Roger Scruton

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Roger Scruton

Roger Scruton by Pete Helme.jpg
Roger Vernon Scruton

(1944-02-27)27 February 1944
Died12 January 2020(2020-01-12) (aged 75)
Alma materMA (philosophy, 1962–1965), [lower-alpha 1] PhD (aesthetics, 1967–1972), Jesus College, Cambridge
OccupationPhilosopher, writer
Known for Traditionalist conservatism
Notable work
The Meaning of Conservatism (1980); Sexual Desire (1986); The Aesthetics of Music (1997); How to Be a Conservative (2014)
Television Why Beauty Matters (BBC Two, 2009)
  • Danielle Laffitte
    (m. 1973;div. 1979)
  • Sophie Jeffreys(m. 1996)

Philosophy career
Era 20th-/21st-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
Main interests
Aesthetics, political philosophy, ethics

Sir Roger Vernon Scruton FBA FRSL ( /ˈskrtən/ ; 27 February 1944 12 January 2020) was an English philosopher and writer who specialised in aesthetics and political philosophy, particularly in the furtherance of traditionalist conservative views. [3] [4]


Editor from 1982 to 2001 of The Salisbury Review , a conservative political journal, Scruton wrote over 50 books on philosophy, art, music, politics, literature, culture, sexuality, and religion; he also wrote novels and two operas. His most notable publications include The Meaning of Conservatism (1980), Sexual Desire (1986), The Aesthetics of Music (1997), and How to Be a Conservative (2014). [5] He was a regular contributor to the popular media, including The Times , The Spectator , and the New Statesman .

Scruton embraced conservatism after witnessing the May 1968 student protests in France. From 1971 to 1992 he was a lecturer and professor of aesthetics at Birkbeck College, London, after which he held several part-time academic positions, including in the United States. [6] In the 1980s he helped to establish underground academic networks in Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe, for which he was awarded the Czech Republic's Medal of Merit (First Class) by President Václav Havel in 1998. [7] Scruton was knighted in the 2016 Birthday Honours for "services to philosophy, teaching and public education". [8]

Early life

Family background

Scruton was born in Buslingthorpe, Lincolnshire, [9] to John "Jack" Scruton, a teacher from Manchester, and his wife, Beryl Claris Scruton (née Haynes), and was raised with his two sisters in High Wycombe and Marlow. [10] The Scruton surname had been acquired relatively recently. Jack's father's birth certificate showed him as Matthew Lowe, after Matthew's mother, Margaret Lowe (Scruton's great grandmother); the document made no mention of a father. However, Margaret Lowe had decided, for reasons unknown, to raise her son as Matthew Scruton instead. Scruton wondered whether she had been employed at the former Scruton Hall in Scruton, Yorkshire, and whether that was where her child had been conceived. [11]

Jack was raised in a back-to-back on Upper Cyrus Street, Ancoats, an inner-city area of Manchester, and won a scholarship to Manchester High School, a grammar school. [12] Scruton told The Guardian that Jack hated the upper classes and loved the countryside, while Beryl entertained "blue-rinsed friends" and was fond of romantic fiction. [10] He described his mother as "cherishing an ideal of gentlemanly conduct and social distinction that ... [his] father set out with considerable relish to destroy". [13]


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Scruton studied at Jesus College, Cambridge (1962–1965 and 1967–1969).
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He was a research fellow at Peterhouse, Cambridge (1969–1971).

The Scrutons lived in a pebbledashed semi-detached house in Hammersley Lane, High Wycombe. [10] [14] Although his parents had been brought up as Christians, they regarded themselves as humanists, so home was a "religion-free zone". [15] Scruton's, indeed the whole family's, relationship with his father was difficult. He wrote in Gentle Regrets (2005): "Friends come and go, hobbies and holidays dapple the soulscape like fleeting sunlight in a summer wind, and the hunger for affection is cut off at every point by the fear of judgement." [16]

After passing his 11-plus, he attended the Royal Grammar School High Wycombe from 1954 to 1962, [17] [18] leaving with three A-levels, in pure and applied mathematics, physics, and chemistry, which he passed with distinction. The results won him an open scholarship in natural sciences to Jesus College, Cambridge, as well as a state scholarship. [19] Scruton writes that he was expelled from the school shortly afterwards, when during one of Scruton's plays the headmaster found the school stage on fire and a half-naked girl putting out the flames. [10] [20] When he told his family he had won a place at Cambridge, his father stopped speaking to him. [21]

Having intended to study natural sciences at Cambridge, where he felt "socially estranged (like virtually every grammar-school boy), [but] spiritually at home", [20] Scruton switched on the first day to moral sciences (philosophy). [10] He graduated with a double first in 1965, [6] then spent time overseas, some of it teaching at the University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour in Pau, France, where he met his first wife, Danielle Laffitte. [22] His mother died around this time; she had been diagnosed with breast cancer and had undergone a mastectomy just before he went to Cambridge. [23]

In 1967 he began studying for his PhD at Jesus, then became a research fellow at Peterhouse, Cambridge (1969–1971), where he lived with Laffitte when she was not in France. [22] It was while visiting her during the May 1968 student protests in France that Scruton first embraced conservatism. He was in the Latin Quarter in Paris, watching students overturn cars, smash windows and tear up cobblestones, and for the first time in his life "felt a surge of political anger": [24]

I suddenly realised I was on the other side. What I saw was an unruly mob of self-indulgent middle-class hooligans. When I asked my friends what they wanted, what were they trying to achieve, all I got back was this ludicrous Marxist gobbledegook. I was disgusted by it, and thought there must be a way back to the defence of western civilization against these things. That's when I became a conservative. I knew I wanted to conserve things rather than pull them down. [10]


Birkbeck, first marriage

Scruton taught at Birkbeck for 21 years. Birkbeck College phototram.jpg
Scruton taught at Birkbeck for 21 years.

