|Other disciplines||Climbing, alpinism|
Roger Payne (16 July 1956 – 12 July 2012) was a British mountaineer. He was formerly general secretary of the British Mountaineering Council (BMC) and a qualified mountain guide from 1983, taking part in over 20 expeditions to the Karakoram and Himalayan ranges, including K2 and the north face of Changabang. He was an avalanche instructor and climbed in the Alps every year from 1977.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals. When used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, and Bretons. It may also refer to citizens of the former British Empire.
Mountaineering is the set of activities that involves ascending mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, hiking, skiing, and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are usually considered mountaineering as well.
The British Mountaineering Council (BMC) is the national representative body for England and Wales that exists to protect the freedoms and promote the interests of climbers, hill walkers and mountaineers, including ski-mountaineers.
Payne grew up in Hammersmith, London, and took an education degree in 1983at Sunderland Polytechnic where he was president of the mountaineering club. He then became a teacher and climbing instructor and he later moved to Leysin, Switzerland.
Hammersmith is a district of west London, England, located 4.3 miles (6.9 km) west-southwest of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, and identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London.
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
The University of Sunderland is a university located in Sunderland in the North East of England. Its predecessor, Sunderland Technical College, was established as a municipal training college in 1901. It gained university status in 1992. It now has campuses in Sunderland, London and Hong Kong. The university has 13,020 students and was one of six universities to be short-listed for 'University of the Year' in the Times Higher Education Supplement Awards 2012.
Payne was killed aged 55 with eight other climbers by an avalanche whilst traversing Mont Maudit, on the Mont Blanc massif, near Chamonix in the French Alps on 12 July 2012.
An avalanche is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow when the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered. Avalanches are typically triggered in a starting zone from a mechanical failure in the snowpack when the forces of the snow exceed its strength but sometimes only with gradual widening. After initiation, avalanches usually accelerate rapidly and grow in mass and volume as they entrain more snow. If the avalanche moves fast enough, some of the snow may mix with the air forming a powder snow avalanche, which is a type of gravity current.
Mont Maudit is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in France and Italy. The French name literally means "Cursed Mountain". Until the end of the 18th century, Mont Blanc and its satellite peaks were collectively known in French as the Montagne Maudite.
The Mont Blanc massif is a mountain range in the Alps, located mostly in France and Italy, but also straddling Switzerland at its northeastern end. It contains eleven major independent summits, each over 4,000 metres (13,123 ft) in height. It is named after Mont Blanc, the highest point in western Europe and the European Union. Because of its considerable overall altitude, a large proportion of the massif is covered by glaciers, which include the Mer de Glace and the Miage Glacier – the longest glaciers in France and Italy, respectively.
Pumari Chhish, is a high peak of the Hispar Muztagh, a subrange of the Karakoram range. It lies about 4 km east of Khunyang Chhish, in the heart of the Hispar, north of the Hispar Glacier.
Meru Peak is a mountain that lies in the Garhwal Himalayas, in the Uttarakhand region of India. It lies between Thalay Sagar and Shivling, and has some highly challenging routes. The name "Meru" likely originated from Sanskrit word for spine, referencing the shape of the mountain. It is 6,660 metres (21,850 ft) high. It was the site of the world's highest BASE Jump from 'Earth', by Glenn Singleman and Heather Swan from a height of 6,604 metres (21,667 ft) in June 2006 but has since been surpassed by Valery Rozov's 2013 jump from Everest's North Face.
The Seven Summits are the highest mountains of each of the seven continents. Climbing to the summit of all of them is regarded as a mountaineering challenge, first achieved on 30 April 1985 by Richard Bass. The Seven Summits achievement has become noted as an exploration and mountaineering accomplishment.
Sir Christian John Storey Bonington, CVO, CBE, DL is a British mountaineer.
Peter Boardman was a British mountaineer and author. He is best known for a series of bold and lightweight expeditions to the Himalayas, often in partnership with Joe Tasker, and for his contribution to mountain literature. Boardman and Tasker died on the North East Ridge of Mount Everest in 1982. The Boardman Tasker Prize for Mountain Literature was established in their memory.
