|tragedia lirica by Gaetano Donizetti|
|Based on||Elisabeth d'Angleterre|
by François Ancelot
28 October 1837
Teatro San Carlo, Naples
Roberto Devereux (or Roberto Devereux, ossia Il conte di Essex [Robert Devereux, or the Earl of Essex]) is a tragedia lirica, or tragic opera, by Gaetano Donizetti. Salvadore Cammarano wrote the Italian libretto after François Ancelot's tragedy Elisabeth d'Angleterre (1829), and based as well on the Historie secrete des amours d'Elisabeth et du comte d'Essex (1787) by Jacques Lescéne des Maisons, although Devereux was the subject of at least two other French plays: Le Comte d'Essex by Thomas Corneille and Le Comte d'Essex by Gauthier de Costes, seigneur de la Calprenède.
Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti was an Italian composer. Along with Gioachino Rossini and Vincenzo Bellini, Donizetti was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donizetti's close association with the bel canto style was undoubtedly an influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi.
Salvadore Cammarano was a prolific Italian librettist and playwright perhaps best known for writing the text of Lucia di Lammermoor (1835) for Gaetano Donizetti.
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical. The term libretto is also sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass, requiem and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet.
The opera is loosely based on the life of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, an influential member of the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. The plot of Roberto Devereux was hardly original, mainly derived from Felice Romani's libretto Il Conte d'Essex of 1833, originally set by Saverio Mercadante. Romani's widow charged Cammarano with plagiarism, although the practice of stealing plots was very common between rival Italian opera houses.
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC, was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599. In 1601, he led an abortive coup d'état against the government and was executed for treason.
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor.
Felice Romani was an Italian poet and scholar of literature and mythology who wrote many librettos for the opera composers Donizetti and Bellini. Romani was considered the finest Italian librettist between Metastasio and Boito.
It is one of a number of operas by Donizetti which deal with the Tudor period in English history and include Anna Bolena (named for Henry VIII's second wife, Anne Boleyn), Maria Stuarda (named for Mary, Queen of Scots) and Il castello di Kenilworth . The lead female characters of the operas Anna Bolena, Maria Stuarda, and Elisabetta are often referred to as the "Three Donizetti Queens." They earned some degree of fame in the 1970s, when the American soprano Beverly Sills promoted them as a series at New York City Opera.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor period coincides with the dynasty of the House of Tudor in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (1457–1509). In terms of the entire span, the historian John Guy (1988) argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a thousand years.
England became inhabited more than 800,000 years ago, as the discovery of stone tools and footprints at Happisburgh in Norfolk has revealed. The earliest evidence for early modern humans in North West Europe, a jawbone discovered in Devon at Kents Cavern in 1927, was re-dated in 2011 to between 41,000 and 44,000 years old. Continuous human habitation in England dates to around 13,000 years ago, at the end of the last glacial period. The region has numerous remains from the Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Age, such as Stonehenge and Avebury. In the Iron Age, England, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was inhabited by the Celtic people known as the Britons, including some Belgic tribes in the south east. In AD 43 the Roman conquest of Britain began; the Romans maintained control of their province of Britannia until the early 5th century.
Anna Bolena is a tragic opera in two acts composed by Gaetano Donizetti. Felice Romani wrote the Italian libretto after Ippolito Pindemonte's Enrico VIII ossia Anna Bolena and Alessandro Pepoli's Anna Bolena, both recounting the life of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England's King Henry VIII.
It has been noted that, "although the plot plays fast and loose with history, the opera carries its own brand of dramatic conviction".
The contract for a new opera seria for the Teatro San Carlo in Naples was concluded in spring 1837. The generation of Roberto Devereux was overshadowed by a serious crisis in the life of the composer. During the previous year, Donizetti had lost both his parents and then his wife Virginia Vaselli delivered a stillborn baby. In June 1837, another child died during birth. On July 30, his wife died at the age of 28. Therefore, the rehearsals for the premier began at the end of August 1837; and consequently most of the score had to be written in the month following his wife's death. Additionally, a cholera epidemic delayed again the start of rehearsals.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure.