Cambridge awarded Scruton his PhD in January 1973 for a thesis entitled "Art and imagination, a study in the philosophy of mind", supervised by Michael Tanner and Elizabeth Anscombe, in which he offered an empiricist theory of aesthetics. [25] The thesis was the basis of his first book, Art and Imagination (1974), which was followed by The Aesthetics of Architecture (1979). From 1971 he taught philosophy at Birkbeck College, London, which specializes in adult education and holds its classes in the evening. [26] Working at Birkbeck left Scruton's days free, so he used the time to study law at the Inns of Court School of Law (1974–1976) and was called to the Bar in 1978; he never practised because he was unable to take a year off work to complete a pupillage. [17] [27] Meanwhile Laffitte taught French at Putney High School, and the couple lived together in a Harley Street apartment previously occupied by Delia Smith. [28] They married in 1973 and divorced in 1979. [10]

Birkbeck was known for its embrace of left-wing politics; Scruton said he was the only conservative there, except for the woman who served meals in the Senior Common Room. [26] In 1974, along with Hugh Fraser, Jonathan Aitken and John Casey, he became a founding member of the Conservative Philosophy Group dining club, which aimed to develop an intellectual basis for conservatism. [29] [30] The historian Hugh Thomas and the philosopher Anthony Quinton attended meetings, as did Margaret Thatcher before she became prime minister. She reportedly said during one meeting in 1975: "The other side have got an ideology they can test their policies against. We must have one as well." [31]

Scruton's academic career at Birkbeck was blighted by his conservatism, particularly by his third book, The Meaning of Conservatism (1980), [32] [33] and later by his editorship of the conservative Salisbury Review. [34] He told The Guardian that his colleagues at Birkbeck vilified him over the book. [21] The Marxist philosopher G. A. Cohen of University College London reportedly refused to teach a seminar with Scruton, although they later became friends. [35] He continued teaching at Birkbeck until 1992, first as a lecturer, by 1980 as reader, then as professor of aesthetics. [36]

The Salisbury Review

Scruton in Prague, 2015 Roger Scruton (2015), Prague.jpg
Scruton in Prague, 2015

In 1982 Scruton became founding editor of The Salisbury Review , a journal championing traditional conservatism in opposition to Thatcherism, which he edited until 2001. [37] [38] The Review was set up by a group of Tories known as the Salisbury Group—founded in 1978 by Diana Spearman and Robert Gascoyne-Cecil [3] —with the involvement of the Peterhouse Right. The latter were conservatives associated with the Cambridge college, including Maurice Cowling, David Watkin and the mathematician Adrian Mathias. [10] [39] [30] As of 1983 it had a circulation of under 1,000; according to Martin Walker, the circulation understated the journal's influence. [30]

Scruton wrote that editing The Salisbury Review effectively ended his academic career in the United Kingdom. The magazine sought to provide an intellectual basis for conservatism, and was highly critical of key issues of the period, including the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, egalitarianism, feminism, foreign aid, multiculturalism and modernism. [40] In the first edition, he wrote: "It is necessary to establish a conservative dominance in intellectual life, not because this is the quickest or most certain way to political influence, but because in the long run, it is the only way to create a climate of opinion favourable to the conservative cause." [30] To begin with, Scruton had to write most of the articles himself, using pseudonyms: "I had to make it look as though there was something there in order that there should be something there!" [40] He believes that the Review "helped a new generation of conservative intellectuals to emerge. At last it was possible to be a conservative and also to the left of something, to say 'Of course, the Salisbury Review is beyond the pale; but ...'" [41]

In 1984 the Review published a controversial article by Ray Honeyford, a headmaster in Bradford, questioning the benefits of multicultural education. [42] [43] Honeyford was forced to retire because of the article and had to live for a time under police protection. [44] The British Association for the Advancement of Science accused the Review of scientific racism, and the University of Glasgow philosophy department boycotted a talk Scruton had been invited to deliver to its philosophy society. Scruton believed that the incidents made his position as a university professor untenable, although he also maintained that "it was worth sacrificing your chances of becoming a fellow of the British Academy, a vice-chancellor or an emeritus professor for the sheer relief of uttering the truth." [37] [45] (Scruton was in fact elected a fellow of the British Academy in 2008.) [46] In 2002 he described the effect of the editorship on his life:

It cost me many thousand hours of unpaid labour, a hideous character assassination in Private Eye , three lawsuits, two interrogations, one expulsion, the loss of a university career in Britain, unendingly contemptuous reviews, Tory suspicion, and the hatred of decent liberals everywhere. And it was worth it. [37]


The 1980s established Scruton as a prolific writer. Thirteen of his non-fiction works appeared between 1980 and 1989, as did first novel, Fortnight's Anger (1981). The most contentious publication was Thinkers of the New Left (1985), a collection of his essays from The Salisbury Review, which criticized 14 prominent intellectuals, including E. P. Thompson, Michel Foucault and Jean-Paul Sartre. [lower-alpha 2] According to The Guardian, the book was remaindered after being greeted with "derision and outrage". Scruton said he became very depressed by the criticism. [47] In 1987 he founded his own publisher, The Claridge Press, which he sold to the Continuum International Publishing Group in 2002. [lower-alpha 3]

From 1983 to 1986 he wrote a weekly column for The Times. Topics included music, wine and motorbike repair, but others were contentious. The features editor, Peter Stothard, said that there was no one he had ever commissioned "whose articles had provoked more rage". [50] Scruton made fun of anti-racism and the peace movement, and his support for Margaret Thatcher while she was prime minister was regarded, he wrote, as an "act of betrayal for a university teacher". His first column, "The Virtue of Irrelevance", argued that universities were destroying education "by making it relevant": "Replace pure by applied mathematics, logic by computer programming, architecture by engineering, history by sociology: the result will be a new generation of well-informed philistines, whose charmlessness will undo every advantage which their learning might otherwise have conferred." [51] Scruton also seemed to call for a resumption of covert CIA funding, deploring in 1985 that "the CIA is now utterly intimidated, refusing to engage even in its most honorable occupation—the support of those publications which tell the truth about the modern world." [52]

Activism in Central Europe

Scruton on "Europe and the Conservative Cause", Budapest, September 2016 Roger Scruton, Budapest, September 2016 (2).jpg
Scruton on "Europe and the Conservative Cause", Budapest, September 2016

From 1979 to 1989, Scruton was an active supporter of dissidents in Czechoslovakia under Communist Party rule, forging links between the country's dissident academics and their counterparts in Western universities. As part of the Jan Hus Educational Foundation, [53] he and other academics visited Prague and Brno, now in the Czech Republic, in support of an underground education network started by the Czech dissident Julius Tomin, smuggling in books, organizing lectures, and eventually arranging for students to study for a Cambridge external degree in theology (the only faculty that responded to the request for help). There were structured courses and samizdat translations, books were printed, and people sat exams in a cellar with papers smuggled out through the diplomatic bag. [54] [55]

Scruton was detained in 1985 in Brno before being expelled from the country. The Czech dissident Bronislava Müllerová watched him walk across the border with Austria: "There was this broad empty space between the two border posts, absolutely empty, not a single human being in sight except for one soldier, and across that broad empty space trudged an English philosopher, Roger Scruton, with his little bag into Austria." [56] On 17 June that year, he was placed on the Index of Undesirable Persons. He wrote that he had also been followed during visits to Poland and Hungary. [57]

