Ross Perot

Last updated

Ross Perot
RossPerotColor.jpg
Born
Henry Ross Perot

(1930-06-27) June 27, 1930 (age 88)
Education Texarkana College
United States Naval Academy (BS)
Net worthIncrease2.svg US$4.1 billion (October 2017)
Political party Independent (before 1995)
Reform (1995–2000)
Republican (2000–present)
Spouse(s)
Margot Birmingham(m. 1956)
Children5, including Ross

Henry Ross Perot ( /pəˈr/ ; born June 27, 1930) is an American business magnate, billionaire, philanthropist, and former politician. He is the founder and former chief executive officer of Electronic Data Systems and Perot Systems. He ran an independent presidential campaign in 1992 and a third party campaign in 1996, establishing the Reform Party in the latter election. Both campaigns were among the strongest presidential showings by a third party or independent candidate in U.S. history.

Business magnate entrepreneur who has achieved wealth and prominence from a particular industry (or industries)

A business magnate or industrialist is an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business. The term characteristically refers to a wealthy entrepreneur or investor who controls, through personal business ownership or dominant shareholding position, a firm or industry whose goods or services are widely consumed. Such individuals may also be called czars, moguls, proprietors, tycoons, taipans, barons, or oligarchs.

Chief executive officer highest-ranking corporate officer or administrator

The chief executive officer (CEO) or just chief executive (CE), is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and even some government organizations. The CEO of a corporation or company typically reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs typically aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc.

Electronic Data Systems American multinational information technology equipment and services company

Electronic Data Systems (EDS) was an American multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Plano, Texas.

Contents

Born in Texarkana, Texas, he became a salesman for IBM after serving in the United States Navy. In 1962, he founded Electronic Data Systems, a data processing service company. In 1984, General Motors bought a controlling interest in the company for $2.4 billion. Perot established Perot Systems in 1988 and was an angel investor for NeXT, a computer company founded by Steve Jobs after he left Apple. Perot also became heavily involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, arguing that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia after the Vietnam War. During President George H. W. Bush's tenure, Perot became increasingly active in politics and strongly opposed the Gulf War and ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

Texarkana, Texas City in Texas, United States

Texarkana is a city in Bowie County, Texas, United States, located in the Ark-La-Tex region. Located approximately 180 miles (290 km) from Dallas, Texarkana is a twin city with neighboring Texarkana, Arkansas. The population of the Texas city was 37,679 at the 2016 census estimate. The city and its Arkansas counterpart form the core of the Texarkana Metropolitan Statistical Area, encompassing all of Bowie County, Texas, and Miller County, Arkansas. The two cities had a combined population of 67,592 at the 2017 census, and the metropolitan area had a total population of 150,098.

IBM American multinational technology and consulting corporation

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924.

United States Navy Naval warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force.

In 1992, Perot announced his intention to run for president and advocated a balanced budget, an end to the outsourcing of jobs, and the enactment of electronic direct democracy. A June 1992 Gallup poll showed Perot leading a three-way race against President Bush and presumptive Democratic nominee Bill Clinton. Perot briefly withdrew from the race in July, but re-entered the race in early October after he qualified for all 50 state ballots. He chose Admiral James Stockdale as his running mate and appeared in the 1992 CPD debates with Bush and Clinton. In the election, Perot won 18.9% of the popular vote but did not win any electoral votes. He won support from across the ideological and partisan spectrum, but performed best among self-described moderates. Perot ran for president again in 1996, establishing the Reform Party as a vehicle for his campaign. He won 8.4% of the popular vote against President Clinton and Republican nominee Bob Dole.

Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity that is or could be done internally, and sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm to another.

E-democracy

E-democracy, also known as digital democracy or Internet democracy, incorporates 21st-century information and communications technology to promote democracy. It is a form of government in which all adult citizens are presumed to be eligible to participate equally in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. E-democracy encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination.

Bill Clinton 42nd president of the United States

William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, and again from 1983 to 1992, and the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy.

Perot did not seek public office again after 1996 and did not enter the 2000 Reform Party presidential primaries. He endorsed Republican George W. Bush over Reform nominee Pat Buchanan in the 2000 election and supported Republican Mitt Romney in 2008 and 2012. In 2009, Dell acquired Perot Systems for $3.9 billion. According to Forbes, Perot was the 167th richest person in the United States in 2016.

