Roman Polanski

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Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski at Cannes in 2013 cropped and brightened.jpg
Polanski at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival
Born
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański

(1933-08-18) 18 August 1933 (age 85)
Paris, France
Citizenship Poland, France [1]
OccupationFilm director, producer, writer, actor
Years active1953–present
Spouse(s)
Children2; including Morgane Polanski
Conviction(s) Statutory rape (1978) [2]
Capture status
International fugitive [2]
Wanted by
California
Wanted since1978

Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish [3] film director, producer, writer, and actor. Since 1978, he has been a fugitive from the U.S. criminal justice system, having fled the country while awaiting sentencing in his sexual abuse case, in which he pleaded guilty to statutory rape. [2]

Roman Polanski sexual abuse case

In March 1977, film director Roman Polanski was arrested and charged in Los Angeles with five offenses against Samantha Geimer, a 13-year-old girl – rape by use of drugs, perversion, sodomy, lewd and lascivious act upon a child under 14, and furnishing a controlled substance to a minor. At his arraignment, Polanski pleaded not guilty to all charges but later accepted a plea bargain whose terms included dismissal of the five initial charges in exchange for a guilty plea to the lesser charge of engaging in unlawful sexual intercourse.

In common law jurisdictions, statutory rape is nonforcible sexual activity in which one of the individuals is below the age of consent. Although it usually refers to adults engaging in sexual contact with minors under the age of consent, it is a generic term, and very few jurisdictions use the actual term statutory rape in the language of statutes.

Contents

Polanski was born in Paris, and his Polish-Jewish parents moved the family back to Poland in 1936. Three years later, Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany starting World War II and the Polanskis found themselves trapped in the Kraków Ghetto. After his mother and father were taken in raids, Polanski spent his formative years in foster homes under an adopted identity, trying to survive the Holocaust. [4] Polanski's first feature-length film, Knife in the Water (1962), was made in Poland and was nominated for a United States Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. [5] He has since received five more Oscar nominations, along with two BAFTAs, four Césars, a Golden Globe Award and the Palme d'Or of the Cannes Film Festival in France. In the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion (1965). In 1968, he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemary's Baby (1968).

Invasion of Poland invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent

The invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September campaign or the 1939 defensive war, and in Germany as the Poland campaign (Polenfeldzug), was an invasion of Poland by Germany that marked the beginning of World War II. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union. The Soviets invaded Poland on 17 September following the Molotov–Tōgō agreement that terminated the Soviet and Japanese Battles of Khalkhin Gol in the east on 16 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Kraków Ghetto ghetto

The Kraków Ghetto was one of five major, metropolitan Jewish Ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. It was established for the purpose of exploitation, terror, and persecution of local Polish Jews, as well as the staging area for separating the "able workers" from those who would later be deemed unworthy of life. The Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to their deaths at Bełżec extermination camp as well as Płaszów slave-labor camp, and Auschwitz concentration camp, 60 kilometres (37 mi) rail distance.

A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, and four friends were brutally murdered by members of the Manson Family. [6] Following her death, Polanski returned to Europe and eventually continued directing. He made Macbeth (1971) in England and back in Hollywood, Chinatown (1974), which was nominated for eleven Academy Awards. [7]

Sharon Tate American actor, model, and murder victim

Sharon Marie Tate Polanski was an American actress and model. During the 1960s, she played small television roles before appearing in films and was regularly featured in fashion magazines as a model and cover girl. After receiving positive reviews for her comedic and dramatic acting performances, Tate was hailed as one of Hollywood's most promising newcomers.

Manson Family Place in California, United States

The Manson Family was a desert commune and cult active in California in the late 1960s. Led by Charles Manson, the group consisted of approximately 100 of his followers who lived an unconventional lifestyle with habitual use of hallucinogenic drugs. Most of the group members were young women from middle-class backgrounds, many of whom were radicalized by Manson's teachings and drawn by hippie culture and communal living.

<i>Macbeth</i> (1971 film) 1971 film by Roman Polanski

Macbeth is a 1971 British-American historical period drama film directed by Roman Polanski and co-written by Polanski and Kenneth Tynan. A film adaptation of William Shakespeare's tragedy of the same name, it tells the story of the Highland lord who becomes King of Scotland through treachery and murder.

In 1977, Polanski was arrested and charged with drugging and raping a 13-year-old girl. He subsequently pled guilty to the lesser offence of unlawful sex with a minor. [8] After spending 42 days undergoing psychiatric evaluation in prison in preparation for sentencing, Polanski, who had expected to be put on probation, fled to Paris after learning that the judge planned to imprison him. [9]

In Europe, Polanski continued to make films, including Tess (1979), starring Nastassja Kinski. It won France's César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director, and received three Oscars. He later produced and directed The Pianist (2002), a drama about a Jewish-Polish musician escaping Nazi persecution, starring Adrien Brody and Emilia Fox. The film won three Academy Awards including Best Director, along with numerous international awards. He also directed Oliver Twist (2005), a story which parallels his own life as a "young boy attempting to triumph over adversity". [10] He was awarded Best Director for The Ghost Writer (2010) at the 23rd European Film Awards. [11] He also received Best Screenwriter nomination at the aforementioned awards for Carnage (2011).

<i>Tess</i> (1979 film) 1979 film by Roman Polanski

Tess is a 1979 drama film directed by Roman Polanski and starring Nastassja Kinski, Peter Firth, and Leigh Lawson. It is an adaptation of Thomas Hardy's 1891 novel Tess of the d'Urbervilles. The screenplay was written by Gérard Brach, John Brownjohn, and Roman Polanski. The film received positive critical reviews upon release and was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, winning three for Best Cinematography, Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design.

Nastassja Kinski German actress

Nastassja Aglaia Kinski is a German actress and former model who has appeared in more than 60 films in Europe and the United States. Her worldwide breakthrough was with Stay as You Are (1978). She then came to global prominence with her Golden Globe Award-winning performance as the title character in the Roman Polanski-directed film Tess (1979). Other notable films in which she acted include the erotic horror film Cat People (1982), the Wim Wenders dramas Paris, Texas (1984) and Faraway, So Close! (1993), and the biographical drama film An American Rhapsody (2001). Kinski is fluent in four languages: German, English, French and Italian.