For his work in supporting dissidents, Scruton was awarded the First of June Prize in 1993 by the Czech city of Plzeň, and in 1998 he was awarded the Czech Republic's Medal of Merit (First Class) by President Václav Havel. [57] In 2019 the Polish government awarded him the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland. [58] Scruton was strongly critical of figures in the West—in particular Eric Hobsbawm—who "chose to exonerate" the crimes and atrocities of former communist regimes. [59] His experience of dissident intellectual life in 1980s Communist Prague is recorded in fictional form in his novel Notes from Underground (2014). [60] He wrote in 2019 that "despite the appeal of the Poles, Hungarians, Romanians and many more, it is the shy, cynical Czechs to whom I lost my heart and from whom I have never retrieved it". [61]


Farm purchase, second marriage

Scruton rented an apartment in the Albany; the rooms had previously been Alan Clark's servants' quarters. Albany Courtyard.JPG
Scruton rented an apartment in the Albany; the rooms had previously been Alan Clark's servants' quarters.

Scruton took a year's sabbatical from Birkbeck in 1990 and spent it working in Brno in the Czech Republic. [62] That year he registered Central European Consulting, established to offer business advice in post-communist Central Europe. [63] He had been living in an apartment in Notting Hill Gate, which he sold, and when he returned to England rented a cottage in Stanton Fitzwarren, Swindon, from the Moonies, and an apartment in the Albany building on Piccadilly, London, from Alan Clark (it had been Clark's servants' quarters). [10] [62]

From 1992 to 1995 he lived in Boston, Massachusetts, teaching an elementary philosophy course and a graduate course on the philosophy of music for one semester a year, as professor of philosophy at Boston University. Two of his books grew out of these courses: Modern Philosophy: A Survey (1994) and The Aesthetics of Music (1997). In 1993 he bought Sundey Hill Farm in Brinkworth, Wiltshire35 acres (14 ha), later increased to 100 acres (40 ha), and a 250-year-old farmhouse—where he lived after returning from the United States. [64] [47] [65]

While in Boston, Scruton had flown back to England every weekend to indulge his passion for fox hunting, [66] and it was during a meet of the Beaufort Hunt that he met Sophie Jeffreys, an architectural historian. They married in 1996 and set up home on Sundey Hill Farm. [67] [10] Their two children were born in 1998 and 2000. [17] Scruton set up Horsells Farm Enterprises Ltd in 1999, a PR firm that included Japan Tobacco International and Somerfield Stores as clients. [63] [68] He and his publisher were successfully sued for libel that year by the Pet Shop Boys for suggesting that their songs were in large part the work of sound engineers; the group settled for undisclosed damages. [69]

Tobacco company funding

Scruton was criticized in 2002 for having written articles about smoking without disclosing that he was receiving a regular fee from Japan Tobacco International (JTI, formerly R. J. Reynolds). [70] In 1999 he and his wife—as part of their consultancy work for Horshells Farm Enterprises [63] [71] —began producing a quarterly briefing paper, The Risk of Freedom Briefing (1999–2007), about the state's control of risk. [72] Distributed to journalists, the paper included discussions about drugs, alcohol and tobacco, and was sponsored by JTI. [71] [73] [74] Scruton wrote several articles in defence of smoking around this time, including one in 1998 for The Times, [75] three for the Wall Street Journal (two in 1998 and one in 2000), [76] one for City Journal in 2001, [77] and a 65-page pamphlet for the Institute of Economic Affairs, WHO, What, and Why: Trans-national Government, Legitimacy and the World Health Organisation (2000). The latter criticized the World Health Organization's campaign against smoking, arguing that transnational bodies should not seek to influence domestic legislation because they are not answerable to the electorate. [78]

The Guardian reported in 2002 that Scruton had been writing about these issues while failing to disclose that he was receiving £54,000 a year from JTI. [70] The payments came to light when a September 2001 email from the Scrutons to JTI was leaked to The Guardian. Signed by Scruton's wife, the email asked the company to increase their £4,500 monthly fee to £5,500, in exchange for which Scruton would "aim to place an article every two months" in the Wall Street Journal, Times, Telegraph, Spectator, Financial Times, Economist, Independent, or New Statesman. [79] [80] [70] Scruton, who said the email had been stolen, replied that he had never concealed his connection with JTI. [71] In response to The Guardian article, the Financial Times ended his contract as a columnist, [81] The Wall Street Journal suspended his contributions, [82] [83] and the Institute for Economic Affairs said it would introduce an author-declaration policy. [84] Chatto & Windus withdrew from negotiations for a book, and Birkbeck removed his visiting-professor privileges. [73]

Move to the United States

The Scrutons owned Montpelier, near Sperryville, Virginia, from 2004 to 2009. Montpelier near Sperryville, closeup of house (cropped).JPG
The Scrutons owned Montpelier, near Sperryville, Virginia, from 2004 to 2009.

The tobacco controversy damaged Scruton's consultancy business in England. In part because of that, and because the Hunting Act 2004 had banned fox hunting in England and Wales, the Scrutons considered moving to the United States permanently, and in 2004 they purchased Montpelier, an 18th-century plantation house near Sperryville, Virginia. [86] Scruton set up a company, Montpelier Strategy LLC, to promote the house as a venue for weddings and similar events. [63] The couple lived there while retaining Sundey Hill Farm, but decided in 2009 against a permanent move to the United States and sold the house. [85] Scruton held two part-time academic positions during this period. From 2005 to 2009 he was research professor at the Institute for the Psychological Sciences in Arlington, Virginia, a graduate school of Divine Mercy University; and in 2009 he worked at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C., where he wrote his book Green Philosophy (2011). [87]

Wine, opera

From 2001 to 2009 Scruton wrote a wine column for the New Statesman , and contributed to The World of Fine Wine and Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine (2007), with his essay "The Philosophy of Wine". His book I Drink Therefore I am: A Philosopher's Guide to Wine (2009) in part comprises material from his New Statesman column. [88] [89] Scruton also wrote three libretti, two set to music. The first is a one-act chamber piece, The Minister (1994), [90] and the second a two-act opera, Violet (2005). The latter, based on the life of the British harpsichordist Violet Gordon-Woodhouse, was performed twice at the Guildhall School of Music in London in 2005. [17]


