Prince Roman the Siberian
|Coat of arms||Pogoń Litewska|
|Born||6 May 1800|
|Died||26 March 1881 80) (aged|
|consort||Countess Natalia Potocka|
Princess Maria Klementyna Sanguszko
|Father||Prince Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko|
|Mother||Princess Klementyna Czartoryska|
Prince Roman Adam Stanisław Sanguszko (1800–1881) was a Polish aristocrat, patriot, political and social activist.
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
The szlachta was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Grand Duchy and its neighbouring Kingdom became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Roman Sanguszko was born on 6 May 1800 in his family manor in Volhynia. The eldest of his kin, he was the heir of the fortune of the Kowel line of the Sanguszko family, one of the richest and most notable families of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Early in his youth he was forced to join the Russian Imperial Guard, as Tsar Alexander I of Russia demanded that all the heirs of aristocratic families be sent to Russian military schools to ensure their families' loyalty. However, after short service Sanguszko was allowed to return home due to poor health. He then moved to Berlin, where he graduated from the local university. On 14 May 1829 in Warsaw he married Natalia Potocka, a lady of the mighty Potocki family. Soon after giving birth to Maria Klementyna, Natalia died. Despaired Sanguszko decided to join the Capuchin friars, but changed his mind after the outbreak of the November Uprising against Russia.
Volhynia, is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe, situated between south-eastern Poland, south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine. While the borders of the region are not clearly defined, the territory that still carries the name is Volyn Oblast, located in western Ukraine. Volhynia has changed hands numerous times throughout history and been divided among competing powers. At one time all of Volhynia was part of the Pale of Settlement designated by Imperial Russia on its southwestern-most border.
Alexander I was the Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825. He was the eldest son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first king of Congress Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland, reigning from 1809 to 1825.
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Soon after leaving the convent he joined the Polish Army and served with distinction in several battles, most notably at Lubartów and Zamość. He quickly rose through the ranks and in 1831 he became an adjutant to General Jan Skrzynecki. For his acts of bravery he was awarded with the Virtuti Militari, but in June of that year he was taken prisoner by the Russians. Imprisoned in Kiev, he was tried for high treason, as the court regarded him a citizen of Russia rather than Commonwealth. It was suggested that he might be pardoned should he renounce his loyalty to the Commonwealth leaders of the uprising, but Sanguszko declined and the court sentenced him to loss of noble status, confiscation of all property (one of the largest fortunes in the region) and exile to Siberia. To avoid losing most of the property, he subscribed it to his daughter. On 18 December 1831 Sanguszko was compelled to walk the entire way to Siberia (about 3300 km) in chains for his part in the insurrection, as was usual at the time. It took him roughly 10 months to reach the area of Tobolsk through Orel, Moscow, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Perm and Tyumen.
Lubartów is a town in eastern Poland, with 23,000 inhabitants (2004), situated in Lublin Voivodeship. It is the capital of Lubartów County and the Lubartów Commune. Historically it belongs to Lesser Poland, and from its beginnings, until 1795, was part of Lesser Poland’s Lublin Voivodeship. Lubartów was established in 1543 by Piotr Firlej under a founding order issued by King Sigismund the Old. At that time, it was a center of Protestant Reformation culture and education, following the founding of a school of Wojciech Calissius (1559).
Zamośćpronounced [ˈzamɔɕt͡ɕ] is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship, about 90 km (56 mi) from Lublin, 247 km (153 mi) from Warsaw and 60 km (37 mi) from the border with Ukraine. In 2014, the population was 65,149.
The War Order of Virtuti Militari is Poland's highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war. It was created in 1792 by Polish King Stanisław II August and is one of the oldest military decorations in the world still in use.
Soon after his arrival, he was drafted into the Russian Army and relocated to the Caucasus, where he was forced to fight against Shamil's Rebellion, a part of the half-a-century long Caucasian War. Deprived of his rights, he served as a private in the Tengin Regiment. He was wounded in the leg during one of the skirmishes and had an accident with a horse, which resulted in serious loss of hearing. For his bravery, he was again promoted to officer's grade and finally in 1845 allowed to return to his manor in Sławuta.
The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which has historically been considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Caucasian War of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians. It consisted of a series of military actions waged by the Empire against the peoples of the Caucasus including the Adyghe, Abkhaz–Abaza, Ubykhs, Kumyks and Nakh and Dagestanians as Russia sought to expand. In Dagestan, resistance to the Russians was described as jihad.
He left most of the property of his family in hands of his daughter and instead focused on economical development of Sławuta. Sanguszko started several businesses and with time his land became one of the most industrialized properties in the area. Apart from the textile plant (with a branch in Tarnów), he also founded a sugar plant, paper factory, steel mill and a lumber-mill. He also created a large horse farm specializing in the breeding of racehorses. Finally, he significantly enlarged the manor's library. With more than 6000 volumes it was one of the largest such collections in the region. He died on 26 March 1881 and was buried in the crypt of the local St. Dorothy's church.