César Award french film award

The César Award is the national film award of France. It is delivered in the Nuit des César ceremony and was first awarded in 1976. The nominations are selected by the members of twelve categories of filmmaking professionals and supported by the French Ministry of Culture. The nationally televised award ceremony is held in the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris each year in February. It is an initiative from the Académie des Arts et Techniques du Cinéma which was founded in 1975.

In 2018, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences voted to expel Polanski from its membership because of the statutory rape case. [12]

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences honorary organization of film professionals

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures. The Academy's corporate management and general policies are overseen by a Board of Governors, which includes representatives from each of the craft branches.

Early life

Polanski was born in Paris; he was the son of Bula (née Katz-Przedborska) [13] and Ryszard Polański, [14] a painter and manufacturer of sculptures, who had changed his family name from Liebling. [15] Polański's father was Jewish and originally from Poland; Polański's mother, born in Russia, had been raised Roman Catholic and was of half Jewish ancestry. [16] [17] [18] His mother had a daughter, Annette, by her previous husband. Annette managed to survive Auschwitz, where her mother died, and left Poland forever for France. [19] Polański's parents were both agnostics. [20] Polański stated "I'm an atheist" in an interview about his film, Rosemary's Baby . [21]

World War II

The Polański family moved back to the Polish city of Kraków in 1936, [14] and were living there when World War II began with the invasion of Poland. Kraków was soon occupied by the German forces, and the racist and anti-Semitic Nuremberg Laws made the Polańskis targets of persecution, forcing them into the Kraków Ghetto, along with thousands of the city's Jews. [4] Around the age of six, he attended primary school for only a few weeks, until "all the Jewish children were abruptly expelled," writes biographer Christopher Sandford. That initiative was soon followed by the requirement that all Jewish children over the age of twelve wear white armbands with a blue Star of David imprinted for visual identification. After he was expelled, he would not be allowed to enter another classroom for the next six years. [14] :18 [22] Polanski then witnessed both the ghettoization of Kraków's Jews into a compact area of the city, and the subsequent deportation of all the ghetto's Jews to German death camps. He watched as his father was taken away. He remembers from age six, one of his first experiences of the terrors to follow:

I had just been visiting my grandmother ... when I received a foretaste of things to come. At first I didn't know what was happening. I simply saw people scattering in all directions. Then I realized why the street had emptied so quickly. Some women were being herded along it by German soldiers. Instead of running away like the rest, I felt compelled to watch.

One older woman at the rear of the column couldn't keep up. A German officer kept prodding her back into line, but she fell down on all fours, ... Suddenly a pistol appeared in the officer's hand. There was a loud bang, and blood came welling out of her back. I ran straight into the nearest building, squeezed into a smelly recess beneath some wooden stairs, and didn't come out for hours. I developed a strange habit: clenching my fists so hard that my palms became permanently calloused. I also woke up one morning to find that I had wet my bed. [23]

His father was transferred, along with thousands of other Jews, to Mauthausen, a group of 49 German concentration camps in Austria. His mother was taken to Auschwitz, and was killed soon after arriving. The forced exodus took place immediately after the German liquidation of the Kraków ghetto, a true-life backdrop to Polanski's film The Pianist (2002). Polanski, who was then hiding from the Germans, remembered seeing his father being marched off with a long line of people. Polanski tried getting closer to his father to ask him what was happening, and managed to get within a few yards. His father saw him, but afraid his son might be spotted by the German soldiers, whispered (in Polish), "Get lost!" [14] :24

Polański escaped the Kraków Ghetto in 1943 and survived with the help of some Polish Roman Catholics, including a woman who had promised Polański's father that she would shelter Polanski. [14] :21 Polański attended church, learned to recite Catholic prayers by heart, and behaved outwardly as a Roman Catholic, although he was never baptized. His efforts to blend into a Catholic household failed miserably at least once, when the parish priest visiting the family posed questions to him one-on-one about the catechism, and ultimately said, "You aren't one of us", he said. [24] The punishment for helping a Jew in German-occupied Poland was death. [25]

As he roamed the countryside trying to survive in a Poland now occupied by German troops, he witnessed many horrors, such as being "forced to take part in a cruel and sadistic game in which German soldiers took shots at him for target practice." [10] Author Ian Freer concludes that Polanski's constant childhood fears and dread of violence have contributed to the "tangible atmospheres he conjures up on film." [10]

By the time the war ended in 1945, a fifth of the Polish population had been killed, [26] with the vast majority of the victims being civilians. Of those deaths, 3 million were Polish Jews, which accounted for 90% of the country's Jewish population. [27] According to Sandford, Polanski would use the memory of his mother, her dress and makeup style, as a physical model for Faye Dunaway's character in his film Chinatown (1974). [14] :13

After the war

After the war, he was reunited with his father and moved back to Kraków. His father remarried 21 December 1946 to Wanda Zajączkowska (a woman Polanski had never liked) and died of cancer in 1984. Time repaired the family contacts; Polanski visited them in Kraków, and relatives visited him in Hollywood and Paris. Polanski recalls the villages and families he lived with as relatively primitive by European standards:

They were really simple Catholic peasants. This Polish village was like the English village in Tess. Very primitive. No electricity. The kids with whom I lived didn't know about electricity ... they wouldn't believe me when I told them it was enough to turn on a switch! [28]

He stated that "you must live in a Communist country to really understand how bad it can be. Then you will appreciate capitalism." [28] He also remembered events at the war's end and his reintroduction to mainstream society when he was 12, forming friendships with other children, such as Roma Ligocka, Ryszard Horowitz and his family. [29]

Introduction to movies

Polanski's fascination with cinema began very early, when he was around age four or five. He recalls this period in an interview:

Even as a child, I always loved cinema and was thrilled when my parents would take me before the war. Then we were put into the ghetto in Krakòw and there was no cinema, but the Germans often showed newsreels to the people outside the ghetto, on a screen in the market place. And there was one particular corner where you could see the screen through the barbed wire. I remember watching with fascination, although all they were showing was the German army and German tanks, with occasional anti-Jewish slogans inserted on cards. [30]

After the war, he watched films, either at school or at a local cinema, using whatever pocket money he had. Polanski writes, "Most of this went on the movies, but movie seats were dirt cheap, so a little went a long way. I lapped up every kind of film." [31] As time went on, movies became more than an escape into entertainment, as he explains:

Movies were becoming an absolute obsession with me. I was enthralled by everything connected with the cinema—not just the movies themselves but the aura that surrounded them. I loved the luminous rectangle of the screen, the sight of the beam slicing through the darkness from the projection booth, the miraculous synchronization of sound and vision, even the dusty smell of the tip-up seats. More than anything else though, I was fascinated by the actual mechanics of the process. [32]

He was above all influenced by Sir Carol Reed's Odd Man Out (1947) - "I still consider it as one of the best movies I've ever seen and a film which made me want to pursue this career more than anything else ... I always dreamt of doing things of this sort or that style. To a certain extent I must say that I somehow perpetuate the ideas of that movie in what I do." [33]

Early career in Poland

Polanski's star on the Lodz walk of fame Roman Polanski gwiazda Lodz.jpg
Polanski's star on the Łódź walk of fame

Polanski attended the National Film School in Łódź, the third-largest city in Poland. [34] In the 1950s, Polanski took up acting, appearing in Andrzej Wajda's Pokolenie (A Generation, 1954) and in the same year in Silik Sternfeld's Zaczarowany rower (Enchanted Bicycle or Magical Bicycle). Polanski's directorial debut was also in 1955 with a short film Rower (Bicycle). Rower is a semi-autobiographical feature film, believed to be lost, which also starred Polanski. It refers to his real-life violent altercation with a notorious Kraków felon, Janusz Dziuba, who arranged to sell Polanski a bicycle, but instead beat him badly and stole his money. In real life, the offender was arrested while fleeing after fracturing Polanski's skull, and executed for three murders, out of eight prior such assaults which he had committed. [35] Several other short films made during his study at Łódź gained him considerable recognition, particularly Two Men and a Wardrobe (1958) and When Angels Fall (1959). He graduated in 1959. [34]

Film director

1960s

Knife in the Water (1962)

Polanski's first feature-length film, Knife in the Water , was also one of the first significant Polish films after the Second World War that did not have a war theme. Scripted by Jerzy Skolimowski, Jakub Goldberg, and Polanski, [36] Knife in the Water is about a wealthy, unhappily married couple who decide to take a mysterious hitchhiker with them on a weekend boating excursion. Knife in the Water was a major commercial success in the West and gave Polanski an international reputation. The film also earned its director his first Academy Award nomination (Best Foreign Language Film) in 1963. Leon Niemczyk, who played Andrzej, was the only professional actor in the film. Jolanta Umecka, who played Krystyna, was discovered by Polanski at a swimming pool. [37]

Polanski left then-communist Poland and moved to France, where he had already made two notable short films in 1961: The Fat and the Lean and Mammals . While in France, Polanski contributed one segment ("La rivière de diamants") to the French-produced omnibus film, Les plus belles escroqueries du monde (English title: The Beautiful Swindlers) in 1964. (He has since had the segment removed from all releases of the film.) [38] However, Polanski found that in the early 1960s, the French film industry was xenophobic and generally unwilling to support a rising filmmaker of foreign origin. [39]

Repulsion (1965)

Polanski made three feature films in England, based on original scripts written by himself and Gérard Brach, a frequent collaborator. Repulsion (1965) is a psychological horror film focusing on a young Belgian woman named Carol (Catherine Deneuve) who suffers from a physical and emotional dread of sexual intercourse. The film's themes, situations, visual motifs, and effects clearly reflect the influence of early surrealist cinema as well as horror movies of the 1950s—particularly Luis Buñuel's Un chien Andalou , Jean Cocteau's The Blood of a Poet , Henri-Georges Clouzot's Diabolique and Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho .

Cul-de-sac (1966)

Cul-de-sac (1966) is a bleak nihilist tragicomedy filmed on location in Northumberland. The tone and premise of the film owe a great deal to Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot , along with aspects of Harold Pinter's The Birthday Party .

The Fearless Vampire Killers/Dance of the Vampires (1967)

The Fearless Vampire Killers (1967) (known by its original title, "Dance of the Vampires" in most countries outside the United States) is a parody of vampire films. The plot concerns a buffoonish professor and his clumsy assistant, Alfred (played by Polanski), who are traveling through Transylvania in search of vampires. The Fearless Vampire Killers was Polanski's first feature to be photographed in color with the use of Panavision lenses, and included a striking visual style with snow-covered, fairy-tale landscapes, similar to the work of Soviet fantasy filmmakers. In addition, the richly textured color schemes of the settings evoke the paintings of the Belarusian-Jewish artist Marc Chagall, who provides the namesake for the innkeeper in the film. The film was written for Jack MacGowran, who played the lead role of Professor Abronsius.

Polanski met Sharon Tate while making the film; she played the role of the local innkeeper's daughter. They were married in London on 20 January 1968. [40] Shortly after they married, Polanski, with Tate at his side during a documentary film, described the demands of young movie viewers who he said always wanted to see something "new" and "different". [41]

Rosemary's Baby (1968)

Paramount studio head Robert Evans brought Polanski to America ostensibly to direct the film Downhill Racer, but told Polanski that he really wanted to him to read the horror novel Rosemary's Baby by Ira Levin [42] to see if a film could be made out of it. [43] Polanski read it non-stop through the night and the following morning decided he wanted to write as well as direct it. He wrote the 272-page screenplay for the film in slightly longer than three weeks. [44] The film, Rosemary's Baby (1968), was a box-office success and became his first Hollywood production, thereby establishing his reputation as a major commercial filmmaker. The film, a horror-thriller set in trendy Manhattan, is about Rosemary Woodhouse (Mia Farrow), [45] a young housewife who is impregnated by the devil. Polanski's screenplay adaptation earned him a second Academy Award nomination.