Salvatore Cammarano's libretto is very truthful to Jacques-François Ancelot's tragedy, a romantic rewrite of the material already dealt with by Pierre Corneille and La Calprenède in France, to which he added individual touches from Lescènes's Historie.
Jacques-Arsène-Polycarpe-François Ancelot was a French dramatist and litterateur.
Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilisation. That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form; Hellenes and Christians, in a common activity," as Raymond Williams puts it.
Pierre Corneille was a French tragedian. He is generally considered one of the three great seventeenth-century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine.
Roberto Devereux was first performed on 28 October 1837 at the Teatro di San Carlo, Naples. Within a few years, the opera's successhad caused it to be performed in most European cities including Paris on 27 December 1838, for which he wrote an overture which quoted, anachronistically, God Save the Queen; London on 24 June 1841; Rome in 1849; Palermo in 1857; in Pavia in 1859 and 1860; and in Naples on 18 December 1865. Also, it was given in New York on 15 January 1849, but it would appear that after 1882, no further performances were given during the 19th century.
20th century and beyond
The beginning of the 20th century revivals of Roberto Devereux started at the San Carlo in Naples in 1964,the revival starring Leyla Gencer. Montserrat Caballé appeared in a combination of concert performances and staged productions between December 1965 and 1978. Roberto Devereux was first performed by the New York City Opera in October 1970 as the first part of the "Three Queens" trilogy, starring Placido Domingo and Beverly Sills. It was performed on a regular basis in European houses during the 1980s and in concert versions by the Opera Orchestra of New York in January 1991 (with Vladimir Chernov), the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in July 2002, and Washington Concert Opera in 2004.
In 2005 the Bavarian State Opera's Munich production starring Edita Gruberová was recorded on DVD by Deutsche Grammophon.
In 2009, performances were given by the Dallas Opera, the Las Palmas Opera, the Opera Holland Park Festival, while 2010 saw productions in Mannheim and Rome as well as by the Minnesota Opera and again Munich's Bavarian State Operaplus its first performance in Quebec in November of that year at the Opéra de Montréal. Welsh National Opera presented this opera (along with the other two "Three Queens" operas) in succession over three evenings beginning in October 2013.
After having debuted the role of Elisabetta at the Opéra de Marseille in 2011,Mariella Devia sang the opera in concert at Maggio Musicale Fiorentino on 18 May 2014 and with the Opera Orchestra of New York (OONY) on 5 June 2014. In 2015 she performed it onstage at the Teatro Real de Madrid and resumed it again in 2016 at the Teatro Carlo Felice of Genoa.
The Metropolitan Opera New York performed a new production of the piece in 2016, starring Sondra Radvanovsky, who also appeared the same season at the Met in the title roles of Donizetti's Anna Bolena and Maria Stuarda .
|Role||Voice type||Premiere cast, 29 October 1837|
(Conductor: – )
|Elisabetta, Queen of England||soprano||Giuseppina Ronzi de Begnis|
|The Duke of Nottingham||baritone||Paul Barroilhet|
|Sara, Duchess of Nottingham||mezzo-soprano||Almerinda Manzocchi Granchi|
|Roberto Devereux, Earl of Essex||tenor||Giovanni Basadonna|
|Lord Cecil||tenor||Timoleone Barattini|
|Sir Gualtiero Raleigh||bass||Anafesto Rossi|
|A servant of Nottingham||bass||Giuseppe Benedetti|
|Lords of the parliament, knights, squires, pages, guards of Nottingham|
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, favorite of Queen Elisabeth, has been removed from office as Governor of Ireland because, acting on his own initiative, he has agreed a ceasefire with the rebels. Following an attempted uprising, he is awaiting his trial for high treason in London.