Academic posts, knighthood

The Scrutons returned from the United States to live at Sundey Hill Farm in Wiltshire, and Scruton took an unpaid research professorship at the University of Buckingham. [17] In January 2010 he began an unpaid three-year visiting professorship at the University of Oxford to teach graduate classes on aesthetics, [91] and was made a senior research fellow of Blackfriars Hall, Oxford. [92] In 2010 he delivered the Scottish Gifford Lectures at the University of St Andrews on "The Face of God", [93] and from 2011 until 2014 he held a quarter-time professorial fellowship at St Andrews in moral philosophy. [94] [6]

Two novels appeared during this period: Notes from Underground (2014) is based on his experiences in Czechoslovakia, [60] and The Disappeared (2015) deals with child trafficking in a Yorkshire town. [95] Scruton was knighted in the 2016 Birthday Honours for "services to philosophy, teaching and public education". [8] He sat on the editorial board of the British Journal of Aesthetics [96] and on the board of visitors of Ralston College, a new college proposed in Savannah, Georgia, [97] and was a senior fellow of the Ethics and Public Policy Center, a conservative think tank in Washington, D.C. [98]

Building Better, Building Beautiful Commission

In November 2018, Communities Secretary James Brokenshire appointed Scruton as unpaid chair of the British government's Building Better, Building Beautiful Commission, established to promote better home design. [99] Labour and Liberal Democrat MPs objected because of remarks Scruton had made years earlier: he had described Islamophobia as a "propaganda word", homosexuality as "not normal", lesbianism as an attempt to find "committed love that [a woman] can't get from men any more", and date rape as not a crime. He had also made allegedly conspiratorial remarks about the Jewish businessman George Soros. [100] In April 2019, hours after the New Statesman published an interview with Scruton in which he appeared to repeat some of the remarks, Brokenshire dismissed him from the Commission. [101] [102] Brokenshire reversed his decision when it emerged that comments had been published out of context. [103] [104]

The interview had been conducted by George Eaton, then New Statesman joint deputy editor. To publicize it, Eaton tweeted extracts, adding that Scruton had made "a series of outrageous remarks". [103] [105] According to the article, Scruton had called Islamophobia a word "invented by the Muslim Brotherhood in order to stop discussion of a major issue." He had also said: "Anybody who doesn't think that there's a Soros empire in Hungary has not observed the facts"; but the article omitted several of his words: "it's not necessarily an empire of Jews; that's such nonsense." [106] Of the Chinese, Eaton tweeted that Scruton had said: "Each Chinese person is a kind of replica of the next one and that is a very frightening thing." [107] Eaton's article included a few more words: "They're creating robots out of their own people ... each Chinese person is a kind of replica of the next one ...." [101] The transcript showed the full sentence: "In a sense they’re creating robots out of their own people by so constraining what can be done," [108] which suggested Scruton was discussing the Chinese Communist Party. [107] [108] When Scruton's dismissal was announced, Eaton posted a photograph of himself on Instagram drinking champagne, captioned "The feeling when you get right-wing racist and homophobe Roger Scruton sacked as a Tory government adviser". [105]

In "An apology for thinking" in The Spectator, Scruton explained his remarks, adding: "We in Britain are entering a dangerous social condition in which the direct expression of opinions that conflict – or merely seem to conflict – with a narrow set of orthodoxies is instantly punished by a band of self-appointed vigilantes." [109] The next day, Eaton apologized for his tweets and the Instagram post, but otherwise he stood by the interview. [110] The New Statesman published the transcript [108] after Douglas Murray obtained a recording and published details in The Spectator. [105] [111] [112] The New Statesman readers' editor, Peter Wilby, concluded that Eaton had been "clearly at fault in his Instagram post", that his tweet about China had been misleading, and that the other tweets "took words somewhat out of context". Calling Scruton's remarks "outrageous" suggested, Wilby wrote, that Eaton had "approached the interview as a political activist, not as a journalist". [103] The New Statesman apologized, [106] as did James Brokenshire. [104] Scruton was appointed later in July as co-chair of the Building Better, Building Beautiful Commission. [113]

Philosophical and political views


Scruton was trained in analytic philosophy, although he was drawn to other traditions. "I remain struck by the thin and withered countenance that philosophy quickly assumes," he wrote in 2012, "when it wanders away from art and literature, and I cannot open a journal like Mind or The Philosophical Review without experiencing an immediate sinking of the heart, like opening a door into a morgue." [114] He specialised in aesthetics throughout his career. From 1971 to 1992 he taught aesthetics at Birkbeck College. His PhD thesis formed the basis of his first book, Art and Imagination (1974), in which he argued that "what demarcates aesthetic interest from other sorts is that it involves the appreciation of something for its own sake". [115] He subsequently published The Aesthetics of Architecture (1979), The Aesthetic Understanding (1983), The Aesthetics of Music (1997), and Beauty (2010). In 2008 a two-day conference was held at Durham University to assess his impact in the field, and in 2012 a collection of essays, Scruton's Aesthetics, was published by Palgrave Macmillan. [116]

In an Intelligence Squared debate in March 2009, Scruton (seconding historian David Starkey) proposed the motion: "Britain has become indifferent to beauty", and held an image of Botticelli's The Birth of Venus next to one of the supermodel Kate Moss. [117] Later that year he wrote and presented a BBC Two documentary, Why Beauty Matters , in which he argued that beauty should be restored to its traditional position in art, architecture and music. [118] He wrote that he had received "more than 500 e-mails from viewers, all but one saying, 'Thank Heavens someone is saying what needs to be said.'" [119] In 2018 he argued that a belief in God makes for more beautiful architecture: "Who can doubt, on visiting Venice, that this abundant flower of aesthetic endeavor was rooted in faith and watered by penitential tears? Surely, if we want to build settlements today we should heed the lesson of Venice. We should begin always with an act of consecration, since we thereby put down the real roots of a community." [120] [121]

Arguments for conservatism

Best known for his writing in support of conservatism, [122] Scruton's intellectual heroes were Edmund Burke, Coleridge, Dostoevsky, Hegel, Ruskin, and T. S. Eliot. [123] His third book, The Meaning of Conservatism (1980)—which he called "a somewhat Hegelian defence of Tory values in the face of their betrayal by the free marketeers" [124] —was responsible, he said, for blighting his academic career. [21] [125] He supported Margaret Thatcher, while remaining sceptical of her view of the market as a solution to everything, but after the Falklands War, he realized that she "recognised that the self-identity of the country was at stake, and that its revival was a political task". [126]

