|Rose Francine Rogombé|
| President of Gabon |
10 June 2009 –16 October 2009
|Prime Minister|| Jean Eyeghé Ndong |
Paul Biyoghé Mba
|Preceded by||Didjob Divungi Di Ndinge (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Ali Bongo Ondimba|
|Born||Rose Francine Etomba|
20 September 1942
Lambaréné, French Equatorial Africa (now Gabon)
|Died|| 10 April 2015 72) (aged|
Rose Francine Rogombé (néeEtomba) (20 September 1942 – 10 April 2015) was a Gabonese politician who was Acting President of Gabon from June 2009 to October 2009, following the death of long-time President Omar Bongo. She constitutionally succeeded Bongo due to her role as President of the Senate,a post to which she was elected in February 2009. She was a lawyer by profession and a member of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG). Rogombé was the first female head of state of Gabon. After her interim presidency, she returned to her post as President of the Senate.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic, is a country on the west coast of Central Africa. Located on the equator, Gabon is bordered by Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, the Republic of the Congo on the east and south, and the Gulf of Guinea to the west. It has an area of nearly 270,000 square kilometres (100,000 sq mi) and its population is estimated at 2 million people. Its capital and largest city is Libreville.
El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba was a Gabonese dictator under French control who was President of Gabon for 42 years, from 1967 until his death in 2009. Omar Bongo was promoted to key positions as a young official under Gabon's first President Léon M'ba in the 1960s, before being elected Vice-President in his own right in 1966. In 1967, he succeeded M'ba to become the second Gabon President, upon the latter's death.
The Senate (Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of Gabon. It has 102 members, elected for a six-year term in single-seat constituencies by local and départemental councillors. Beginning with the 2009 election, some constituencies elect two senators.
Rose Francine Etomba, a member of the Galwa ethnic group, was born in Lambaréné, French Equatorial Africa (now Gabon), in 1942.After studying in France, she worked as a magistrate in Gabon. She also served in the government as Secretary of State for the Advancement of Women and Human Rights during the 1980s. She left politics during the transition to multiparty politics in the early 1990s, instead devoting herself to law; she eventually became Vice-President of the Special Criminal Court. In 2007, she received a degree in theology.
Lambaréné is a town and the capital of Moyen-Ogooué in Gabon. With a population of 38,775 as of 2013, it is located 75 kilometres south of the equator.
French Equatorial Africa, or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Equatorial Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River into the Sahel, and comprising what are today the countries of Chad, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
In the April 2008 local elections, Rogombé was elected as a municipal councillor in Lambaréné; she was subsequently elected as a Senator from Lambaréné in the January 2009 Senate election.Following the latter election, she was elected as President of the Senate on 16 February 2009, receiving the support of 90 of the 99 Senators who voted.
The President of the Senate is often given to the presiding officer of a senate, and is the speaker of other assemblies.
Rogombé, who was nicknamed the "iron lady", was a somewhat obscure figure when President Bongo effectively selected her to become President of the Senate, and her selection reportedly surprised many in the PDG leadership. Despite her relative obscurity, she was reportedly familiar with the operation of political power in Gabon, being close to Bongo and a friend of the family of Georges Rawiri, a prominent politician who became President of the Senate before his death in 2006.
Georges Rawiri was a Gabonese politician, diplomat and poet.
As President of the Senate, Rogombé was the constitutionally designated successor to the Presidency of the Republic in the event of a vacancy in the latter office; if this occurred, she was to serve only in an interim capacity prior to the holding of a new presidential election, in which she would not be allowed to run.Following the death of President Omar Bongo on 8 June 2009, the Constitutional Court designated Rogombé as interim President on 9 June, and her swearing in was scheduled for the following day. In her capacity as interim President, the Constitutional Court said that Rogombé, unlike an elected President, would not have the power to dissolve the National Assembly or call a referendum. A new presidential election was required within 30 to 45 days, according to the Gabonese constitution, although it was considered very likely that it would be delayed beyond that point due to the need to update the voter rolls.
Interim is a word in the English language, which denotes "in or for the intervening period; provisional or temporary."
The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of Gabon. It has 120 members, 111 members elected for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies and 9 members appointed by the President.
Rogombé was sworn in on 10 June 2009, in the presence of members of the Constitutional Court, government, Senate, and National Assembly, as well as foreign diplomats. She took the oath after a minute of silence in Bongo's memory, swearing "to devote all my strength to the good of the Gabonese people, with the aim of promoting its well-being and protecting it from all harm, to respect and defend the constitution and a state of law, and conscientiously to carry out my duties and to be fair before everyone".Internet access had been cut and television channels played only religious music following the announcement of Bongo's death.
After Rogombé assumed the Presidency of the Republic, Léonard Andjembé, the First Vice-President of the Senate, succeeded her as President of the Senate in an interim capacity.
In the presidential election held on 30 August 2009, PDG candidate Ali Bongo was victorious according to official results. Bongo was sworn in as President on 16 October 2009, and Rogombé returned to her post in the Senate on 20 October, taking over from Andjembé. There was no provision in the constitution specifically enabling her to return to her former post, but it was believed that Rogombé's resumption of duties in the Senate could constitute a precedent in that regard. In recognition of her work in leading Gabon through the early presidential election, Marcel Sandoungou, the oldest Senator, presented her with a medal of honor on the occasion of her return to the Senate. She said that the Senate was ready to work with Bongo as he pursued his planned reforms.
Rogombé distributed 23,000 toys to children in Lambaréné on 30 January 2010 in a belated celebration of Christmas.