On 9 August 1969, while Polanski was working in London, his wife, Sharon Tate, and four other people were murdered at the Polanskis' residence in Los Angeles by cult leader Charles Manson's followers. [46]

1970s

Macbeth (1971)

Polanski adapted Macbeth into a screenplay with the Shakespeare expert Kenneth Tynan. [47] Jon Finch and Francesca Annis played the main characters. [48] Hugh Hefner and Playboy Productions funded the 1971 film, which opened in New York and was screened in Playboy Theater. [49] Hefner was credited as executive producer, and the film was listed as a "Playboy Production". [50] It was controversial because of Lady Macbeth's being nude in a scene, [48] and received an X rating because of its graphic violence and nudity. [51] In his autobiography, Polanski wrote that he wanted to be true to the violent nature of the work, and that he had been aware that his first project following Tate's murder would be subject to scrutiny and probable criticism regardless of the subject matter; if he had made a comedy he would have been perceived as callous. [52]

What? (1973)

Written by Polanski and previous collaborator Gérard Brach, What? (1973) is a mordant absurdist comedy loosely based on the themes of Alice in Wonderland and Henry James. The film is a rambling shaggy dog story about the sexual indignities that befall a winsome young American hippie woman hitchhiking through Europe.

Chinatown (1974)

Polanski was an outstanding director. There was no question, after three days seeing him operate, that here was a really top talent.

co-star John Huston [53]

Polanski returned to Hollywood in 1973 to direct Chinatown (1974) for Paramount Pictures. The film is widely considered to be one of the finest American mystery crime movies, inspired by the real-life California Water Wars, a series of disputes over southern California water at the beginning of the 20th century. [54]

It was nominated for 11 Academy Awards, including those for actors Jack Nicholson and Faye Dunaway. Robert Towne won for Best Original Screenplay. [7] It also had actor-director John Huston in a supporting role, [55] and was the last film Polanski directed in the United States. In 1991, the film was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant" and it is frequently listed as among the best in world cinema. [56] [57] [58]

The Tenant (1976)

Polanski returned to Paris for his next film, The Tenant (1976), which was based on a 1964 novel by Roland Topor, a French writer of Polish-Jewish origin. In addition to directing the film, Polanski also played a leading role of a timid Polish immigrant living in Paris. Together with Repulsion and Rosemary's Baby, The Tenant can be seen as the third installment in a loose trilogy of films called the "Apartment Trilogy" that explore the themes of social alienation and psychic and emotional breakdown. [59]

In 1978, Polanski became a fugitive from American justice and could no longer work in countries where he might face arrest or extradition.

Tess (1979)

He dedicated his next film, Tess (1979), to the memory of his late wife, Sharon Tate. It was Tate who first suggested he read Tess of the d'Urbervilles , which she thought would make a good film; he subsequently expected her to star in it. [60] Nearly a decade after Tate's death, he met Nastassja Kinski, a model and aspiring young actress who had already been in a number of European films. He offered her the starring role, which she accepted. Her father was Klaus Kinski, a leading German actor, who had introduced her to films.

Because the role required having a local dialect, Polanski sent her to London for five months of study and to spend time in the Dorset countryside to get a flavor of the region. [60] In the film, Kinski starred opposite Peter Firth and Leigh Lawson. [61]

[Polanski] took a lot of time, two years, preparing me for that film. ... He was strict with me, but in a good way. He made me feel smart, that I could do things.

Nastassja Kinski [62]

Tess was shot in the north of France instead of Hardy's England and became the most expensive film made in France up to that time. Ultimately, it proved a financial success and was well received by both critics and the public. Polanski won France's César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director and received his fourth Academy Award nomination (and his second nomination for Best Director). The film received three Oscars: best cinematography, best art direction, best costume design, and was nominated for best picture.

At the time, there were rumors that Polanski and Kinski became romantically involved, but she says the rumors are untrue; they were never lovers or had an affair. [63] She admits that "there was a flirtation. There could have been a seduction, but there was not. He had respect for me." [64] She also recalls his influence on her while filming: "He was really a gentleman, not at all like the things I had heard. He introduced me to beautiful books, plays, movies. He educated me." [60] On an emotional level, she said years later that "he was one of the people in my life who cared, ... who took me seriously and gave me a lot of strength." [63] She told David Letterman more about her experience working with Polanski during an interview. [65]

1980s

In 1981, Polanski directed and co-starred (as Mozart) in a stage production of Peter Shaffer's play Amadeus , first in Warsaw, then in Paris. [66] [67] The play was again directed by Polanski, in Milan, in 1999. [68]

Pirates (1986)

Nearly seven years passed before Polanski's next film, Pirates , a lavish period piece starring Walter Matthau as Captain Red, which the director intended as an homage to the beloved Errol Flynn swashbucklers of his childhood. Captain Red's henchman, Jean Baptiste, was played by Cris Campion. The film is about a rebellion the two led on a ship called the Neptune, in the seventeenth century. The screenplay was written by Polanski, Gérard Brach, and John Brownjohn. The film was shot on location in Tunisia, [69] using a full-sized pirate vessel constructed for the production. It was a financial and critical failure, recovering a small fraction of its production budget and garnering a single Academy Award nomination. [70]

Frantic (1988)

Frantic (1988) was a Hitchcockian suspense-thriller starring Harrison Ford [71] and the actress/model Emmanuelle Seigner, [72] who later became Polanski's wife. The film follows an ordinary tourist in Paris whose wife is kidnapped. He attempts, hopelessly, to go through the Byzantine bureaucratic channels to deal with her disappearance, but finally takes matters into his own hands.

1990s

Polanski with wife Emmanuelle Seigner at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival. Roman Polanski Emmanuelle Seigner Cannes.jpg
Polanski with wife Emmanuelle Seigner at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival.

Polanski followed this with the dark psycho-sexual film Bitter Moon (1992), followed by a film of the acclaimed play Death and the Maiden (1994) starring Sigourney Weaver.

In 1997, Polanski directed a stage version of his 1967 film The Fearless Vampire Killers , which debuted in Vienna [73] followed by successful runs in Stuttgart, Hamburg, Berlin, and Budapest. On 11 March 1998, Polanski was elected a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. [74]

The Ninth Gate (1999)

The Ninth Gate is a thriller based on the novel El Club Dumas by Arturo Perez-Reverte and starring Johnny Depp. The movie's plot is based on the idea that an ancient text called "The Nine Gates of the Kingdom of Shadows", authored by Aristide Torchia along with Lucifer, is the key to raising Satan. [75]

2000s

Polanski at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival for The Pianist Roman Polanski..jpg
Polanski at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival for The Pianist

The Pianist (2002)

In 2001, Polanski filmed The Pianist , an adaptation of the World War II autobiography of the same name by Polish-Jewish musician Władysław Szpilman. Szpilman's experiences as a persecuted Jew in Poland during World War II were reminiscent of those of Polanski and his family. While Szpilman and Polanski escaped the concentration camps, their families did not, eventually perishing.