Scene 1: The Great Hall at Westminster
Sara, Duchess of Nottingham, is trying in vain to hide her tears from the eyes of the Court, as she reads the sad story of Fair Rosamond, the unfortunate lover of King Henry II of England, and therein recognizes a very similar situation to her own. She is in love with Robert Devereux, her husband's closest friend. The Ladies of the court express concern, but she replies that she is happy, while privately revealing her sadness (All'afflitto è dolce il pianto). Elizabeth enters and states that, at the insistence of Nottingham, she has agreed to see Robert once again, now that he has returned from Ireland accused of treason (Duchessa..Alle fervide preci). The Queen is willing to release him without charges if she can be sure of his continued loyalty. To Sara's gradual dismay, the Queen reveals her love for Robert (L'amor suo mi fe' beata). Cecil enters and announces that Parliament is waiting for an answer from the Queen regarding the charges against Robert, since it considers her as being too lenient towards him, but she refuses to sign the death warrant proposed by the Royal Council.
Robert enters and, in a conversation overheard by the increasingly distraught Sara, Elizabeth declares her love for him. Now alone together, Elizabeth promises Robert that the ring she once gave him will always be the pledge of his safety should he ever return it to her. The dream of bygone happy days is shattered by an inappropriate comment by Robert, who assumes that Elizabeth knows the secret of his love for Sara. The Queen, increasingly jealous, demands that Robert name the woman he loves. He denies that he loves anyone (Nascondi, frena i palpiti), and then the Queen leaves.
Nottingham, Robert's friend and supporter, enters and the two men discuss Robert's situation and Nottingham's concerns about his wife's behaviour after he has observed her embroidering a blue shawl (Forse in quel cor sensible, Qui ribelle ognum ti chiama). The two men are interrupted by Cecil demanding that Nottingham attend a meeting of the Peers of the Realm.
Scene 2: Sara's Apartments at Nottingham House
Sara is alone when Robert enters, declaring her to be faithless because she has married Nottingham while he was in Ireland. She defends herself saying that it was the Queen's idea and that she was forced to do her bidding. At the same time, seeing the ring on Robert's finger, she assumes it to be a love token from the Queen, and tells him that they must never see each other again, giving him the blue shawl as a love token. In a final duet (Dacchè tornasti, ahi misera) each declares love for the other and they accept that they must say goodbye. Robert makes plans to escape.
The Great Hall at Westminster
The Queen approaches Cecil to find out what has been decided. Cecil declares that the sentence is death. The Queen, asking Raleigh why the whole process took so long, learns that Robert had a shawl in his possession which he resisted giving over. It is handed to her. Nottingham enters and pleads for Robert's life (Non venni mai si mesto), insisting that he is innocent, but the Queen continues to describe how she knows that Robert has been unfaithful and, when he is brought in, confronts him, showing him the scarf. Nottingham sees it as well and recognizes it. Furious, he declares that he will have vengeance; while at the same time, Elizabeth offers Robert his freedom if he reveals the name of her rival. He refuses and she signs the death warrant, announcing that a cannon shot will be heard as the axe falls. Nottingham fumes that the axe is not a suitable punishment.
Scene 1: Sara's Apartments
Alone, Sara receives Robert's ring along with a letter from him. In it, he tells her to take the ring to Elizabeth and beg for mercy. Before she can leave, Nottingham arrives and reads the letter (Non sai che un nume vindice). Although she protests her innocence, he prevents her from leaving. They both hear the funeral march for Robert as he is led to the Tower, and Nottingham leaves to exact his revenge on Robert. She faints.
Scene 2: The Tower of London
In his cell, Robert ponders as to why it appears that his ring has not been received by the Queen. But he refuses to betray Sara (Come uno spirto angelico... Bagnato il sen di lagrime), and when Cecil arrives at the door of the cell, it is not to free Robert but to take him to his execution. He is led away.
