|Rosario María Gutiérrez Eskildsen|
|Born||April 16, 1899|
|Died||May 12, 1979 80)(aged|
María del Rosario Gutiérrez Eskildsen (Villahermosa, Tabasco, April 16, 1899 – Mexico City May 12, 1979) was a Mexican lexicographer, linguist, educator, and poet who is remembered for her studies on the regional peculiarities of speech in her home state of Tabasco as well as for her pioneering work as a teacher and pedagogue in Tabasco and throughout Mexico. She has at times been described as Tabasco's first woman "professionist".
Tabasco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tabasco, is one of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 17 municipalities and its capital city is Villahermosa. It is located in the southeast of the country bordering the states of Campeche to the northeast, Veracruz to the west and Chiapas to the south, and the Petén department of Guatemala to the southeast. It has a coastline to the north with the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the state is covered in rainforest as, unlike most other areas of Mexico, it has plentiful rainfall year round. For this reason, it is also covered in small lakes, wetlands and rivers. The state is subject to major flooding events, with the last occurring in 2007, which affected eighty percent of the state. The state is also home to La Venta, the major site of the Olmec civilization, considered to be the origin of later Mesoamerican cultures. Even though it produces significant quantities of petroleum and natural gas, poverty is still a concern.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowledge and skills necessary to perform their specific role within that profession. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct, enshrining rigorous ethical and moral obligations. Professional standards of practice and ethics for a particular field are typically agreed upon and maintained through widely recognized professional associations, such as the IEEE. Some definitions of "professional" limit this term to those professions that serve some important aspect of public interest and the general good of society.
The community of María del Rosario Gutiérrez Eskildsen in Centla Municipality, Tabasco, is named in her honor.
Tabasco is a state in Southeast Mexico that is divided into 17 municipalities.
She was born in Villahermosa (then known as San Juan Bautista) on what was then called Calle Grijalva, her parents were Antonio Gutiérrez Carriles, a Spaniard, and Juana Eskildsen Cáceres de Gutiérrez, a native of Campeche of Danish descent. She was left orphan at a young age when first her mother, and then her father, died; two of her five brothers would die young as well. In order to keep financially afloat, her sister María del Carmen gave piano lessons, while Rosario, along with her older brother Guillermo, sold copies of the local newspaper El correo de Tabasco on street corners, for which they earned about 10 centavos a day.
Grijalva River, formerly known as Tabasco River. is a 480 km (300 mi) long river in southeastern Mexico. It is named after Juan de Grijalva who visited the area in 1518. The river rises in Chiapas highlands and flows from Chiapas to the state of Tabasco through the Sumidero Canyon into the Bay of Campeche. The river's drainage basin is 134,400 km2 (51,900 sq mi) in size. Because of the close connection to the Usumacinta River, they are often regarded as a single river basin, the Grijalva-Usumacinta River.
Campeche, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Campeche, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Located in southeast Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Tabasco to the southwest, Yucatán to the northeast, and Quintana Roo to the east; to the southeast by the Orange Walk district of Belize, and by the Petén department of Guatemala to the south. It has a coastline to the west with the Gulf of Mexico. The state capital, also called Campeche, was declared a World Heritage Site in 1997. The formation of the state began with the city, which was founded in 1540 as the Spanish began the conquest of the Yucatán Peninsula. During the colonial period, the city was a rich and important port, but declined after Mexico's independence. Campeche was part of the province of Yucatán but split off in the mid-19th century, mostly due to political friction with the city of Mérida. Much of the state's recent economic revival is due to the finding of petroleum offshore in the 1970s, which has made the coastal cities of Campeche and Ciudad del Carmen important economic centers. The state has important Mayan and colonial sites; however, these are not as well-known or visited as others in the Yucatán.
The Mexican peso is the currency of Mexico. Modern peso and dollar currencies have a common origin in the 15th–19th century-Spanish dollar, most continuing to use its sign, "$". The Mexican peso is the 10th most traded currency in the world, the third most traded currency from America, and the most traded currency from Latin America.
Gutiérrez Eskildsen was a dedicated student throughout her schooling, the first part of which she concluded at the Instituto Juárez of Villahermosa, an advanced preparatory school founded by politician and educator Manuel Sánchez Mármol. In 1918, at the age of 19 she moved to Mexico City in order to continue her studies, during the day working as a primary school teacher and during the evening attending classes at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, from which she would obtain an M.A. in Spanish Literature and later a doctorate in Spanish linguistics. It was during this time that she succeeded in winning Barnard College's Lillian Emma Kimball Graduate Fellowship for Spanish studies at Columbia University (where her mentors would include professors Tomás Navarro Tomás and Federico de Onís).
Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco is a public institution of higher learning located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico. The mission of the university is "to prepare professionals with broad and deep expertise in their area of study to fill the needs of Tabasco and the country at large." UJAT is the largest and most prominent university in the state of Tabasco. During the 2007-2008 academic year the University enrolled 35,271 students and had a teaching staff of over 2,000. For the same school year the University offered bachelor's degrees in 36 disciplines, master's degrees in 26 areas, three doctoral degrees, and post-graduate Certificates (Especialidades) in 17 graduate areas of specialization. The University grants law, education, management, engineering, medicine, architecture, nursing, and dentistry degrees, plus some 30 additional degrees in other fields of study.