Scruton wrote in Gentle Regrets (2005) that he found several of Burke's arguments in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) persuasive. Although Burke was writing about revolution, not socialism, Scruton was persuaded that, as he put it, the utopian promises of socialism are accompanied by an abstract vision of the mind that bears little relation to the way most people think. Burke also convinced him that there is no direction to history, no moral or spiritual progress; that people think collectively toward a common goal only during crises such as war, and that trying to organize society this way requires a real or imagined enemy; hence, Scruton wrote, the strident tone of socialist literature. [127]

Scruton further argued, following Burke, that society is held together by authority and the rule of law, in the sense of the right to obedience, not by the imagined rights of citizens. Obedience, he wrote, is "the prime virtue of political beings, the disposition that makes it possible to govern them, and without which societies crumble into 'the dust and powder of individuality'". Real freedom does not stand in conflict with obedience, but is its other side. [127] He was also persuaded by Burke's arguments about the social contract, including that most parties to the contract are either dead or not yet born. To forget this, he wrote—to throw away customs and institutions—is to "place the present members of society in a dictatorial dominance over those who went before, and those who came after them". [128]

Beliefs that appear to be examples of prejudice may be useful and important, he wrote: "our most necessary beliefs may be both unjustified and unjustifiable, from our own perspective, and the attempt to justify them will merely lead to their loss." A prejudice in favour of modesty in women and chivalry in men, for example, may aid the stability of sexual relationships and the raising of children, although these are not offered as reasons in support of the prejudice. It may therefore be easy to show the prejudice as irrational, but there will be a loss nonetheless if it is discarded. [129] Scruton was critical of the contemporary feminist movement, while reserving praise for suffragists such as Mary Wollstonecraft. [21] However, he praised Germaine Greer in 2016, saying that she had "cast an awful lot of light on our literary tradition" by showing the male as the dominant figure, and defended her against criticism for having used the word "sex" to describe the difference between men and women, rather than "gender", which Scruton called "politically correct". [130]

Scruton discussing the European Union and the nation state, November 2015

In Arguments for Conservatism (2006), Scruton marked out the areas in which philosophical thinking is required if conservatism is to be intellectually persuasive. He argued that human beings are creatures of limited and local affections. Territorial loyalty is at the root of all forms of government where law and liberty reign supreme; every expansion of jurisdiction beyond the frontiers of the nation state leads to a decline in accountability. [131]

He opposed elevating the "nation" above its people, which would threaten rather than facilitate citizenship and peace. "Conservatism and conservation" are two aspects of a single policy, that of husbanding resources, including the social capital embodied in laws, customs and institutions, and the material capital contained in the environment. He argued further that the law should not be used as a weapon to advance special interests. People impatient for reform—for example in the areas of euthanasia or abortion—are reluctant to accept what may be "glaringly obvious to others—that the law exists precisely to impede their ambitions". [132]

The book defines post-modernism as the claim that there are no grounds for truth, objectivity, and meaning, and that conflicts between views are therefore nothing more than contests of power. Scruton argued that, while the West is required to judge other cultures in their own terms, Western culture is adversely judged as ethnocentric and racist. He wrote: "The very reasoning which sets out to destroy the ideas of objective truth and absolute value imposes political correctness as absolutely binding, and cultural relativism as objectively true." [133]


Scruton was an Anglican. His book Our Church: A Personal History of the Church of England (2013) defended the relevance of the Church of England.[ citation needed ] He contends, following Immanuel Kant, that human beings have a transcendental dimension, a sacred core exhibited in their capacity for self-reflection. [134] He argues that we are in an era of secularization without precedent in the history of the world; writers and artists such as Rainer Maria Rilke, T. S. Eliot, Edward Hopper and Arnold Schoenberg "devoted much energy to recuperating the experience of the sacred—but as a private rather than a public form of consciousness." Because these thinkers directed their art at the few, he writes, it has never appealed to the many. [135]

Scruton considered that religion plays a basic function in "endarkening" human minds. "Endarkenment" is Scruton's way of describing the process of socialization through which certain behaviours and choices are closed off and forbidden to the subject, which he considers necessary to curb socially damaging impulses and behaviour. [136] [137] On the matter of evidence of God's existence, Scruton said: "Rational argument can get us just so far… It can help us to understand the real difference between a faith that commands us to forgive our enemies, and one that commands us to slaughter them. But the leap of faith itself — this placing of your life at God's service — is a leap over reason's edge. This does not make it irrational, any more than falling in love is irrational." [138] However, despite claiming that belief alone is sufficiently rational, he advocated a form of the argument from beauty: he said that when we take the beauty in the natural world around us as a gift, we are able to openly understand God. The beauty speaks to us, he claims, and from it we can understand God's presence around us. [139]


Scruton defined totalitarianism as the absence of any constraint on central authority, with every aspect of life the concern of government. Advocates of totalitarianism feed on resentment, Scruton argues, and having seized power they proceed to abolish institutions—such as the law, property, and religion—that create authorities: "To the resentful it is these institutions that are the cause of inequality, and therefore the cause of their humiliations and failures." He argues that revolutions are not conducted from below by the people, but from above, in the name of the people, by an aspiring elite. [135] The importance of Newspeak in totalitarian societies, he writes, is that the power of language to describe reality is replaced by language whose purpose is to avoid encounters with realities. He agrees with Alain Besançon that the totalitarian society envisaged by George Orwell in Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) can be only understood in theological terms, as a society founded on a transcendental negation. In accordance with T. S. Eliot, Scruton believes that true originality is only possible within a tradition, and that it is precisely in modern conditions—conditions of fragmentation, heresy, and unbelief—that the conservative project acquires its sense. [140]


The philosopher of religion Christopher Hamilton described Scruton's Sexual Desire (1986) as "the most interesting and insightful philosophical account of sexual desire" produced within analytic philosophy. [141] The book influenced subsequent discussions of sexual ethics. [142] [143] [144] Martha Nussbaum credited Scruton in 1997 with having provided "the most interesting philosophical attempt as yet to work through the moral issues involved in our treatment of persons as sex partners". [145]

According to Jonathan Dollimore, Scruton based a conservative sexual ethic on the Hegelian proposition that "the final end of every rational being is the building of the self", which involves recognizing the other as an end in itself. Scruton argues that the major feature of perversion is "sexual release that avoids or abolishes the other", which he sees as narcissistic and solipsistic. [146] Nussbaum countered that Scruton did not apply his principle of otherness equally—for example, to sexual relationships between adults and children or between Protestants and Catholics. [147] In an essay, "Sexual morality and the liberal consensus" (1990), Scruton wrote that homosexuality is a perversion because the body of the homosexual's lover belongs to the same category as his own. [148] He further argued that gay people have no children and consequently no interest in creating a socially stable future. He therefore considered it justified to "instil in our children feelings of revulsion" towards homosexuality, [137] and in 2007 he challenged the idea that gay people should have the right to adopt. [149] Scruton told The Guardian in 2010 that he would no longer defend the view that revulsion against homosexuality can be justified. [21]

Animal rights

Scruton: rights imply obligations. Roger Scruton, September 2002.jpg
Scruton: rights imply obligations.