When Warsaw, Poland, was chosen for the 2002 premiere of The Pianist, "the country exploded with pride." According to reports, numerous former communists came to the screening and "agreed that it was a fantastic film." [76]

In May 2002, the film won the Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) award at the Cannes Film Festival, [77] as well as Césars for Best Film and Best Director, and later the 2002 Academy Award for Best Director. Because Polanski would have been arrested in the United States, he did not attend the Academy Awards ceremony in Hollywood. After the announcement of the Best Director Award, Polanski received a standing ovation from most of those present in the theater. Actor Harrison Ford accepted the award for Polanski, and then presented the Oscar to him at the Deauville Film Festival five months later in a public ceremony. [78] Polanski later received the Crystal Globe award for outstanding artistic contribution to world cinema at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival in 2004.

Oliver Twist (2005)

Oliver Twist is an adaptation of Charles Dickens' novel, written by The Pianist 's Ronald Harwood and shot in Prague. [79] Polanski said in interviews that he made the film as something he could show his children, and that the life of the young scavenger mirrored his own life, fending for himself in World War II Poland.

Polanski and Spanish writer Diego Moldes [es
], Madrid 2005 Roman-Polanski-y-Diego-Moldes,-Madrid,-.29.11.2005.jpg
Polanski and Spanish writer Diego Moldes  [ es ], Madrid 2005

2010s

The Ghost Writer (2010)

The Ghost Writer , a thriller focusing on a ghostwriter working on the memoirs of a character based loosely on former British prime minister Tony Blair, swept the European Film Awards in 2010, winning six awards, including best movie, director, actor and screenplay. [80] When it premiered at the 60th Berlinale in February 2010, Polanski won a Silver Bear for Best Director, [81] and in February 2011, it won four César Awards, France's version of the Academy Awards. [82]

The film is based on a novel by British writer Robert Harris. Harris and Polanski had previously worked for many months on a film of Harris's earlier novel Pompeii, a novel that was actually inspired by Polanski's Chinatown . [83] They had completed a script for Pompeii and were nearing production when the film was cancelled due to a looming actors' strike in September 2007. [84] After that film fell apart, they moved on to Harris's novel, The Ghost, and adapted it for the screen together.

The cast includes Ewan McGregor as the writer and Pierce Brosnan as former British Prime Minister Adam Lang. The film was shot on locations in Germany. [85]

In the United States, film critic Roger Ebert included it in his top 10 pick for 2010, and states that "this movie is the work of a man who knows how to direct a thriller. Smooth, calm, confident, it builds suspense instead of depending on shock and action." [86] Co-star Ewan McGregor agrees, saying about Polanski that "he's a legend ... I've never examined a director and the way that they work, so much before. He's brilliant, just brilliant, and absolutely warrants his reputation as a great director." [87]

At the premiere of Carnage in Paris, November 2011 Roman Polanski 2011 2.jpg
At the premiere of Carnage in Paris, November 2011

Carnage (2011)

Polanski shot Carnage in February/March 2011. The film is a screen version of Yasmina Reza's play God of Carnage , a comedy about two couples who meet after their children get in a fight at school, and how their initially civilized conversation devolves into chaos. It stars Kate Winslet, Jodie Foster, Christoph Waltz and John C. Reilly. Though set in New York, it was shot in Paris. [88] The film had its world premiere on 9 September 2011 at the Venice Film Festival and was released in the United States by Sony Pictures Classics on 16 December 2011.

Co-stars Jodie Foster and Kate Winslet commented about Polanski's directing style. According to Foster, "He has a very, very definitive style about how he likes it done. He decides everything. He decided every lens. Every prop. Everything. It's all him." [89] Winslet adds that "Roman is one of the most extraordinary men I've ever met. The guy is 77 years old. He has an effervescent quality to him. He's very joyful about his work, which is infectious. He likes to have a small crew, to the point that, when I walked on the set, my thought was, 'My God, this is it?'" [90] Also noting that style of directing, New York Film Festival director Richard Pena, during the American premiere of the film, called Polanski "a poet of small spaces ... in just a couple of rooms he can conjure up an entire world, an entire society." [91]

Polanski makes an uncredited cameo appearance as a neighbor.

Venus in Fur (2013)

Polanski's French-language adaptation of the award-winning play Venus in Fur , stars his wife Emmanuelle Seigner and Mathieu Amalric. Polanski worked with the play's author, David Ives, on the screenplay. [92] The film was shot from December 2012 to February 2013 [93] in French and is Polanski's first non-English-language feature film in forty years. [94] The film premiered in competition at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival [95] on 25 May 2013.

Based on a True Story (2017)

Polanski's Based on a True Story is an adaptation of the French novel by bestselling author Delphine de Vignan. [96] The film follows a writer (Emmanuelle Seigner) struggling to complete a new novel, while followed by an obsessed fan (Eva Green). It started production in November 2016 from a script adapted by Polanski and Olivier Assayas. [97] It premiered out of competition at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival on 27 May 2017 [98] and opened in France on 1 November 2017.

J'accuse (2019)

Polanski's next film, J'accuse, centers on the notorious 19th century Dreyfus affair, The film stars Jean Dujardin as French officer Georges Picquart and follows his struggle from 1896-1906 to expose the truth about the doctored evidence that led to Alfred Dreyfus, one of the few Jewish members of the French Army's general staff, being wrongly convicted of passing military secrets to the German Empire and sent to Devil's Island. The film is written by Robert Harris, who is working with Polanski for the third time. [99] It co-stars Louis Garrel as Dreyfus, Mathieu Amalric, Olivier Gourmet and Polanski's wife Emmanuelle Seigner. [100] It is being produced by Alain Goldman's Legende Films and distributed by Gaumont. [101] Filming began on 26 November 2018 [102] and was completed on 28 April 2019. [103]

Although set in Paris, the film was first scheduled to shoot in Warsaw in 2014, for economic reasons. [104] However, production was postponed after Polanski moved to Poland for filming and the U.S. Government filed extradition papers. The Polish government eventually rejected them, by which time new French film tax credits had been introduced, allowing the film to shoot on location in Paris. It was budgeted at 60m and was again set to start production in July 2016, [105] however its production was postponed as Polanski waited on the availability of a star, whose name was not announced. [106] In a 2017 interview Polanski discussed the difficulty of the project:

