The Romanian Carpathians (Romanian : Carpații românești) are a section of the Carpathian Mountains, within the borders of modern Romania. The Carpathians are a "subsystem" of the Alps-Himalaya System and are further divided into "provinces" and "subprovinces".
This is an overview of the geological subdivisions of the Romanian section of the Carpathian Mountains. The broadest divisions are shown in the map on the right. The last level of the division, i.e. the actual mountain ranges and basins, is usually called "units". The lowest-level detail for those units is maintained on separate pages.
Traditional Romanian naming conventions differ from this list. In Romania, it is usual to divide the Eastern Carpathians in Romanian territory into three geographical groups (North, Centre, South), instead in Outer and Inner Eastern Carpathians.
The Transylvanian Plateau is encircled by, and geologically a part of, the Carpathians, but it is not a mountainous region and its inclusion is disputed in some sources. Its features are included below.
The Outer Carpathian Depressions lay outside the broad arc of the entire formation and are usually listed as part of the individual divisions of the Carpathian Mountains, i.e. of Western Carpathians, Eastern Carpathians etc.
The Romanian Carpathians chain is classified, according to the geomorphological and geological differences, into three major morphotectonic units:
|Geography of Romania|
The Eastern Carpathians are divided into three geographical groups; the Romanian approach is shown by adding the following abbreviations to the names of units within Romania:
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Roughly 1,500 km (932 mi) long, it is the third-longest European mountain range after the Urals at 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and the Scandinavian Mountains at 1,700 km (1,056 mi). The range stretches from the far eastern Czech Republic (3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%) and Ukraine (10%) Serbia (5%) and Romania (50%) in the southeast. The highest range within the Carpathians is known as the Tatra mountains in Slovakia and Poland, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m (8,530 ft). The second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks range between 2,500 m (8,202 ft) and 2,550 m (8,366 ft).
Outer Subcarpathia denotes the depression area at the outer base of the Carpathian arc, including foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians and Outer Eastern Carpathians. It stretches from northeastern Austria, through eastern Czech Republic, southern Poland, western Ukraine and northeastern Romania.
The Southern Carpathians are a group of mountain ranges located in southern Romania. They cover the part of the Carpathian Mountains located between the Prahova River in the east and the Timiș and Cerna Rivers in the west. To the south they are bounded by the Balkan mountain range.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe. The geomorphological term Pannonian Plain is more widely used for roughly the same region though with a somewhat different sense, with only the lowlands, the plain that remained when the Pliocene Epoch Pannonian Sea dried out.
Divisions of the Carpathians are a categorization of the Carpathian mountains system.
The Moldavian Plateau is a geographic area of the historical region of Moldavia, spanning nowadays east and northeast of Romania, most of Moldova, and most of the Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine.
The Sub Carpathians of Curvature, Ciucaș, or Curvature Carpathians, are located between Trotus Valley and Slanicul Buzaului Valley in Romania. They are a range of high hills, with knolls and parallel ridges, which separate two geologic depressions.
The Bistrița Mountains are mountain ranges in northern central Romania.
The Vihorlat-Gutin Area is a region of mountain ranges spanning from eastern Slovakia, through western Ukraine, into northern Romania.
The Banat Mountains are a number of mountain ranges in Romania, considered part of the Western Romanian Carpathians mountain range.
The Giurgeu-Brașov Depression is a series of intermontane basins in Romania.
The Moldavian-Muntenian Carpathians are a group of mountain ranges in Romania. These ranges are considered part of the Outer Eastern Carpathians. Within Romania, however, it is traditional to divide the Eastern Romanian Carpathians into three geographical groups, instead in Outer and Inner Eastern Carpathians:
The Căliman-Harghita Mountains are a group of mountain ranges in Romania.
The Perșani Mountains is a mountain range in central Romania. The highest peak is Vârful Măgura Codlei, with an elevation of 1,292 metres (4,239 ft).
The Ciucaș Mountains is a mountain range in Romania. It is located in the northern part of Prahova County and straddles the border with Brașov County.
Eastern Carpathian Foothills as a geographical term designates transitional region in the western parts of Ukraine and northeastern parts of Romania, between Eastern Carpathian Mountains to the southwest and number of plain regions to the east and north. Its average elevation is around 300–500 m (980–1,640 ft) above sea level. The region stretches across Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi Oblasts and Suceava County.
Ciuc Mountains are a mid-high range of mountains of Harghita County in Transylvania, Romania. Geologically they belong to the Căliman-Harghita Mountains group of the Inner Eastern Carpathians. Within Romania, however, it is traditional to divide the Eastern Carpathians into three geographical groups instead. The Romanian categorization includes the Ciuc Mountains within the central Carpathians of Moldavia and Transylvania. The Trotuș River emerges from these mountains. The highest peak is Noșcolat, at 1,553 m.
Mestecăniș Ridge is a range of mountains in Romania. Geologically they belong to the Moldavian-Muntenian Carpathians group of the Outer Eastern Carpathians subprovince. Within Romania, however, it is traditional to divide the Eastern Carpathians into three geographical groups instead. The Romanian categorization includes Mestecăniș Ridge within the northern Carpathians of Maramureș and Bukovina. The Suceava River emerges from these mountains. The highest peak is Lucina, at 1,588 m. It is part of the Ridges of Bukovina.
The Western Romanian Carpathians, along with the Eastern Romanian Carpathians and the Southern Carpathians is one of the three main mountain ranges of Romania. Their name is given based on their geographical position, west, to the Transylvanian Plateau, which is simultaneously their eastern limits, respectively to the Timiș-Cerna Gap of the Banat Mountains, the southern group of the Western Carpathians.
The geology of Romania is structurally complex, with evidence of past crustal movements and the incorporation of different blocks or platforms to the edge of Europe, driving recent mountain building of the Carpathian Mountains. Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east.