Sir Robert Pitt (1680 – 21 May 1727) was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1705 to 1727. He was the father and grandfather of two prime ministers, William Pitt the elder and William Pitt the younger.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, was a British statesman of the Whig group who served twice as Prime Minister of Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century. Historians call him Pitt of Chatham, or William Pitt the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, William Pitt the Younger, who also was a prime minister. Pitt was also known as The Great Commoner, because of his long-standing refusal to accept a title until 1766.
Pitt was the eldest son of Governor Thomas 'Diamond' Pitt, a businessman who had made a fortune while in India.Governor Pitt built the family's wealth on his acquisition of the Pitt Diamond which he then sold on for a large profit. The diamond was brought into Britain in the heel of Robert Pitt's boot. In 1704, Pitt married Harriet Villiers, the daughter of Edward Villiers-FitzGerald and the Irish heiress Katherine FitzGerald.
The Regent Diamond is a 141-carat (28.2 g) diamond owned by the French state and on display in the Louvre, worth as of 2015 £48,000,000. It is widely considered the most beautiful and the purest diamond in the world.
The Kingdom of Ireland was a client state of England and then of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and then of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms. The kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature, peerage, legal system, and state church.
A beneficiary in the broadest sense is a natural person or other legal entity who receives money or other benefits from a benefactor. For example, the beneficiary of a life insurance policy is the person who receives the payment of the amount of insurance after the death of the insured.
In 1705 Pitt was returned as Member of Parliament for Old Sarum, a pocket borough controlled by his family. He retained the seat at the 1708 general election, but in 1710 was not put forward by his father and was returned instead on his own account as MP for Salisbury. He came third in the poll at Salisbury at the 1713 general election but his father then put him up at Old Sarun again where he was returned.At the 1715 general election Pitt stood for Parliament at Old Sarum and Salisbury but was only returned for Old Sarum. At the 1722 general election he stood at Old Sarum and Okehampton, and chose to take the seat at Okehampton, where he remained until his death. Unlike the rest of his family, who were Whigs, Robert Pitt became a Tory possibly partly in resistance to his domineering Whig father.
Old Sarum was from 1295 to 1832 a parliamentary constituency of England, of Great Britain, and finally of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It was a so-called rotten borough, with an extremely small electorate that was consequently vastly over-represented and could be used by a patron to gain undue influence. The constituency was on the site of what had been the original settlement of Salisbury, known as Old Sarum. The population had moved to New Sarum at the foot of the hill and at a confluence known as the cathedral city of Salisbury in the 14th century. The constituency was abolished under the Reform Act 1832.
The 1708 British general election was the first general election to be held after the Acts of Union had united the Parliaments of England and Scotland.
The 1710 British general election produced a landslide victory for the Tories in the wake of the prosecution of Henry Sacheverell and the collapse of the previous Whig government led by Godolphin and the Whig Junto. In November 1709 the clergyman Henry Sacheverell had delivered a sermon fiercely criticising the government's policy of toleration for Protestant dissenters and attacking the personal conduct of the ministers. The government had Sacherevell impeached, and he was narrowly found guilty but received only a light sentence, making the government appear weak and vindictive; the trial enraged a large section of the population, and riots in London led to attacks on dissenting places of worship and cries of "Church in Danger".
Pitt inherited the family estate of Boconnoc following his father's death in 1726. However, he died the next year. He left two sons and five daughters. His elder son Thomas Pitt was also an MP who sat for Okehampton and the Pitt estate passed entirely to him. His second son was William Pitt the Elder, a British statesmen who led the country three times in 1756–57, 1757–1762 and 1766–1768. His daughter Harriott married William Corbet. His grandson William Pitt the Younger became Prime Minister in 1783. Pitt was also brother-in-law to General James Stanhope, through his sister Lucy Pitt.
Boconnoc is a civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, approximately four miles east of the town of Lostwithiel. According to the 2011 census the parish had a population of 96.
Thomas Pitt, of Boconnoc, Cornwall, was a British landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1727 and 1761. He was Lord Warden of the Stannaries from 1742 to 1751.
Okehampton was a parliamentary borough in Devon, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons in 1301 and 1313, then continuously from 1640 to 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Thomas Innes Pitt, 1st Earl of Londonderry was a British Army officer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1713 to 1728. He served as Governor of the Leeward Islands from 1728 to 1729.
John Hoadly (1678–1746) was an Anglican divine in the Church of Ireland. He served as Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, as Archbishop of Dublin, and as Archbishop of Armagh from 1742 until his death.
Spencer Cowper was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1705 and 1727.
Sir Richard Grenville was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1715 to 1727.
William James Conolly was an Anglo-Irish landowner and Whig politician who sat in the Irish House of Commons from 1727 to 1754 and in the British House of Commons from 1734 to 1754
Daniel Wilson of Dallam Tower, Westmorland was a British Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons for a total of 34 years between 1708 and 1747.
Sir Edward Ernle, 3rd Baronet of Charborough in Dorset, of Brimslade Park and Etchilhampton, both in Wiltshire, was an English Whig politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1695 and 1729. He had mixed fortunes in finding or holding a seat and often depended on his father-in-law to bring him into his own seat at Wareham when a vacancy arose.
Robert Brightiffe or Britiffe, of Baconsthorpe, Norfolk, was an English lawyer and Whig politician. He sat in the House of Commons from 1715 to 1734 and served as recorder of Norwich in 1737–1743.
John Villiers, 1st Earl Grandison, 5th Viscount Grandison was an Anglo-Irish peer from the Villiers family.
Peter Bathurst, of Greatworth, Northamptonshire and Clarendon Park, near Salisbury, Wiltshire, was a British landowner and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1711 and 1741.
Borlase Richmond Webb, of Biddesden House, Wiltshire, was a British landowner and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1722 to 1734.
Thomas Pelham (c.1678–1759) was an English politician, a member of the Pelham family of Sussex. Returned on the family's electoral interest at Lewes in 1705, he provided a reliable Whig vote in the House of Commons, and a rather more sporadic attendance on the Board of Trade. Due to his neglect of the family electoral interest, he was nearly turned out in the 1734 election, and stood down in favor of his eldest son at the next election in 1741.
George Pitt, of Strathfieldsaye, Hampshire, was a British landowner and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1694 and 1727.
Norton Powlett (1680–1741) of Rotherfield Park and Amport, Hampshire, was a British landowner and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons for nearly 30 years from 1705 to 1734.
Thomas Medlycott (1662–1738), of Binfield, Berkshire, and Dublin, Ireland, was a British lawyer who was an Irish attorney general and later Commissioner of Revenue and Excise for Ireland. He was first a Tory and later a Whig politician who sat in the Parliament of Ireland from 1692 to 1738, and in the English House of Commons and British House of Commons between 1705 and 1734.
William Thompson (c.1680–1744), of Humbleton, Yorkshire, was a British Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1701 and 1744.
Thomas Harrison was a British Army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1728 to 1734.
|Parliament of England|
| Member of Parliament for Old Sarum |
With: Charles Mompesson
Parliament of Great Britain
|Parliament of Great Britain|
Parliament of England
| Member of Parliament for Old Sarum |
With: Charles Mompesson 1707–1708
William Harvey 1708–1710
| Member of Parliament for Salisbury |
With: Charles Fox
| Member of Parliament for Old Sarum |
With: Thomas Pitt 1713–1716, 1722
Sir William Strickland 1716–1722
George Morton Pitt
| Member of Parliament for Okehampton |
With: John Crowley