The problem of the film is the combination of casting and financing, it's an expensive film and films of this scale are only made with a bankable star, as they say vulgarly, and the stars capable of satisfying the financial requirement I do not necessarily see in the role of Picquart, who is our main character. Apart from that, there are about fifty important roles. They should all speak with the same accent in English, otherwise it would be appalling. It is necessary so that the film can be sold around the world. To unlock the financial means to produce such a project is impossible if you shoot in French." [107]

Marriages and relationships

Barbara Kwiatkowska-Lass

Polanski's first wife, Barbara Lass (née Kwiatkowska), [14] was a Polish actress who also starred in Polanski's 1959 When Angels Fall. [108] The couple were married in 1959 and divorced in 1961. [14]

Sharon Tate

Sharon Tate in the trailer for the film Eye of the Devil. Sharon Tate in Eye of the Devil trailer 2.jpg
Sharon Tate in the trailer for the film Eye of the Devil .

Polanski met rising actress Sharon Tate while filming The Fearless Vampire Killers , and during the production, the two of them began dating. [109] On 20 January 1968, Polanski married Tate in London. [110]

In August 1969, while Polanski was in Europe working on a film, Tate was murdered along with four of their friends at their home in Los Angeles by members of Charles Manson's "family", a group of young, mostly female followers. Tate was pregnant at the time of her murder.

Manson, along with members of his "family", was arrested in late 1969, and eventually tried and found guilty in 1971 of 27 counts, including first-degree murder, an event now called the Manson murders. Because at the time it was one of the most "horrific crimes in modern history," the crime and trial of Manson and his followers became a media sensation, leading to movies, documentaries and bestselling books. [111]

Polanski has said that his absence on the night of the murders is the greatest regret of his life. [112] In his autobiography, he wrote, "Sharon's death is the only watershed in my life that really matters", and commented that her murder changed his personality from a "boundless, untroubled sea of expectations and optimism" to one of "ingrained pessimism ... eternal dissatisfaction with life". [113] In his autobiography, Polanski described his brief time with Tate as the best years of his life.

Polanski was also left with a very negative impression of the press, which he felt was interested in sensationalizing the lives of the victims, and indirectly himself, to attract readers. He was shocked by the lack of sympathy expressed in various news stories:

I had long known that it was impossible for a journalist to convey 100 percent of the truth, but I didn't realize to what extent the truth is distorted, both by the intentions of the journalist and by neglect. I don't mean just the interpretations of what happened; I also mean the facts. The reporting about Sharon and the murders was virtually criminal. Reading the papers, I could not believe my eyes. I could not believe my eyes! They blamed the victims for their own murders. I really despise the press. I didn't always. The press made me despise it. [30]

Among the media-generated sensationalism were rumors that claimed Tate and her visitors were taking drugs, despite the coroner's announcing that no traces of drugs or nicotine were found after Tate's autopsy. [114] For years afterward, notes Sandford, "reporters openly speculated about the Polanskis' home life" and their personalities in order to create more media gossip about the private lives of Hollywood celebrities. [14] :2

Emmanuelle Seigner

In 1989, Polanski married French actress Emmanuelle Seigner, who is 33 years younger than he. They have two children, daughter Morgane and son Elvis. [115] Polanski and his children speak Polish at home. [116]

Sexual abuse case

Mugshot of Polanski following his 1977 arrest Mug shot of Roman Polanski.png
Mugshot of Polanski following his 1977 arrest

On 11 March 1977, three years after making Chinatown, Polanski was arrested at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel for the sexual assault of 13-year-old Samantha Gailey, who had modeled for Polanski during a Vogue magazine photo shoot the previous day around the swimming pool at the Bel Air home of Jack Nicholson. [117] [118] Polanski was indicted on six counts of criminal behavior, including rape. [115] [119] At his arraignment, he pleaded not guilty to all charges. Many executives in Hollywood came to his defense. [120] Gailey's attorney next arranged a plea bargain in which five of the six charges would be dismissed, and Polanski accepted. [121]

At the time of the incident, Nicholson was out of town making a film, but his steady girlfriend, actress Anjelica Huston, had dropped by unannounced to pick up some items. She heard Polanski in the other room say "We'll be right out." [122] Polanski then came out with Gailey and he introduced her to Huston, and they chatted about Nicholson's two large dogs which were sitting nearby. Huston recalled Gailey was wearing platform heels and appeared quite tall. [122]

After a brief conversation, Polanski had packed up his camera gear and Huston saw them drive off in his car. Huston told police the next day, after Polanski was arrested, that she "had witnessed nothing untoward" and never saw them together in the other room. [122] Gailey learned afterwards that Huston had recently broken up with Nicholson, but stopped by to pick up some belongings. [123]

Polanski in 2007 Roman Polanski.jpg
Polanski in 2007

As a result of the plea bargain, Polanski pleaded guilty to the charge of "unlawful sexual intercourse with a minor", [124] [125] and was ordered to undergo 90 days of psychiatric evaluation at California Institution for Men at Chino. [126] Upon release from prison after 42 days, Polanski agreed to the plea bargain, his penalty to be time served along with probation. However, he learned afterward that the judge, Laurence J. Rittenband, had told some friends that he was going to disregard the plea bargain and sentence Polanski to 50 years in prison: [125] [127] "I'll see this man never gets out of jail," he told Polanski's friend, screenwriter Howard E. Koch. [128] Gailey's attorney confirmed the judge changed his mind after he met the judge in his chambers:

He was going to sentence Polanski, rather than to time served, to fifty years. What the judge did was outrageous. We had agreed to a plea bargain and the judge had approved it. [128] [129]

Polanski was told by his attorney that "the judge could no longer be trusted" and that the judge's representations were "worthless". [130] Polanski decided not to appear at his sentencing. He told his friend, director Dino De Laurentis, "I've made up my mind. I'm getting out of here." [128] On 31 January 1978, the day before sentencing, Polanski left the country on a flight to London, [131] [132] where he had a home. One day later, he left for France. [133] [134] As a French citizen, he has been protected from extradition and has lived mostly in France since then. [135] However, since he fled the United States before final sentencing, the charges are still pending.