In Animal Rights and Wrongs (2000), Scruton identifies three kinds of relationships of duty between humans and other animals: relationships with pets, who are given "honorary membership of the moral community"; with animals that are kept to be used in some way, "where we have a clear duty of care but we are not trying to establish quasi-personal relations"; and with wild animals. [150] Scruton supports and grew to love hunting: "My life divides into three parts," he wrote in On Hunting (1998). "In the first I was wretched; in the second ill at ease; in the third hunting." [151] [152] [153] For animals to have rights in the way humans have rights, he argues, they would also have to be "accorded not only the benefits of morality, but also the burdens, which are huge". [150] Every legal privilege, he writes, imposes a burden on the one who does not possess that privilege: that is, "your right may be my duty." He accuses animal rights advocates of "pre-scientific" anthropomorphism, attributing traits to animals that are, he says, Beatrix Potter-like, where "only man is vile." [154]

A deontologist, Scruton was critical of the consequentialist, utilitarian approach of the Australian philosopher and animal-rights advocate Peter Singer. [154] [155] Scruton wrote that Singer's works, including Animal Liberation (1975), "contain little or no philosophical argument. They derive their radical moral conclusions from a vacuous utilitarianism that counts the pain and pleasure of all living things as equally significant and that ignores just about everything that has been said in our philosophical tradition about the real distinction between persons and animals." [154]

Other views

In 2014, Scruton stated that he supported English independence because he believed that it would uphold friendship between England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, and because the English would have a say in all matters. [156] In 2019, when asked if he believed in English independence, he told the New Statesman:

No, I don't think I've ever really favoured English independence. My view is that if the Scots want to be independent then we should aim for the same thing ... I don't think the Welsh want independence, the Northern Irish certainly don't. The Scottish desire for independence is, to some extent, a fabrication. They want to identify themselves as Scots but still ... enjoy the subsidy they get from being part of the kingdom. I can see there are Scottish nationalists who envision something more than that, but if that becomes a real political force then yeah, we should try for independence too. As it is, as you know, the Scots have two votes: they can vote for their own parliament and vote to put their people into our parliament, who come to our parliament with no interest in Scotland but an interest in bullying us. [108]


After learning in July 2019 that he had cancer, Scruton underwent chemotherapy, which extended his life. [61] He died on 12 January 2020 at the age of 75. [157] [158] Following his death, Conservative MEP Daniel Hannan called him "the greatest conservative of our age", adding: "The country has lost a towering intellect. I have lost a wonderful friend." Robert Jenrick, Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government, tweeted: "Deeply sorry to learn of the death of Sir Roger Scruton. His work on building more beautifully, submitted recently to my department, will proceed and stand part of his unusually rich legacy." [159] Douglas Murray paid tribute to Scruton's personal kindness, calling him "one of the kindest, most encouraging, thoughtful, and generous people you could ever have known". [160]

Selected works

Source: [161]





See also


  1. Scruton's BA was incepted as an MA in 1967.[ citation needed ]
  2. The subjects of Thinkers of the New Left are E. P. Thompson, Ronald Dworkin, Michel Foucault, R. D. Laing, Raymond Williams, Rudolf Bahro, Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Immanuel Wallerstein, Jürgen Habermas, Perry Anderson, György Lukács, John Kenneth Galbraith and Jean-Paul Sartre.
  3. "The Continuum International Publishing Group is delighted to announce the acquisition of the small, independent publishing house Claridge Press from its proprietor, the philosopher, Professor Roger Scruton." [48] [49]

Related Research Articles

Maurice John Cowling was a British historian and a Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge.

<i>The Salisbury Review</i>

The Salisbury Review is a British conservative magazine, published quarterly and founded in 1982. Roger Scruton was its chief editor for eighteen years and published it through his Claridge Press. It was named after Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, the British prime minister at the end of the nineteenth century. From 2000 the editor was the historian A. D. Harvey. The managing editor from 2006 to 2012 was Merrie Cave. The editor as of 2012 is Myles Harris. Myles Harris is employed with Bloomberg BNA as of 22 January 2019. He is currently serving as a Sales Representative specializing in HR, Law and Tax.

The Conservative Philosophy Group (CPG) was formed in the UK in 1974 by Sir Hugh Fraser, a Conservative MP, to provide an intellectual basis for conservatism at a time when the Conservative Party had just lost two general elections and elected a new leader, Margaret Thatcher. It was founded with four board members: Fraser, Roger Scruton, John Casey, and Jonathan Aitken MP.

Kenneth Minogue Australian political theorist

Professor Kenneth Robert Minogue was an Australian conservative political theorist who was Emeritus Professor of Political Science and Honorary Fellow at the London School of Economics.

John Casey is a British academic and a writer for The Daily Telegraph. He has been described as "mentor" to Roger Scruton and is a former lecturer in English at the University of Cambridge and a former lecturer and a Life Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. In 1975, along with Scruton, he founded the Conservative Philosophy Group. Though not a member of Peterhouse, he has been considered part of the Cambridge Right, which included scholars from Selwyn College, Gonville and Caius College and Christ's College as well. He was editor of The Cambridge Review between 1975 and 1979.

Douglas Murray (author) British political commentator

Douglas Kear Murray is a British conservative author, journalist and political commentator. He founded the Centre for Social Cohesion in 2007, which became part of the Henry Jackson Society, where he was Associate Director from 2011–18. He is also an associate editor of the British political and cultural magazine The Spectator. Murray writes for a number of publications, including Standpoint and The Wall Street Journal. He is the author of Neoconservatism: Why We Need It (2005), Bloody Sunday: Truths, Lies and the Saville Inquiry (2011) about the Bloody Sunday Inquiry, The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam (2017), and The Madness of Crowds: Gender, Race and Identity (2019).