George W. Bush 43rd president of the United States

George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

Pat Buchanan American politician and commentator

Patrick Joseph Buchanan is an American paleoconservative political commentator, author, syndicated columnist, politician, and broadcaster. Buchanan was a senior advisor to U.S. Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Ronald Reagan, and was an original host on CNN's Crossfire. He sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1992 and 1996. He ran on the Reform Party ticket in the 2000 presidential election.

Mitt Romney United States Senator from Utah

Willard Mitt Romney is an American politician and businessman serving as the junior United States senator from Utah since January 2019. He previously served as the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 and was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election.

Early life

Perot was born in Texarkana, Texas, the son of Lula May Perot (née Ray) and Gabriel Ross Perot, [1] a commodity broker specializing in cotton contracts. His patrilineal line traces back to an immigrant to French Louisiana in the 1740s. [2] [3] He attended a private school called Patty Hill. He graduated from Texas High School in Texarkana in 1947. [4] One of Perot's childhood friends was Hayes McClerkin, who later became the Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives and a prominent lawyer in Texarkana, Arkansas. [5]

A commodity broker is a firm or an individual who executes orders to buy or sell commodity contracts on behalf of the clients and charges them a commission. A firm or individual who trades for his own account is called a trader. Commodity contracts include futures, options, and similar financial derivatives. Clients who trade commodity contracts are either hedgers using the derivatives markets to manage risk, or speculators who are willing to assume that risk from hedgers in hopes of a profit.

Cotton plant fiber from the genus Gossypium

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds.

Louisiana (New France) Administrative district of New France

Louisiana or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control 1682 to 1762 and 1801 (nominally) to 1803, the area was named in honor of King Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. It originally covered an expansive territory that included most of the drainage basin of the Mississippi River and stretched from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Appalachian Mountains to the Rocky Mountains.

Perot joined the Boy Scouts of America and made Eagle Scout in 1942, after 13 months in the program. He is a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award. [6] [7]

Boy Scouts of America Scouting organization in the United States

The Boy Scouts of America is the largest scouting organization and one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with about 2.3 million youth participants and about one million adult volunteers. The BSA was founded in 1910, and since then, about 110 million Americans participated in BSA programs at some time in their lives. BSA is part of the international Scout Movement and became a founding member organization of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922.

Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America) Boy Scoutings highest award

Eagle Scout is the highest achievement or rank attainable in the Scouts BSA program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Since its inception in 1911, only four percent of Scouts have earned this rank after a lengthy review process. The Eagle Scout rank has been earned by over 2.5 million youth.

Distinguished Eagle Scout Award

The Distinguished Eagle Scout Award (DESA) is a distinguished service award of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). It is awarded to an Eagle Scout for distinguished service in his profession and to his community for a period of at least 25 years after attaining the level of Eagle Scout. Other requirements include significant accomplishment in one's career and a solid record of continued community volunteer involvement. It is one of only two BSA awards given to adults that is dependent upon the recipient's having been awarded Eagle Scout as a youth; the other is the NESA Outstanding Eagle Scout Award (NOESA). Recipients of the DESA are known as Distinguished Eagle Scouts.

From 1947 to 1949, he attended Texarkana Junior College, then entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1949 and helped establish its honor system. [6] [8] Perot said his appointment notice to the academy—sent by telegram—was sent by W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel, Texas's 34th governor and former senator. [9] Perot married Margot Birmingham of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1956.

Business

L-R: Larry Hagman, Ross Perot, Margot Perot and Suzanne Perot (1988) (L-R) Larry Hagman, Ross Perot, Margot Perot and Suzanne Perot at the Rosewood Crescent Club (8392304697).jpg
L-R: Larry Hagman, Ross Perot, Margot Perot and Suzanne Perot (1988)

After he left the Navy in 1957, Perot became a salesman for IBM. He quickly became a top employee (one year, he fulfilled his annual sales quota in a mere two weeks) [10] and tried to pitch his ideas to supervisors, who largely ignored him. [11] He left IBM in 1962 to found Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in Dallas, Texas, and courted large corporations for his data processing services. Perot was refused 77 times before he was given his first contract. EDS received lucrative contracts from the U.S. government in the 1960s, computerizing Medicare records. EDS went public in 1968 and the stock price rose from $16 a share to $160 within days. Fortune called Perot the "fastest, richest Texan" in a 1968 cover story. [12] In 1984 General Motors bought controlling interest in EDS for $2.4 billion.