In 1988, Gailey sued Polanski. Among other things, the suit alleged sexual assault, false imprisonment, seduction of a minor, and intentional infliction of emotional distress. In 1993, Polanski agreed to settle with his victim. In August 1996, Polanski still owed her $604,416; court filings confirm that the settlement was completed by 1997 via a confidential financial arrangement. [136] The victim, now married and going by the name Samantha Geimer, stated in a 2003 interview with Larry King that the police and media had been slow at the time of the assault to believe her account, which she attributed to the social climate of the era. [137] In 2008, she stated, "I don't wish for him to be held to further punishment or consequences." [136]

On 26 September 2009, Polanski was arrested while in Switzerland at the request of United States authorities. [138] The arrest brought renewed attention to the case and stirred controversy, particularly in the United States and Europe. [127] Polanski was defended by many prominent individuals, including Hollywood celebrities and European artists and politicians, who called for his release. [139] American public opinion was reported to run against him, however, [140] [141] and polls in France and Poland showed that strong majorities favored his extradition to the United States. [142] [143]

Polanski was jailed near Zürich for two months, then put under house arrest at his home in Gstaad while awaiting decision of appeals fighting extradition. [144] On 12 July 2010, the Swiss rejected the United States' request, declared Polanski a "free man" and released him from custody. [145] He remains the subject of an Interpol red notice issued in 2005 at the request of the United States. [146]

During a television interview on 10 March 2011, Geimer blamed the media, reporters, the court, and the judge for having caused "way more damage to me and my family than anything Roman Polanski has ever done", and opined that the judge was using her and Polanski for the media exposure. [147]

In January 2014, newly uncovered emails from 2008 by a Los Angeles County Superior Court Judge, Larry P. Fidler, indicated that if Polanski returned to the United States for a hearing, the conduct of the judge who had originally presided over the case, Laurence A. Rittenband, might require that Polanski be freed. These emails were related to a 2008 documentary film by Marina Zenovich. [148] [149] In late October 2014, Polanski was questioned by prosecutors in Kraków. [150]

On 30 October 2015, Polish judge Dariusz Mazur denied a request by the United States to extradite Polanski (a dual French-Polish citizen) for a full trial, claiming that it would be "obviously unlawful". [151] The Kraków prosecutor's office declined to challenge the court's ruling, agreeing that Polanski had served his punishment and did not need to face a U.S. court again. [152] However, Poland's national justice ministry took up the appeal, arguing that sexual abuse of minors should be prosecuted regardless of the suspect's accomplishments or the length of time since the suspected crime took place. [153] In a December 2016 decision, the Supreme Court of Poland dismissed the government's appeal, holding that the prosecutor general had failed to prove misconduct or flagrant legal error on the part of the lower court. [154]

Preparations for a movie he was working on about the Dreyfus affair had been stalled by the extradition request. [99] [155]

On 3 May 2018, Polanski was removed from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, with the decision referencing the case. [156]

Documentary films

In 2008, the documentary film by Marina Zenovich, Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired , was released in Europe and the United States where it won numerous awards. [157] The film focuses on the judge in the case and the possible reasons why he changed his mind. It includes interviews with people involved in the case, including the victim, Geimer, and the prosecutor, Roger Gunson. Geimer said that the judge "didn't care what happened" to her or Polanski, but "was orchestrating some little show", [130] while Gunson added, "I'm not surprised that Polanski left under those circumstances, ... it was going to be a real circus." [130] [121]

Former Los Angeles County Deputy District Attorney David Wells, whose statements were the most damning against Polanski, and who said he advised the judge to imprison Polanski, admitted that he lied about those statements, and said that to the press to "play up" his own role. [158] [159]

In December 2009, a California appellate court discussed the film's allegations as it denied Polanski's request to have the case dismissed. While saying it was "deeply concerned" by the allegations, and that the allegations were "in many cases supported by considerable evidence", it also found that "Even in light of our fundamental concern about the misconduct ... flight was not Polanski's only option. It was not even his best option." It said dismissal of the case, which would erase Polanski's guilty plea, would not be an "appropriate result", and that he still had other legal options. [127] [160]

In September 2011, the documentary film Roman Polanski: A Film Memoir had its world premiere in Zürich, Switzerland. During an interview in the film, he offers his apology to Geimer: "She is a double victim: My victim, and a victim of the press." [161] On this occasion, he collected the lifetime achievement award he was to have received at the time of his arrest two years earlier. [162]

Vanity Fair libel case

In 2004, Polanski sued Vanity Fair magazine in London for libel. A 2002 article in the magazine claimed that Polanski promised he would "make another Sharon Tate out of you" in an attempt to seduce a Scandinavian model while he was travelling to Tate's funeral. He received supporting testimony from Mia Farrow, and Vanity Fair "was unable to prove that the incident occurred". Polanski was awarded £50,000 in damages plus some of his legal costs. [163]

Matan Uziel libel case

In December 2017, Polanski filed a 1.5 million suit in Herzliya Magistrates' Court against Israeli journalist and filmmaker Matan Uziel. [164] Polanski maintained that Uziel, through his website, www.imetpolanski.com, falsely reported that five women had come forward to accuse him of raping them. Polanski was suing for libel and defamation of character. Herzliya Magistrates' Court rejected Polanski's request to be exempt from appearing in court after filing the libel suit. [165] While Polanski gave various reasons for his inability to appear, the presiding judge, Gilad Hess, dismissed these one by one and ordered Polanski to pay Uziel ₪10,000 in costs. [166] In November 2018, it was published that Polanski decided to drop the lawsuit, and was ordered by the court to pay Uziel ₪30,000 (US$8,000) for court costs. The court accepted Uziel's request that the suit not be dropped, but rather that it be rejected, making Polanski unable to sue Uziel again over the same issue in the future. [167]