Traditionalist conservatism, also known as classical conservatism, traditional conservatism, and infrequently Toryism is a political philosophy or ideology emphasizing the need for the principles of a transcendent moral order, manifested through certain natural laws to which society ought to conform in a prudent manner. Shortened to traditionalism and in the United Kingdom and Canada referred to as Toryism, traditionalist conservatism is a variant of conservatism based on the political philosophies of Aristotle and Edmund Burke. Traditionalists emphasize the bonds of social order and the defense of ancestral institutions over what it considers excessive individualism.

British neoconservatism is more socially liberal than its US counterpart, but shares a world view of threats and opportunities. British neoconservatives are strong proponents of foreign intervention in the Arab world and beyond, the role of the private sector in military contracts and an alliance with Israel.

Ray Honeyford was a British head teacher.

In psychiatry, oikophobia is an aversion to home surroundings. It can also be used more generally to mean an abnormal fear of the home, or of the contents of a house. The term derives from the Greek words oikos, meaning household, house, or family, and phobos, meaning "fear".

Jan Hus Educational Foundation Underground education network in the former Czechoslovakia

The Jan Hus Educational Foundation was founded in May 1980 by a group of British philosophers at the University of Oxford. The group operated an underground education network in Czechoslovakia, then under Communist Party rule, running seminars in philosophy, smuggling in books, and arranging for Western academics to give lectures.

This a list of the published works of English philosopher Roger Scruton.

<i>Thinkers of the New Left</i> book by Roger Scruton

Thinkers of the New Left is a 1985 book by the English philosopher Roger Scruton, in which the author analyses and criticizes the New Left. Scruton concentrates on 14 authors he considers representatives of the movement: E. P. Thompson, Ronald Dworkin, Michel Foucault, R. D. Laing, Raymond Williams, Rudolf Bahro, Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Immanuel Wallerstein, Jürgen Habermas, Perry Anderson, György Lukács, John Kenneth Galbraith and Jean-Paul Sartre. Thinkers of the New Left proved controversial because of Scruton's attacks on the British Left, and according to Scruton himself, its reception damaged his career. Some of the material in Thinkers of the New Left appeared in reworked form in a 2015 book titled Fools, Frauds and Firebrands: Thinkers of the New Left.

<i>What Is Philosophy?</i> (Deleuze and Guattari) book by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari

What is Philosophy? is a 1991 book by the philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. The two had met shortly after May 1968 when they were in their forties and collaborated most notably on Capitalism & Schizophrenia and Kafka: Towards a Minority Literature (1975). In this, the last book they co-signed, philosophy, science, and art are treated as three modes of thought.

<i>Sexual Desire</i> (book) 1986 book about the philosophy of sex by Roger Scruton

Sexual Desire: A Philosophical Investigation, published as Sexual Desire: A Moral Philosophy of the Erotic in the United States, is a 1986 book about the philosophy of sex by the philosopher Roger Scruton, in which the author discusses sexual desire and erotic love, arguing against the idea that the former expresses the animal part of human nature while the latter is an expression of its rational side. The book was first published in the United Kingdom by Weidenfeld and Nicolson, and in the United States by Free Press.

Mark Dooley Irish journalist

Mark Dooley is an Irish philosopher, writer and newspaper columnist. A specialist in continental philosophy, theology and the philosophy of religion, he is the author of several books, including The Politics of Exodus: Kierkegaard's Ethics of Responsibility (2001), Roger Scruton: The Philosopher of Dover Beach (2009), and Why Be a Catholic? (2011).

<i>The Disappeared</i> (novel) book by Roger Scruton

The Disappeared is a 2015 novel by the English writer Roger Scruton. It tells the story of a schoolgirl from Northern England who has become the victim of an immigrant child grooming gang. Through clues in her essay on William Shakespeare's The Tempest, one of her teachers learns about the situation and tries to find a way to help her.

<i>How to Be a Conservative</i> book by Roger Scruton

How to Be a Conservative is a 2014 book by the English philosopher Roger Scruton, in which the author outlines the conservative ideology, its opposition to materialism, and argues how it can be applied to crucial contemporary issues.

George Eaton is a British writer and journalist. He is an assistant editor of the New Statesman, a position he has held since May 2019. He was previously political editor from 2014 to 2018 and then joint deputy editor from 2018 to 2019.

<i>Conservatism: An Invitation to the Great Tradition</i> Book by Roger Scruton

Conservatism: An Invitation to the Great Tradition is a 2017 book by the English philosopher Roger Scruton, in which the author outlines the development of modern conservatism. It is intended as an introduction to conservatism, with the author stating, "I have written this book in the hope of encouraging well-meaning liberals to take a look at what [the] arguments [for conservatism] really are”.


