Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland

Last updated

Robert de Vere
Duke of Ireland
Robert de Vere fleeing Radcot Bridge.jpg
Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland, fleeing Radcot Bridge, 1387, taken from the Gruthuse manuscript of Froissart's Chroniques (circa 1475)
Born16 January 1362
Died22 November 1392(1392-11-22) (aged 30)
Louvain
Spouse(s)
Father Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford
Mother Maud de Ufford
Arms of Sir Robert de Vere, as 9th Earl of Oxford, upon his installation to the Most Noble Order of the Garter Coat of Arms of Sir Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, KG.png
Arms of Sir Robert de Vere, as 9th Earl of Oxford, upon his installation to the Most Noble Order of the Garter

Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland, KG (16 January 1362 – 22 November 1392) was a favourite and court companion of King Richard II of England. He was the ninth Earl of Oxford and the first and only Duke of Ireland and Marquess of Dublin. He was also the first person to be created a Marquess.

Contents

Early life

Robert de Vere was the only son of Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford and Maud de Ufford. [1] He succeeded his father as earl in 1371, and was created Marquess of Dublin in 1385. The next year he was created Duke of Ireland. He was thus the first marquess, and only the second non-princely duke (after Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster in 1337), in England. King Richard's close friendship with de Vere was disagreeable to the political establishment.[ citation needed ] This displeasure was exacerbated by the earl's elevation to the new title of Duke of Ireland in 1386. [2] His relationship with King Richard was very close and rumoured by Thomas Walsingham to be homosexual. [3]

Robert, Duke of Ireland, was married to Philippa de Coucy, the King's first cousin (her mother, Isabella, was the sister of the King's father, Edward, the Black Prince and the eldest daughter of Edward III). Robert had an affair with Agnes de Launcekrona, a lady-in-waiting of Richard's queen, Anne of Bohemia. In 1387, the couple were separated and eventually divorced; Robert took Launcekrona as his second wife.

Downfall

Since Robert was hugely unpopular with the other nobles and magnates, his close relationship with King Richard was one of the catalysts for the emergence of an organised opposition to Richard's rule in the form of the Lords Appellant.

In 1387, Ireland led Richard's forces to defeat at the Battle of Radcot Bridge outside Oxford, against the forces of the Lords Appellant. He fled the field and his forces were left leaderless and compelled into ignominious surrender. He travelled abroad into exile after Radcot Bridge.

He was attainted and sentenced to death in absentia by the Merciless Parliament of 1388, which also made him forfeit his titles and lands. People associated with him were also affected, for the parliament dismissed his Irish Administration, composed of John Stanley, his deputy, who had been serving as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, James Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormond, the governor, Bishop Alexander de Balscot of Meath, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and Sir Robert Crull, Lord High Treasurer of Ireland. [4]

Death

He died in or near Louvain in 1392 of injuries sustained during a boar hunt. Three years later, on the anniversary of his death, 22 November 1395, Richard II had his embalmed body brought back to England for burial. It was recorded by the chronicler Thomas Walsingham that many magnates did not attend the re-burial ceremony because they 'had not yet digested their hatred' of him. The king had the coffin opened to kiss his lost friend's hand and to gaze on his face one last time. [5]

Succession

After Ireland's death, his uncle Sir Aubrey de Vere, was restored to the family titles and estates, becoming 10th Earl of Oxford. The Dukedom of Ireland and Marquessate of Dublin became extinct.

Footnotes

  1. Richardson IV 2011 , pp. 268–9.
  2. McKisack (1959), pp. 425, 442–3.
  3. Saul, Nigel (1997). Richard II. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN   0-300-07003-9. p. 437.
  4. Peter Crooks, The 'Calculus of Faction' and Richard II's Ireland, in Fourteenth Century England, V, ed. Nigel Saul. Woodbridge, England: The Boydell Press, 2008. 111–112 ISBN   978-1-84383-387-1
  5. Saul, 461.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Richard II of England</span> King of England from 1377 to 1399

Richard II, also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. He was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan, Countess of Kent. Richard's father died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to his grandfather, King Edward III; upon the latter's death, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk</span> Fourteenth-century English peer

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, KG was an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of King Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester</span> 14th-century English prince and nobleman

Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester was the fifth surviving son and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duke of Ireland</span> Title created in 1386 for Richard de Vere by Richard II

The title of Duke of Ireland was created in 1386 for Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford (1362–1392), the favourite of King Richard II of England, who had previously been created Marquess of Dublin. Both were peerages for one life only. At this time, only the Pale of Ireland was under English control. Despite its name, the Dukedom of Ireland is generally considered to have been one in the Peerage of England, and is the first time that a Ducal title was created for someone who was not a close relative of the King.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Richard Fitzalan, 4th Earl of Arundel</span> 4th Earl Arundel

Richard Fitzalan, 4th Earl of Arundel, 9th Earl of Surrey, KG was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lords Appellant</span> Rebel lords under King Richard II

The Lords Appellant were a group of nobles in the reign of King Richard II, who, in 1388, sought to impeach some five of the King's favourites in order to restrain what was seen as tyrannical and capricious rule. The word appellant simply means '[one who is] appealing [in a legal sense]'. It is the older (Norman) French form of the present participle of the verb appeler, the equivalent of the English 'to appeal'. The group was called the Lords Appellant because its members invoked a procedure under law to start prosecution of the king's unpopular favourites known as 'an appeal': the favourites were charged in a document called an "appeal of treason", a device borrowed from civil law which led to some procedural complications.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk</span> English financier

Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk, 1st Baron de la Pole, of Wingfield Castle in Suffolk, was an English financier and Lord Chancellor of England. His contemporary Froissart portrays de la Pole as a devious and ineffectual counsellor who dissuaded King Richard II from pursuing a certain victory against French and Scottish forces in Cumberland and fomented undue suspicion of that king's uncle John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Merciless Parliament</span> English parliamentary session

The Merciless Parliament was an English parliamentary session lasting from 3 February to 4 June 1388, at which many members of King Richard II's court were convicted of treason. The session was preceded by a period in which Richard's power was revoked and the kingdom placed under the regency of the Lords Appellant. Richard had launched an abortive military attempt to overthrow the Lords Appellant and negotiate peace with the kingdom of France so he could focus all his resources against his domestic enemies. The Lords Appellant counteracted the attempt and called the Parliamentary session to expose his attempts to make peace. Parliament reacted with hostility and convicted almost all of Richard's advisers of treason. Most were executed and a few exiled. Parliament was dissolved after violence broke out in Kent and the Duke of York and his allies began objecting to some executions. The term "merciless" was coined by Augustinian chronicler Henry Knighton.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wonderful Parliament</span> English parliament of 1386

The Wonderful Parliament was a session of the English parliament held from October to November 1386 in Westminster Abbey. Originally called to address King Richard II's need for money, it quickly refocused on pressing for the reform of his administration. The King had become increasingly unpopular because of excessive patronage towards his political favourites combined with the unsuccessful prosecution of war in France. Further, there was a popular fear that England was soon to be invaded, as a French fleet had been gathering in Flanders for much of the year. Discontent with Richard peaked when he requested a then-unprecedented sum to raise an army with which to invade France. Instead of granting the King's request, the houses of the Lords and the Commons effectively united against him and his unpopular chancellor, Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk. Seeing de la Pole as both a favourite who had unfairly benefited from the King's largesse, and the minister responsible for the King's failures, parliament demanded the earl's impeachment.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Waltham</span> 14th-century Bishop of Salisbury and Treasurer of England

John Waltham was a priest and high-ranking government official in England in the 14th century. He held a number of ecclesiastical and civic positions during the reigns of King Edward III and Richard II, eventually rising to become Lord High Treasurer, Lord Privy Seal of England and Bishop of Salisbury. He is buried in Westminster Abbey, London.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Radcot Bridge</span>

The Battle of Radcot Bridge was fought on 19 December 1387 in medieval England between troops loyal to Richard II, led by court favourite Robert de Vere, and an army captained by Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby. It took place at Radcot Bridge, a bridge over the River Thames, now in Oxfordshire, but then the boundary between Oxfordshire and Berkshire.

Events from the 1380s in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philippa de Coucy</span>

Philippa de Coucy, Countess of Oxford, Duchess of Ireland was a first cousin of King Richard II of England and the wife of his favourite, Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, Marquess of Dublin, Duke of Ireland. Philippa was made a Lady of the Garter in 1378.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marie I de Coucy, Countess of Soissons</span> French countess

Marie I de Coucy was Dame de Coucy and d'Oisy, and Countess of Soissons from 1397. She succeeded suo jure to the title of Countess of Soissons upon the death of her father, Enguerrand VII de Coucy, on 18 February 1397. In addition to her titles, she also possessed numerous estates in northeastern France. She was the wife of Henry of Bar, and the granddaughter of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marquesses in the United Kingdom</span> Rank of nobility in the peerages of the United Kingdom

Marquess is a rank of nobility in the peerages of the United Kingdom.

Maud de Ufford, Countess of Oxford was a wealthy English noblewoman and the wife of Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford. Her only child was Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, the favourite of King Richard II of England. In 1404 in Essex, she took part in a conspiracy against King Henry IV of England and was sent to the Tower of London; however, she was eventually pardoned through the efforts of Queen consort Joanna of Navarre.

Agnes de Launcekrona was Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen consort Anne of Bohemia. She became the second wife of Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, a favourite of King Richard II of England.

Sir Robert Crull (1349–1408) was the Treasurer of Ireland during the reigns of Richard II and Henry IV. Crull is an important figure in the history of English Ireland during the reign of Richard II (1382–1399) for two reasons: his involvement in the antagonism between the Geraldine and Butler families at its most notorious stage, and being at times a sacrificial lamb in Richard II's power struggle with the English Parliament over the stormy colonial politics that ensued.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philip Courtenay (died 1406)</span> English politician

Sir Philip Courtenay, of Powderham, Devon was the fifth son of Hugh Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon (1303–1377). He was the founder of the cadet dynasty known as "Courtenay of Powderham", seated at the manor of Powderham, until then a former Bohun manor of little importance, whilst the line descended from his elder brother, the Earls of Devon of the mediaeval era, continued to be seated at Tiverton Castle and Okehampton.

Sir Thomas Mortimer was a medieval English soldier and statesman who served briefly in several important administrative and judicial state offices in Ireland and played a part in the opposition to the government of King Richard II. He was an illegitimate member of the Mortimer family, who were one of the leading noble houses of England and Ireland, and he helped to manage the Mortimer lands during the minority of the family heir, his nephew Roger, earl of March. Sir Thomas was also a close associate of the Lords Appellant, the powerful faction of nobles who opposed the administration of King Richard II.

References

Political offices
Preceded by Lord Great Chamberlain
1371–1388
Succeeded by
Legal offices
Preceded by Justice of Chester
1387–1388
Succeeded by
Peerage of England
Preceded by Earl of Oxford
1371–1388
Succeeded by