Manuel Sánchez Mármol was a Mexican writer, journalist, lawyer, politician, and a member of the Mexican Academy of Language.
A primary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.
Gutiérrez Eskildsen would go on to write more than a dozen books and many more articles on topics pertaining to grammar and linguistics in general, and dialectology, language pedagogy, phonetics, and prosody, in particular; the studies Substrato y superestrato del español en Tabasco, Prosodia y fonética tabasqueña, Cómo hablamos en Tabasco y otros trabajos [How we talk in Tabasco] are considered, as in the case of the contributions of Marcos E. Becerra and Francisco J. Santamaría, to be pioneering works on the subject of Tabascan dialectology. She was also an avid epistler who corresponded assiduously with colleagues and former students alike.
Dialectology is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics. It studies variations in language based primarily on geographic distribution and their associated features. Dialectology treats such topics as divergence of two local dialects from a common ancestor and synchronic variation.
Language pedagogy may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages. Some have fallen into relative obscurity and others are widely used; still others have a small following, but offer useful insights.
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.
Rosario María Gutiérrez Eskildsen never married, explaining, whenever asked, that her desire was to dedicate her life exclusively to her investigative and educational work. Nevertheless, she unexpectedly became the (adoptive) mother of a 17-year-old newly orphaned teacher, Sergio Gómez Cabello, whose unhappy situation she learned about in 1953 while visiting the elementary school where he taught. She died in Mexico City in 1979 and was buried alongside her brother, Guillermo.
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Andrés de Jesús María y José Bello López was a Chilean-Venezuelan humanist, diplomat, poet, legislator, philosopher, educator and philologist, whose political and literary works constitute an important part of Spanish American culture. Bello is featured on the old 2,000 Venezuelan bolívar and the 20,000 Chilean peso notes. There is also a decoration, the Venezuelan Order of Andrés Bello.
Alfonso Caso y Andrade was an archaeologist who made important contributions to pre-Columbian studies in his native Mexico. Caso believed that the systematic study of ancient Mexican civilizations was an important way to understand Mexican cultural roots.
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The Royal Spanish Academy is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, Spain, but is affiliated with national language academies in 22 other hispanophone nations through the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language. The RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is "Limpia, fija y da esplendor".
Federica Montseny Mañé was a Spanish anarchist, intellectual and Minister of Health during the Spanish Revolution of 1936, a social revolution that occurred in Spain in parallel to the Spanish Civil War.
Villahermosa is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Tabasco, and the municipal seat of the Centro municipality. Villahermosa reported a population of 658,524 in the 2005 census, whereas its Centro municipality had 558,524 inhabitants. The municipality covers an area of 1,612 km2. The city is 863 kilometres (536 mi) from Mexico City.
The Unión General de Trabajadores is a major Spanish trade union, historically affiliated with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
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Marcos E. Becerra was a prolific Mexican writer, poet, and politician. He produced pioneering historical, linguistic, philological, and ethnographic studies relating to his country's pre-Columbian and early colonial past. He held important posts in the Mexican Federal Government as well as in the state governments of Tabasco and Chiapas. He was a distinguished member of the Mexican Academy of History.
Francisco Javier Santamaría was an influential Mexican writer and politician who is best remembered for his contributions to the study of Mexican literature and lexicography; he variously worked or published as a bibliographer, essayist, geographer, journalist, judge, lawyer, lexicographer, linguist, naturalist, pedagogue, philologist, and poet. He also served as a Senator of the Republic and as Governor of the State of Tabasco.
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Francisco Adolfo Marcos-Marín is a linguist, a professor of Linguistics and Translation at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Previously he was professore ordinario per chiara fama in the Università di Roma 'La Sapienza', catedrático de Lingüística General at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and catedrático de Historia del Español at the Universidad de Valladolid. He is a Corresponding Fellow of Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española and Academia Argentina de Letras, and an Honorary Citizen of San Antonio, Texas.
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Gloria Mestre Rodríguez was a Mexican dancer, choreographer, and actress in film, stage, and television. She was considered one of the greatest Mexican ballet dancers in the early 1940s.
The Cathedral of the Lord Also Villahermosa Cathedral or Tabasco Cathedral Is the main Catholic cathedral of the city of Villahermosa, in Mexico, and the central church of the Diocese of Tabasco.
Dora María Pérez Vidal, known by her stage name Dora María and her nickname La Chaparrita de Oro, is a Mexican singer of folk music. She is a native of Tamulté de las Barrancas, a neighborhood of Tabasco's capital, Villahermosa.
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The RFE Phonetic Alphabet, named for a journal of philology, Revista de Filología Española (RFE) is a phonetic alphabet originally developed in 1915 for the languages and dialects of Iberian origin, primarily Spanish. The alphabet was proposed by Tomás Navarro Tomás and adopted by the Centro de Estudios Históricos in Madrid for the RFE and by the Instituto de Filología de Buenos Aires. It is used solely in works based on Hispanic themes, such as the Atlas Lingüístico de la Península Ibérica (ALPI), as well as phonetics manuals. Additionally, this phonetic alphabet is taught at the universities of Spanish-speaking countries such as Mexico.