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  3. 1 2 Cowling, Maurice (1990). Mill and Liberalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. xxix.
  4. Garnett, Mark; Hickson, Kevin (2013). Conservative thinkers: The key contributors to the political thought of the modern Conservative Party. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. 113–115.
  5. See Roger Scruton bibliography.
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  7. Day, Barbara (1999). The Velvet Philosophers. London: The Claridge Press. 281–282.
  8. 1 2 "No. 61608". The London Gazette (Supplement). 11 June 2016. p. B2.
    "The 2016 Queen's Birthday Honours List" (PDF). 10 June 2016.
  9. Cumming, Naomi (January 2001). "Scruton, Roger". Grove Music Online.
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  12. England: An Elegy, 141.
  13. Scruton, Roger (2005). Gentle Regrets: Thoughts From a Life. London: Continuum, 11.
  14. Gentle Regrets, 89.
  15. Scruton, Roger (March 2009). "The New Humanism". American Spectator.
  16. Gentle Regrets, 94.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 Scruton, Roger. "About". Archived from the original on 31 August 2010.
  18. England: An Elegy, 25.
  19. "Examination successes, 1961–62" (PDF). The Wycombiensian. XIII (6). September 1962. 328–330. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 February 2017.
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  21. 1 2 3 4 5 Edemariam, Aida (5 June 2010). "Roger Scruton: A pessimist's guide to life". The Guardian.
  22. 1 2 Scruton, Roger; Dooley, Mark (2016). Conversations with Roger Scruton. London and New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. 18, 35.
  23. Gentle Regrets, 104ff.
  24. Gentle Regrets, 37.
  25. Scruton, Roger (1973). "Art and imagination, a study in the philosophy of mind" (doctoral thesis). Apollo, University of Cambridge repository. doi : 10.17863/CAM.15915
  26. 1 2 Gentle Regrets, 39.
  27. Gentle Regrets, 57; Scruton & Dooley 2016 , 39.
  28. Scruton & Dooley 2016, 41.
  29. Gentle Regrets, 45; Scruton & Dooley 2016 , 46–47.
  30. 1 2 3 4 Walker, Martin (1 March 1983). "The unthinkable men behind Mrs Thatcher". The Guardian. 17.
  31. Young, Hugo (2013). One of Us. London: Pan Macmillan, 221.
  32. Scruton, Roger (1980). The Meaning of Conservatism. London: The Macmillan Press.
  33. Goss, Maxwell (January 2006). "The Joy of Conservatism: An Interview with Roger Scruton". New Pantagruel (courtesy of
  34. Gentle Regrets, 51; Scruton & Dooley 2016 , 46.
  35. Scruton & Dooley 2016 , 46.
  36. Scruton & Dooley 2016, 39.
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  38. Scruton, Roger (1988). Conservative Thoughts: Essays from the Salisbury Review. London: The Claridge Press.
  39. For the Peterhouse Right (he calls it the Peterhouse Group) and The Salisbury Review, see Haseler, Stephen (1989). The battle for Britain: Thatcher and the New Liberals. London: I.B. Tauris, 138; Gentle Regrets, 51.
  40. 1 2 Scruton & Dooley 2016, 47.
  41. Gentle Regrets, 59.
  42. Honeyford, Ray (27 August 2006). "Education and Race—an Alternative View", The Daily Telegraph (reprint of Honeyford's 1984 article).
  43. Scruton, Roger (5 July 2014). "Let's face it – Ray Honeyford got it right on Islam and education", The Spectator.
  44. "Ray Honeyford", The Daily Telegraph, 8 February 2012.
    For background on the Honeyford controversy, see Miller, Kathryn (26 August 2006). "Headteacher who never taught again after daring to criticise multiculturalism", The Daily Telegraph.
    Halstead, Mark (1988). Education, Justice, and Cultural Diversity: An Examination of the Honeyford Affair, 1984–85. Barcombe: Falmer Press.
  45. Gentle Regrets, 77.
  46. "Elections to the Fellowship 2008". British Academy. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012.
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  48. "The Claridge Press and Continuum", The Salisbury Review, 21–22, 2002, 56.
  49. "Roger Scruton", American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 9 July 2009.
  50. Stothard, Peter (29 June 2009). "Michael Jackson, man of 'the stagnant crowd', and two other men". The Times. Archived from the original on 15 July 2009.
  51. Scruton & Dooley 2016 , 50–52.
  52. Coleman, Peter (1989). The Liberal Conspiracy. New York: The Free Press. 247.
  53. Day 1999, 124ff.
  54. Vaughan, David (31 October 2010). "Roger Scruton and a special relationship", Radio Prague.
  55. Hanley, Seán (2008). The New Right in the New Europe: Czech Transformation and Right-wing politics, 1989–2006. London: Routledge, 47.
  56. Day 1999, 255.
  57. 1 2 Day 1999 , 281–282; Gentle Regrets, 142.
  58. "Poland Bestows Honor on Philosopher Fired by British Govt". U.S. News & World Report. Associated Press. 4 June 2019.
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  62. 1 2 Scruton & Dooley 2016 , 109–112.
  63. 1 2 3 4 Scruton, Roger. "Company interests". Archived from the original on 2 September 2010.
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  65. Ross, Deborah (13 December 1998). "Interview: Roger Scruton". The Independent.
  66. On Hunting, 1998; Scruton & Dooley 2016 , 116.
  67. Gentle Regrets, 106.
  68. "About us". Horsells Farm Enterprises. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019.
  69. "Libel damages for Pet Shop Boys", BBC News, 21 December 1999.
  70. 1 2 3 Gilmore, Anna and McKee, Martin (2004). "Tobacco-control policy in the European Union", in Eric A. Feldman and Ronald Bayer (eds.). Unfiltered: Conflicts over Tobacco Policy and Public Health. Harvard University Press, 254.
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  72. "The Risk of Freedom briefing, April 2000–July 2007". Archived from the original on 20 November 2008.
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  75. Scruton, Roger (19 October 1998). "A Snort of Derision at Society". The Times; Giles, Jim (16 February 2008). "Anti-smoking academics 'funded by tobacco firms'". New Scientist, 197(2643), 11. doi : 10.1016/S0262-4079(08)60385-1
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  77. Scruton, Roger (Winter 2001). "What Is Acceptable Risk?". City Journal. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019.
  78. Scruton, Roger (May 2000). WHO, What, and Why: Trans-national government, Legitimacy and the World Health Organisation. London: Institute of Economic Affairs. ISBN   978-0255364874
  79. Maguire, Kevin and Borger, Julian (24 January 2002). "Scruton in media plot to push the sale of cigarettes". The Guardian.
  80. Stille, Alexander (23 March 2002). "Advocating Tobacco, On the Payroll Of Tobacco". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018.
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  87. Scruton & Dooley 2016, 183.
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  93. "The Face of God". University of St Andrews Gifford Lectures, 2010.
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  96. "Editorial board", British Journal of Aesthetics, accessed 6 December 2010.
  97. "Board of Visitors". Ralston College. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020.
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  101. 1 2 Eaton, George (10 April 2019). "Roger Scruton: 'Cameron's resignation was the death knell of the Conservative Party'". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019.
  102. Maguire, Patrick (10 April 2019). "James Brokenshire sacks Roger Scruton as government housing tsar". New Statesman.
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  104. 1 2 Brokenshire, James (13 July 2019). "Full letter: James Brokenshire apologises to Roger Scruton". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019.
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  114. Scruton, Roger (October 2012). "Confessions of a Sceptical Francophile". Philosophy. 87 (4): 477–495. doi:10.1017/S0031819112000368.
  115. Samuel Todd, Cain (April 2004). "Imagination, Attitude and Experience in Aesthetic Judgement". Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics.
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  117. Bayley, Stephen (22 March 2009). "Has Britain become indifferent to beauty?. The Guardian.
  118. "Why Beauty Matters". BBC Two. 28 November 2009.
  119. Scruton, Roger (May 2010). "On Defending Beauty". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on 19 May 2010.
  120. Scruton, Roger (Autumn 2018). "The Beauty of Belonging". Plough Quarterly.
  121. Phillips, Francis (7 November 2018). "Only religion could have inspired the beauties of Venice". Catholic Herald.
  122. Freeman, Samuel (21 April 2016). "The Enemies of Roger Scruton", New York Review of Books.
  123. Dooley, Mark (2009). The Roger Scruton Reader. London and New York: Continuum, xii.
  124. Gentle Regrets, 51.
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  128. Gentle Regrets, 43.
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Further reading