Tarnów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈtarnuf]; is a city in southeastern Poland with 109,650 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.
His life is the subject of "Prince Roman" (1910) one of Joseph Conrad's short stories.
Joseph Conrad was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language. Though he did not speak English fluently until his twenties, he was a master prose stylist who brought a non-English sensibility into English literature. Conrad wrote stories and novels, many with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of what he saw as an impassive, inscrutable universe.
Roman married Countess Natalia Potocka on 14 May 1829 in Warsawand had one daughter:
His younger brother Prince Władysław Hieronim Sanguszko also participated in the November Uprising.
Piława is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by many noble families known as szlachta in Polish in medieval Poland and later under the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, branches of the original medieval Piława Clan (Pilawici) family as well as families connected with the Clan by adoption.
The Targowica Confederation was a confederation established by Polish and Lithuanian magnates on 27 April 1792, in Saint Petersburg, with the backing of the Russian Empress Catherine II. The confederation opposed the Constitution of 3 May 1791, which had been adopted by the Great Sejm, especially the provisions limiting the privileges of the nobility. The text of the founding act of the confederation was drafted by the Russian general Vasili Stepanovich Popov, Chief of Staff of Prince Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin. Its purpose was proclaimed in the small town of Targowica and the Potocki's estate on May 14, 1792. Four days later two Russian armies invaded the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth without a formal declaration of war.
Mikołaj "Bearpaw" Potocki was a Polish nobleman, magnate and Field Crown Hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1637 to 1646, Grand Hetman of the Crown from 1646 to 1651, governor of Bracław Voivodeship from 1636 and from 1646 Castellan of Kraków.
Count Alfred Józef Potocki was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), landowner, and a liberal-conservative monarchist Austrian politician and Prime Minister.
Count Alfred Wojciech Potocki hr. Pilawa (1785–1862) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), landowner, political and economic activist.
Count Roman Potocki (1852–1915) was a Polish szlachcic.
Princess Julia Lubomirska was a Polish noblewoman, known for her love life.
Sanguszko is a Polish noble and aristocratic family of Lithuanian and Ruthenian origin, connected to the Gediminid dynasty. Like other princely houses of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, its origin are considered murky. Present historical opinion holds in favour of their descent from Algirdas' grandson Alexander, lord of Kovel and Liuboml, whose name can be shortened to Sangush. The family supposedly descends from two lines, associated with two of his sons, Alexander and Michael.
Prince Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko (1768–1844) was a Polish nobleman, general, military commander, diplomat and politician.
Count Aleksander Stanisław Potocki (1778–1845) was a Polish noble, landowner and politician. He was the senator-castellan of the Polish Kingdom in 1824 and chamberlain of Napoleon I. He was awarded Order of the White Eagle on 24 May 1829.
Potocki was one of the prominent Polish noble families in the Kingdom of Poland and magnates of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Potocki family is one of the wealthiest and most powerful aristocratic families that still exist in Poland.
Princess Klementyna Czartoryska (1780–1852) was a Polish noblewoman, the author of a diary, which has been published.
Prince Władysław Hieronim Sanguszko (1803–1870) was a Polish nobleman, landowner, conservative politician.
Wojciech Korneli Stattler or Albert Kornel Stattler was a Polish Romantic painter of Swiss aristocratic ancestry, who started training in Vienna and at age 17 went to St. Luke's Academy in Rome. From 1831 he taught as professor at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków. 1850 he returned to Rome. His most famous pupil in Poland was nominal painter Jan Matejko.
Józef Dominik Korwin-Kossakowski, was a Polish–Lithuanian statesman and military commander, a participant of Targowica Confederation and a colonel of the Polish Army. He used the Ślepowron coat of arms.
Delfina Potocka, née Komar, a Polish countess, was a friend and muse to Polish expatriate artists Frédéric Chopin and Zygmunt Krasiński. She was noted for her beauty, intellect and artistic gifts. In her youth she was a piano student of Chopin's.
Jakub Fontana was a Polish architect of Swiss Italian origin, a practitioner of the Baroque and Neoclassical styles. He was court architect to the Polish king. He was knighted in 1764. Jakub Fontana had a notable brother named Jan Kanty Fontana. His projects were influenced by Saxon Baroque, French Rococo and early Neoclassicism.
Count Maurycy Stanisław Potocki was born on May 16, 1894, in his family real estate of Jabłonna near Warsaw, Congress Poland. He was a member of the House of Potocki: his father was August Potocki, and his great-grandfather was Aleksander Stanisław Potocki. Maurycy Stanisław died on May 16, 1949 in London.
Barbara Urszula Sanguszko, née Dunin was a Polish noblewoman, poet, translator, and moralist during the Enlightenment in Poland. She organised and hosted a salon in Poddębice, where the gathering of intellectuals, artists and politicians was modelled after French 18th-century salons. Sanguszko was known for her piety and philanthropy. She was the third wife of the much older magnate and Grand Marshal of Lithuania, Duke Paweł Karol Sanguszko (1682–1750).