Following the December 2014 Senate election, Lucie Milebou Aubusson was elected to succeed Rogombé as President of the Senate on 27 February 2015.
Rogombé died on 10 April 2015 at a hospital in Paris, where she had gone for medical treatment a few days prior.
Jean-François Ntoutoume Emane is a Gabonese politician who was Prime Minister of Gabon from 23 January 1999 to 20 January 2006. He was Mayor of Libreville, the capital, from 2008 to 2014.
Ali Bongo Ondimba, sometimes known as Ali Bongo, is a Gabonese leader who has been President of Gabon since October 2009.
Zacharie Myboto is a Gabonese politician and President of the National Union (UN), an opposition party. He was the Administrative Secretary of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) from 1972 to 1990 and served in the government from 1978 to 2001. After resigning from the government, he became an opposition leader, founding the Gabonese Union for Democracy and Development (UGDD) in 2005 and placing third in the 2005 presidential election. He became President of the Group of the Forces of Change in the National Assembly in 2007.
Jean Eyeghé Ndong is a Gabonese politician. He was the Prime Minister of Gabon from January 20, 2006 to July 17, 2009. He was also the First Vice-President of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) until 2009.
Didjob Divungi Di Ndinge is a Gabonese politician who was Vice-President of Gabon from 1997 to 2009. He is the President of the Democratic and Republican Alliance (ADERE), a political party. As Vice-President of Gabon, Divungi Di Ndinge exercised presidential powers in an acting capacity from May 2009 to June 2009, while President Omar Bongo Ondimba was hospitalized.
Georgette Koko is a Gabonese politician who served in the government of Gabon as Deputy Prime Minister for the Environment from January 2006 to October 2009. She has been President of the Economic and Social Council since 2016.
André Mba Obame was a Gabonese politician. After serving as an adviser to President Omar Bongo in the 1980s, he was a minister in the government of Gabon from 1990 to 1991 and again from 1997 to 2009; during that time, he was identified with the reformist wing of the ruling Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG). He held the key post of Minister of the Interior from 2006 to 2009 and then briefly served as Minister of the Coordination and Follow-up of Government Action in mid-2009. He was an independent candidate in the 30 August 2009 presidential election and placed third with 25.33% of the vote, according to official results, but he claimed victory and alleged that the PDG candidate, Ali Bongo, won through fraud.
Jean-Boniface Assélé is a Gabonese politician and the President of the Circle of Liberal Reformers (CLR). He served in the government of Gabon from 1975 to 1990 and again from 2004 to 2009. He was also Commander-in-Chief of the National Police Forces from 1970 to 1989 and held the rank of General. Since September 2009, Assélé has been the Fourth Vice-President of the Senate of Gabon.
Richard Auguste Onouviet is a Gabonese politician who has been President of the National Assembly of Gabon since 2016. Holding a succession of ministerial portfolios, Onouviet served in the government of Gabon as Minister of Water and the Environment from 1999 to 2002, Minister of Mines, Energy, and Oil from 2002 to 2007, Minister of Planning from 2007 to 2009, and as Minister of Decentralization and Urban Policy in 2009. A member of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG), he has been a Deputy in the National Assembly since 2009.
René Radembino Coniquet was a Gabonese politician who served as President of the Senate of Gabon from 2006 to 2009. He was a Senator from 1997 to 2014 and a long-time member of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG).
Françoise Makaya is a Gabonese politician. She is a member of the Gabonese Democratic Party and a Deputy in the National Assembly of Gabon.
Daniel Ona Ondo is a Gabonese politician who has been Prime Minister of Gabon from January 2014 to September 2016. He previously served as Minister of Education and First Vice-President of the National Assembly. He is a member of the Gabonese Democratic Party.
Emmanuel Ondo Methogo is a Gabonese politician. A member of the ruling Gabonese Democratic Party, he was a minister in the government from 1991 to 2007. Subsequently he served as President of the National Council of Communication (CNC).
Jules-Aristide Bourdes-Ogouliguende was a Gabonese politician who was the President of the Congress for Democracy and Justice (CDJ), an opposition party. He served as a minister in the government of Gabon from 1976 to 1990 and was President of the National Assembly from 1990 to 1993; from 1993 until his death in 2018.
Early presidential elections were held in Gabon on 30 August 2009. They took place due to the death of incumbent President Omar Bongo on 8 June, after more than 41 years as the sole president of Gabon. While the constitution stated that interim President Rose Francine Rogombé should organise elections within 30 to 45 days, the Constitutional Court accepted the government's request for a delay due to the circumstances.
Léonard Andjembé is a Gabonese politician and professor. He is currently the First Vice-President of the Senate of Gabon, and he was the Senate's Interim President for several months in 2009.
Claude Aristide Damas Ozimo is a Gabonese politician, currently serving as the First Secretary of the Senate of Gabon. He was previously a Secretary of State in the government and Mayor of Libreville. Damas Ozimo is a member of the governing Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG).
Paul Biyoghé Mba is a Gabonese politician who was Prime Minister of Gabon from July 2009 to February 2012. A member of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG), he served for years as a minister in the government prior to his appointment as Prime Minister. From 2012 to 2015, he was President of the Economic and Social Council of Gabon, and he has again served in the government as First Deputy Prime Minister for Health since 2015.
Lucie Milebou Aubusson also known as Lucie Mboussou is a Gabonese ophthalmologist and politician who has been President of the Senate since 27 February 2015.
Didjob Divungi Di Ndinge
| President of Gabon |
Ali Bongo Ondimba