Transistor Corp". Electronic Design . April 27, 1960. Retrieved February 22, 2019.

Related Research Articles

Integrated circuit electronic circuit manufactured by lithography; set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material that is normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny MOS transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs.

Transistor Basic electronics component

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

William Shockley American physicist and inventor

William Bradford Shockley Jr. was an American physicist and inventor. Shockley was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. The three scientists were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for "their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".

Jack Kilby American electrical engineer

Jack St. Clair Kilby was an American electrical engineer who took part in the realization of the first integrated circuit while working at Texas Instruments (TI) in 1958. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics on December 10, 2000. To congratulate him, American President Bill Clinton wrote, "You can take pride in the knowledge that your work will help to improve lives for generations to come."

Traitorous eight Group of PHDs employed at Shockley Semiconductor that left to form Fairchild Semiconductor.

The traitorous eight was a group of eight employees who left Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1957 to found Fairchild Semiconductor. William Shockley had in 1956 recruited a group of young PhD graduates with the goal to develop and produce new semiconductor devices. While Shockley had received a Nobel Prize in Physics and was an experienced researcher and teacher, his management of the group was authoritarian and unpopular. This was accentuated by Shockley's research focus not proving fruitful. After the demand for Shockley to be replaced was rebuffed, the eight left to form their own company.

Jean Amédée Hoerni was a Swiss-American engineer. He was a silicon transistor pioneer, and a member of the "traitorous eight". He developed the planar process, an important technology for reliably fabricating and manufacturing semiconductor devices, such as transistors and integrated circuits.

Jay T. Last is a physicist, silicon pioneer, and member of the so-called "traitorous eight" that founded Silicon Valley.

Planar process

The planar process is a manufacturing process used in the semiconductor industry to build individual components of a transistor, and in turn, connect those transistors together. It is the primary process by which silicon integrated circuit chips are built. The process utilizes the surface passivation and thermal oxidation methods.

Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory laboratory

Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory was a pioneering semiconductor developer founded by William Shockley as a division of Beckman Instruments, Inc., in 1956. It was the first high technology company in what came to be known as Silicon Valley to work on silicon-based semiconductor devices.

p–n junction isolation is a method used to electrically isolate electronic components, such as transistors, on an integrated circuit (IC) by surrounding the components with reverse biased p–n junctions.

Bob Widlar American electrical engineer

Robert John Widlar was an American electronics engineer and a designer of linear integrated circuits (ICs).

Grant Oscar Gale was the S.S. Williston Professor of physics at Grinnell College in Grinnell, Iowa, the curator of Grinnell's Physics Historical Museum, and the namesake of the Grant O. Gale Observatory on the Grinnell campus.

A diffused junction transistor is a transistor formed by diffusing dopants into a semiconductor substrate. The diffusion process was developed later than the alloy junction and grown junction processes for making BJTs.

A transistor is a semiconductor device with at least three terminals for connection to an electric circuit. The vacuum-tube triode, also called a (thermionic) valve, was the transistor's precursor, introduced in 1907. The principle of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925.

Willis Adcock Canadian American physical chemist

Dr. Willis Alfred Adcock was a Canadian-American physical chemist, electrical engineer, and university professor who worked on the first atomic bomb and assisted with the invention of the silicon transistor, as well as the integrated circuit. He held several US patents.

The integrated circuit (IC) chip was invented during 1958–1959. The idea of integrating electronic circuits into a single device was born when the German physicist and engineer Werner Jacobi developed and patented the first known integrated transistor amplifier in 1949 and the British radio engineer Geoffrey Dummer proposed to integrate a variety of standard electronic components in a monolithic semiconductor crystal in 1952. A year later, Harwick Johnson filed a patent for a prototype IC. Between 1953 and 1957, Sidney Darlington and Yasuro Tarui proposed similar chip designs where several transistors could share a common active area, but there was no electrical isolation to separate them from each other.

Elizabeth Noyce was an American philanthropist, and former wife of Fairchild Semiconductor general manager and a founder of Intel Corporation, Robert Noyce.

Mohamed Atalla mechanical engineer

Mohamed Mohamed Atalla was an Egyptian-American engineer, physical chemist, cryptographer, inventor, and entrepreneur. His pioneering work in semiconductor technology laid the foundations for modern electronics. Most importantly, his invention of the MOSFET in 1959, along with his earlier surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes, revolutionized the electronics industry. He is also known as the founder of the data security company Atalla Corporation, which he founded after he invented the first hardware security module (HSM) in 1972. He received the Stuart Ballantine Medal and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his important contributions to semiconductor technology as well as data security.

Bernard A Yurash was a significant contributor to the creation of the first commercially viable CMOS integrated circuits by finding the sources of mobile sodium ions coming from the manufacturing process. Today, virtually all digital electronics use CMOS circuitry. Bernard worked at Fairchild Semiconductor in Silicon Valley from 1958, through the buyouts of the company by Schlumberger and National Semiconductor, and finally retiring in 1990. In the 1960s Fairchild Semiconductor, a division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp., and Texas Instruments, revolutionized electronics by employing the first integrated circuit technology. Fairchild's Robert Noyce filed for this patent using deposited (printed) metal lines and Jean Hoerni's Planar Process. At the time virtually all the devices were of the bipolar type which were used to construct RTL and DTL type circuits, which unfortunately drew more power than was desired, and eventually lost ground to Texas Instruments' TTL (Transistor-Transistor-logic). The next great technological leap in computer chips would be CMOS transistors, which promised significantly lower power and greater circuit density than the Bipolar circuitry. Although Frank Wanlass first filed for the CMOS patent in 1963, Fairchild could not produce the devices for commercial output for many years because of the mystery of the mobile ions degrading their performance. Much research time and money was expended in 1967 and 1968 at Fairchild on trying to manufacture the highly promising technology, the MOS SGT circuits utilizing the field effect from the "gate" on the conducting "channel" from source to drain.

References

Further reading

Business positions
Preceded by
Company founded
CEO, Intel
1968–1975
Succeeded by
Gordon Moore