Additional allegations, 2010 onwards

In 2010, British actress Charlotte Lewis said that Polanski had "forced himself" on her while she was auditioning for a role in Paris in 1983, when she was 16. [168] In 1999, however, Lewis had given a very different account of events in an interview with the UK's News of the World , which was unearthed by the French daily Libération . In that interview, Lewis asserted that she actually had a six-month tryst with Polanski when she was 17: "I knew that Roman had done something bad in the United States, but I wanted to be his mistress," Lewis said, according to Liberation. "I wanted him probably more than he wanted me." In addition, Lewis never mentioned any sexual abuse, and she said that their relationship ended when Polanski introduced her to Warren Beatty, and she claimed that they soon began an affair. Furthermore, she was cast in Polanski's 1986 film Pirates , appeared at the Cannes film festival on his arm years after the alleged incident, and in an interview the year of the film's release, Lewis stated, "I'd love to have had a romantic relationship with [Polanski], and a physical one. You can't help falling in love with him. But he didn't want me that way." [169]

In October 2017, a woman named Renate Langer interviewed by Swiss police said Polanski raped her in Gstaad when she was 15, in 1972. [170] That same month, Marianne Barnard accused Polanski of having assaulted her in 1975, when she was 10 years old. [168]

Filmography

Director

YearFilmAlso known asOscar
nominations
Oscar wins
1955 Zaczarowany rower Bicycle
1957 Morderstwo A Murderer
Uśmiech zębiczny A Toothful Smile
Rozbijemy zabawę Break Up the Dance
1958 Dwaj ludzie z szafą Two Men and a Wardrobe
1959 Lampa The Lamp
Gdy spadają anioły When Angels Fall
1961 Le Gros et le Maigre The Fat and the Lean
Ssaki Mammals
1962 Nóż w wodzie Knife in the Water1
1964 Les plus belles escroqueries du monde [lower-alpha 1] The World's Most Beautiful Swindlers
1965 Repulsion *
1966 Cul-de-sac
1967 The Fearless Vampire Killers [lower-alpha 2] Dance of the Vampires
1968 Rosemary's Baby *21
1971 Macbeth
1972 Weekend of a Champion
1972 What? Diary of Forbidden Dreams
1974 Chinatown 111
1976 Le Locataire *The Tenant
1979 Tess 63
1986 Pirates 1
1988 Frantic
1992 Bitter Moon
1994 Death and the Maiden
1999 The Ninth Gate
2002 The Pianist 73
2005 Oliver Twist
2007 To Each His Own Cinema [lower-alpha 3]
2010 The Ghost Writer
2011 Carnage
2012 A Therapy (Short)
2013 La Vénus à la fourrure Venus in Fur
2017 D'après une histoire vraie Based on a True Story

*These movies are part of his "Apartment Trilogy". [59]

  1. Segment: "La rivière de diamants", included in the theatrical release, but removed from all current presentations of the film at Polanski's request.
  2. Also called The Fearless Vampire Killers or: Pardon Me, Madam, but Your Teeth Are in My Neck.
  3. Segment: "Cinéma erotique".

Actor

Writer

Awards and nominations

YearAwardCategoryWorkResult
1965 Berlin Film Festival Silver Berlin Bear-Extraordinary Jury Prize RepulsionWon [173]
1966 Berlin Film Festival Golden Bear Cul-de-sacWon [174]
1968 Academy Award Best ScreenplayRosemary's BabyNominated
1974 Academy Award Academy Award for Best Director ChinatownNominated
Golden Globe Awards Golden Globe Award for Best Director Won [175]
British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA)Best DirectionWon [176]
1979 César Award César Award for Best Picture TessWon [177]
César Award for Best Director Won [177]
Academy Award Best Director Nominated
Golden Globe Awards Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Film Won [178]
Golden Globe Award for Best Director—Motion PictureNominated
2002 Cannes Film Festival Palme d'Or The PianistWon [77]
British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA)Best FilmWon [179]
Best DirectorWon [179]
Academy Awards Best Director Won [180]
Best Picture Nominated
César Award César Award for Best Director Won [177]
César Award for Best Film Won [177]
2004 Karlovy Vary International Film Festival Crystal Globe for outstanding artistic contribution to world cinemaWon
Argentine Film Critics Association Best Foreign FilmThe PianistNominated
2009 Zürich Film Festival Golden Icon AwardLifetime achievementWon [181] [56] [182]
2010 Berlin Film Festival Silver Bear for Best Director The Ghost WriterWon [183]
European Film Awards Best FilmWon [80]
Best DirectorWon [80]
Best ScreenwriterWon [80]
Lumières Awards Best DirectorWon [184]
Best ScreenwriterWon [184]
2011 César Award César Award for Best Director Won [177]
César Award for Best ScreenwriterWon [177]
2014 César Award César Award for Best Film Venus in FurNominated
César Award for Best Director Won [177]
César Award for Best ScreenwriterNominated

Other awards

New York Film Critics Circle Awards

Venice Film Festival

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Further reading

Bibliography

  • Polanski, Roman (1973) Roman Polanski's What? From the original screenplay, London: Lorrimer. 91p. ISBN   0-85647-033-3
  • Polanski, Roman (1973) What?, New York: Third press, 91p, ISBN   0-89388-121-X
  • Polanski, Roman (1975) Three film scripts: Knife in the water [original screenplay by Jerzy Skolimowski, Jakub Goldberg and Roman Polanski; translated by Boleslaw Sulik]; Repulsion [original screenplay by Roman Polanski and Gerard Brach]; Cul-de-sac [original screenplay by Roman Polanski and Gerard Brach], introduction by Boleslaw Sulik, New York: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 275p, ISBN   0-06-430062-5
  • Polanski, Roman (1984) Knife in the water, Repulsion and Cul-de-sac: three filmscripts by Roman Polanski, London: Lorrimer, 214p, ISBN   0-85647-051-1 (hbk) ISBN   0-85647-092-9 (pbk)
  • Polanski, Roman (1984, 1985) Roman by Polanski, New York: Morrow. ISBN   0-688-02621-4, London: Heinemann. London: Pan. 456p. ISBN   0-434-59180-7 (hbk) ISBN   0-330-28597-1 (pbk)
  • Polanski, Roman (2003) Le pianiste, Paris: Avant-Scene, 126p, ISBN   2-84725-016-6
  • Visser, John J. 2008 Satan-el: Fallen Mourning Star (Chapter 5). Covenant People's Books. ISBN   978-0-557-03412-3
  • Young, Jordan R. (1987) The Beckett Actor: Jack MacGowran, Beginning to End. Beverly Hills: Moonstone Press ISBN   0-940410-82-6