Roman Sanguszko

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Prince
Roman Sanguszko
Roman Adam Sang'ushko.jpg

POL COA Sanguszko.svg
Prince Roman the Siberian
Coat of arms Pogoń Litewska
Born(1800-05-06)6 May 1800
Antoniny
Died26 March 1881(1881-03-26) (aged 80)
Sławuta
Noble family Sanguszko
consortCountess Natalia Potocka
Issue
FatherPrince Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko
MotherPrincess Klementyna Czartoryska
For the 16th century hetman of this name, see Roman Sanguszko (died 1571).

Prince Roman Adam Stanisław Sanguszko (18001881) was a Polish aristocrat, patriot, political and social activist.

Poland Republic in Central Europe

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

<i>Szlachta</i> legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The szlachta was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Grand Duchy and its neighbouring Kingdom became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Contents

Biography

Roman Sanguszko was born on 6 May 1800 in his family manor in Volhynia. The eldest of his kin, he was the heir of the fortune of the Kowel line of the Sanguszko family, one of the richest and most notable families of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Early in his youth he was forced to join the Russian Imperial Guard, as Tsar Alexander I of Russia demanded that all the heirs of aristocratic families be sent to Russian military schools to ensure their families' loyalty. However, after short service Sanguszko was allowed to return home due to poor health. He then moved to Berlin, where he graduated from the local university. On 14 May 1829 in Warsaw he married Natalia Potocka, a lady of the mighty Potocki family. Soon after giving birth to Maria Klementyna, Natalia died. Despaired Sanguszko decided to join the Capuchin friars, but changed his mind after the outbreak of the November Uprising against Russia.

Volhynia Historical Region

Volhynia, is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe, situated between south-eastern Poland, south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine. While the borders of the region are not clearly defined, the territory that still carries the name is Volyn Oblast, located in western Ukraine. Volhynia has changed hands numerous times throughout history and been divided among competing powers. At one time all of Volhynia was part of the Pale of Settlement designated by Imperial Russia on its southwestern-most border.

Alexander I of Russia Emperor of Russia

Alexander I was the Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825. He was the eldest son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first king of Congress Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland, reigning from 1809 to 1825.

Warsaw City metropolis in Masovia, Poland

Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Soon after leaving the convent he joined the Polish Army and served with distinction in several battles, most notably at Lubartów and Zamość. He quickly rose through the ranks and in 1831 he became an adjutant to General Jan Skrzynecki. For his acts of bravery he was awarded with the Virtuti Militari, but in June of that year he was taken prisoner by the Russians. Imprisoned in Kiev, he was tried for high treason, as the court regarded him a citizen of Russia rather than Commonwealth. It was suggested that he might be pardoned should he renounce his loyalty to the Commonwealth leaders of the uprising, but Sanguszko declined and the court sentenced him to loss of noble status, confiscation of all property (one of the largest fortunes in the region) and exile to Siberia. To avoid losing most of the property, he subscribed it to his daughter. On 18 December 1831 Sanguszko was compelled to walk the entire way to Siberia (about 3300 km) in chains for his part in the insurrection, as was usual at the time. [1] It took him roughly 10 months to reach the area of Tobolsk through Orel, Moscow, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Perm and Tyumen.

Lubartów Place in Lublin, Poland

Lubartów is a town in eastern Poland, with 23,000 inhabitants (2004), situated in Lublin Voivodeship. It is the capital of Lubartów County and the Lubartów Commune. Historically it belongs to Lesser Poland, and from its beginnings, until 1795, was part of Lesser Poland’s Lublin Voivodeship. Lubartów was established in 1543 by Piotr Firlej under a founding order issued by King Sigismund the Old. At that time, it was a center of Protestant Reformation culture and education, following the founding of a school of Wojciech Calissius (1559).

Zamość Place in Lublin, Poland

Zamośćpronounced [ˈzamɔɕt͡ɕ] is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship, about 90 km (56 mi) from Lublin, 247 km (153 mi) from Warsaw and 60 km (37 mi) from the border with Ukraine. In 2014, the population was 65,149.

Virtuti Militari award, Polands highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war

The War Order of Virtuti Militari is Poland's highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war. It was created in 1792 by Polish King Stanisław II August and is one of the oldest military decorations in the world still in use.

Soon after his arrival, he was drafted into the Russian Army and relocated to the Caucasus, where he was forced to fight against Shamil's Rebellion, a part of the half-a-century long Caucasian War. Deprived of his rights, he served as a private in the Tengin Regiment. He was wounded in the leg during one of the skirmishes and had an accident with a horse, which resulted in serious loss of hearing. For his bravery, he was again promoted to officer's grade and finally in 1845 allowed to return to his manor in Sławuta. [1]

Imperial Russian Army land armed force of the Russian Empire

The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars.

Caucasus region in Eurasia bordered on the south by Iran, on the southwest by Turkey, on the west by the Black Sea, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the north by Russia

The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which has historically been considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

Caucasian War war

The Caucasian War of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians. It consisted of a series of military actions waged by the Empire against the peoples of the Caucasus including the Adyghe, Abkhaz–Abaza, Ubykhs, Kumyks and Nakh and Dagestanians as Russia sought to expand. In Dagestan, resistance to the Russians was described as jihad.

He left most of the property of his family in hands of his daughter and instead focused on economical development of Sławuta. Sanguszko started several businesses and with time his land became one of the most industrialized properties in the area. Apart from the textile plant (with a branch in Tarnów), he also founded a sugar plant, paper factory, steel mill and a lumber-mill. He also created a large horse farm specializing in the breeding of racehorses. Finally, he significantly enlarged the manor's library. With more than 6000 volumes it was one of the largest such collections in the region. He died on 26 March 1881 and was buried in the crypt of the local St. Dorothy's church.

Tarnów Place in Lesser Poland, Poland

Tarnów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈtarnuf]; is a city in southeastern Poland with 109,650 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.

His life is the subject of "Prince Roman" (1910) one of Joseph Conrad's short stories. [2]

Joseph Conrad Polish-British writer

Joseph Conrad was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language. Though he did not speak English fluently until his twenties, he was a master prose stylist who brought a non-English sensibility into English literature. Conrad wrote stories and novels, many with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of what he saw as an impassive, inscrutable universe.

Family

Roman married Countess Natalia Potocka on 14 May 1829 in Warsaw [3] and had one daughter:

His younger brother Prince Władysław Hieronim Sanguszko also participated in the November Uprising.

Bibliography

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References

Inline:
  1. 1 2 Karolina Firlej-Bielańska; Józef Potocki; Henryk Mościcki (1927). Roman Sanguszko; zesłaniec na Sybir z r. 1831 w świetle pamiętnika matki ks. Klementyny z Czartoryskich Sanguszkowej. Warsaw: Gebethner i Wolff. p. 209.
  2. Joseph Conrad. Frederick R. Karl (ed.). The Portable Conrad. Penguin Books. p. 768. ISBN   0-14-015033-1.
  3. Genealogia Grocholski
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