Scene 3: The Great Hall at Westminster
Elizabeth is mournful about the pending death of her lover and wonders why Sara is not there to give her comfort (Vivi ingrato, a lei d'accanto). Cecil announces that Robert is on his way to the block, and Sara arrives disheveled. She gives Elizabeth the ring along with confessing her guilt at being the Queen's rival. In vain, the Queen tries to stop the execution, but they hear the cannon announcing Robert's death. After Nottingham has arrived, Elizabeth demands to know why he prevented the ring from being brought to her. He replies: "Blood I wanted, and blood I got!" Elizabeth is haunted by the headless corpse of Robert, and longs for her own death, announcing that James VI of Scotland (son of Mary Queen of Scots) will be king. Alone, she kisses Robert's ring.
Although not frequently performed today, it contains some of Donizetti's best vocal writing, some of it "first rate" (the end of act 1's duet between Roberto and Sara beginning with "Dacché tornasti, ahi misera" (Since you returned, ah miserable me!)), while the brief second act is "superb."The opera is raw and emotional; it is a powerful vehicle for the soprano. Some of the highlights include the act 1 duet between Elizabeth and Robert, "Nascondi, frena i palpiti" (Hide and check your wild beating / oh my unhappy heart). The final scene is one of the most dramatic and difficult in bel canto opera. As Elizabeth is going mad with the death of her lover, "Quel sangue versato" (That spilled blood / rises to heaven) pushes romantic opera to the limits of melodic expression and has been described as "mak(ing) a powerful end to one of Donizetti's finest and most affecting operas." The final bars contain six high As, one high B-flat and one high B natural, sometimes interpolated as an alt D natural.
Opera House and Orchestra
|1964|| Leyla Gencer,|
Anna Maria Rota,
| Mario Rossi,|
Teatro di San Carlo orchestra and chorus
(Recording of a performance at the San Carlo, Napoli, 2 May)
|CD: Opera d'Oro OPD 1159|
Cat: OPD 1159
|1968|| Montserrat Caballé,|
| Carlo Felice Cillario,|
Gran Teatre del Liceu Orchestra and Chorus
(Recording of a performance in the Gran Teatre del Liceu, November)
|CD: The Opera Lovers|
Cat: ROB 196801
|1969|| Beverly Sills,|
|Sir Charles Mackerras,|
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
and the Ambrosian Opera Chorus
Cat: 289 465 964-2
|1970|| Beverly Sills,|
| Julius Rudel,|
New York City Opera orchestra and chorus
(Recording of a performance at the New York City Opera, 18 October)
|1975|| Beverly Sills,|
| Julius Rudel,|
Filene Center Orchestra & Wolf Trap Company Chorus
(Recording of Tito Capobianco's production, courtesy of the New York City Opera)
|1994|| Edita Gruberová,|
| Friedrich Haider |
Orchestre philharmonique de Strasbourg and the Opéra du Rhin chorus
(Recorded at concert performances in the Palais de la Musique et des Congres, Strasbourg, March)
|1998|| Alexandrina Pendatchanska,|
| Alain Guignal |
Teatro di San Carlo orchestra and chorus
(This appears to be a video recording of a performance in the Teatro San Carlo di Napoli, May or June)
|DVD: Image Entertainment|
Cat: ID 6943 ERDVD
|2002|| Nelly Miricioiu,|
| Maurizio Benini |
Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, orchestra and chorus
(Recorded at concert performances in the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, July)
|CD: Opera Rara |
|2005|| Edita Gruberová,|
Bavarian State Orchestra and Chorus
(Video recording of a performance in the Nationaltheater, Munich, May)
|DVD: Deutsche Grammophon |
Cat: 073 418-5
Orchestra and Chorus of Bergamo Musica Festival G. Donizetti
(Audio and video recordings made at performances in the Teatro Donizetti di Bergamo, September)
|2015|| Mariella Devia,|
Silvia Tro Santafé,
Orchestra Teatro Real de Madrid and Chorus
(Video recording of a performance in the Teatro Real, Madrid, October)
|Blu-ray: BelAir Classiques |
DVD: BelAir Classiques
Teatro Carlo Felice orchestra and chorus
(Video recording of a performance in the Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa, Mars)
|Blu-ray: Dynamic |
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