Jean-Christophe Lafaille was a French mountaineer noted for a number of difficult ascents in the Alps and Himalaya, and for what has been described as "perhaps the finest self-rescue ever performed in the Himalaya", when he was forced to descend the mile-high south face of Annapurna alone with a broken arm, after his climbing partner had been killed in a fall. He climbed eleven of the fourteen eight-thousand-metre peaks, many of them alone or by previously unclimbed routes, but disappeared during a solo attempt to make the first winter ascent of Makalu, the world's fifth highest mountain.
Khunyang Chhish or Kunyang Chhish is the second-highest mountain in the Hispar Muztagh, a subrange of the Karakoram mountains of Pakistan. Alternate variations of the name include Kunyang Kish and Khiangyang Kish, among others. Its height, also sometimes given as 7,823 metres (25,666 ft), is ranked 21st in the world and 8th in Pakistan.
Ashraf Aman is a Pakistani mountaineer, adventurer, and engineer. In 1977, he became the first Pakistani to reach the summit of K2. He operates the travel and tourism-based company "Adventure Tours Pakistan". He is also vice-President of the Alpine Club of Pakistan.
Wojciech Kurtyka is a Polish mountaineer and rock climber, one of the pioneers of the alpine style of climbing the biggest walls in the Greater Ranges. He lived in Wrocław up to 1974 when he moved to Kraków. He graduated as engineer in electronics. In 1985 he beat "Shining Wall" Gasherbrum IV, which Climbing magazine declared beat the wall to get the greatest achievement of mountaineering in the twentieth century. In 2016, he received the Piolet d'Or for lifetime achievement in mountaineering.
Ryszard Pawłowski - Polish alpine and high-altitude climber and photographer. Member of The Explorers Club.
Iván Vallejo Ricaurte is a high-altitude mountaineer from Ecuador. On 1 May 2008, he became the 14th person to reach the summit of all 14 mountains above 8,000 meters, and the 7th without use of supplemental oxygen. He is the first, and still the only, Southern Hemisphere climber to complete all 14 eight-thousanders, without supplemental oxygen.
Robert Lindley Murray Underhill was an American mountaineer best known for introducing modern Alpine style rope and belaying techniques to the U.S. climbing community in the late 1920s and early 1930s.
Alex Găvan is a leading Romanian mountaineer specializing in Himalayan climbing of 8000 meter peaks without using supplemental oxygen or sherpa support in his ascents. By now Alex had successfully climbed six 8000 meter peaks. Since 2006, Alex runs a special project to climb all fourteen 8000 meter mountains in the world. At the present moment, he is the first Romanian climber to reach the summit of Gasherbrum I, Makalu and Shishapangma. His other three successful climbs of Cho Oyu, Manaslu and Broad Peak are second Romanian ascents. In 2006, with the successful ascent of Cho Oyu, Alex became at 24 years old the youngest Romanian ever to have climbed an eight thousand meter peak and was among the few who freely spoke about the Nangpa La shootings. He was awarded with "The 2007 Romanian Sportsman of the Year in High Altitude Mountaineering" by the Romanian Federation of Alpinism and Sport Climbing for the first Romanian ascent of Gasherbrum I.
Ueli Steck was a Swiss rock climber and mountaineer.
Stipe Božić is a Croatian mountaineer, documentary filmmaker, photographer and writer. He is the most successful Croatian Himalayan climber. Božić completed the Seven Summits and is the second European, after Reinhold Messner, to climb the highest peak in the world, Mount Everest, twice. He has directed more than 60 documentary films, mostly related to mountains and climbing.
William D. Hackett (1918–1999) was an American mountaineer.
The Goûter Route is one of the two normal mountaineering routes used to reach the summit of Mont Blanc in the Alps, at a height of 4,808 metres (15,774 ft). The route lies on the north side of the mountain, in France. There have been numerous deaths and injuries sustained by climbers on this route, many during their passage of a dangerous couloir which must crossed before reaching the Goûter Refuge - an important staging post and refuge along this extremely popular and often overcrowded route.
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