In 1974, Perot gained some press attention for being "the biggest individual loser ever on the New York Stock Exchange" when his EDS shares dropped $450 million in value in a single day in April 1970. [13]

Just prior to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the government of Iran imprisoned two EDS employees in a contract dispute. Perot organized and sponsored their rescue. The rescue team was led by retired U.S. Army Special Forces Colonel Arthur D. "Bull" Simons. When the team was unable to find a way to extract the two prisoners, they decided to wait for a mob of pro-Ayatollah revolutionaries to storm the jail and free all 10,000 inmates, many of whom were political prisoners. The two prisoners then connected with the rescue team, and the team spirited them out of Iran via a risky border crossing into Turkey. The exploit was recounted in a book, On Wings of Eagles by Ken Follett, which became a best-seller. In the 1986 mini-series, Perot was portrayed by Richard Crenna.

In 1984, Perot bought a very early copy of Magna Carta, one of only a few to leave the United Kingdom. It was lent to the National Archives in Washington, D.C., where it was displayed alongside the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. In 2007, it was sold by the Perot Foundation "for medical research, for improving public education and for assisting wounded soldiers and their families." [14] The document sold for US$21.3 million on Dec. 18, 2007, to David Rubenstein, managing director of the Carlyle Group, and is kept on display at the National Archives. [15]

After Steve Jobs lost the original power struggle at Apple and left to found NeXT, his angel investor was Perot, who invested over $20 million. Perot believed in Jobs and did not want to miss out, as he had with his chance to invest in Bill Gates's fledgling Microsoft. [16]

In 1988, he founded Perot Systems Corporation, Inc. in Plano, Texas. His son, Ross Perot, Jr., eventually succeeded him as CEO. In September 2009, Perot Systems was acquired by Dell for $3.9 billion. [17]

Political activities

Early political activities

Perot became heavily involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. He believed that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia at the end of the U.S. involvement in the war, [18] and that government officials were covering up POW/MIA investigations to avoid revealing a drug-smuggling operation used to finance a secret war in Laos. [19] Perot engaged in unauthorized back-channel discussions with Vietnamese officials in the late 1980s, which led to fractured relations between Perot and the Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations. [18] [19] In 1990, Perot reached agreement with Vietnam's Foreign Ministry to become its business agent in the event that diplomatic relations were normalized. [20] Perot also launched private investigations of, and attacks upon, U.S. Department of Defense official Richard Armitage. [18] [19]

Perot with a portrait of George Washington in his office in 1986 Ross Perot Allan Warren.jpg
Perot with a portrait of George Washington in his office in 1986

In Florida in 1990, retired financial planner Jack Gargan funded a series of "I'm mad as hell and I'm not going to take it anymore" (a reference to a famous quotation from the 1976 political and mass media satire movie Network ) newspaper advertisements denouncing the U.S. Congress for voting for legislative pay raises at a time when average wages nationwide were not increasing. Gargan later founded "Throw the Hypocritical Rascals Out" (THRO), which Ross Perot supported. [21]

Perot did not support President George H. W. Bush, and vigorously opposed the United States' involvement in the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War. He unsuccessfully urged Senators to vote against the war resolution, and began to consider his own presidential run. [22] [23]

1992 presidential campaign

Perot in 1986 RossPerotColor.jpg
Perot in 1986

On February 20, 1992, he appeared on CNN's Larry King Live and announced his intention to run as an independent if his supporters could get his name on the ballot in all 50 states. With such declared policies as balancing the federal budget, opposition to gun control, ending the outsourcing of jobs and enacting electronic direct democracy via "electronic town halls," he became a potential candidate and soon polled roughly even with the two major party candidates. [24]

Perot's candidacy received increasing media attention when the competitive phase of the primary season ended for the two major parties. With the insurgent candidacies of Republican Pat Buchanan and Democrat Jerry Brown winding down, Perot was the natural beneficiary of populist resentment toward establishment politicians. On May 25, 1992, he was featured on the cover of Time with the title "Waiting for Perot", an allusion to Samuel Beckett's play Waiting for Godot . [25]

Several months before the Democratic and Republican conventions, Perot filled the vacuum of election news, as his supporters began petition drives to get him on the ballot in all 50 states. This sense of momentum was reinforced when Perot employed two savvy campaign managers in Democrat Hamilton Jordan and Republican Ed Rollins. In July, while Perot was pondering whether to run for office, his supporters established a campaign organization United We Stand America. Perot was late in making formal policy proposals, but most of what he did call for were intended to reduce the deficit, such as a gasoline tax increase and cutbacks to Social Security.[ citation needed ]

In June, Perot led a Gallup poll with 39% of the vote. [26] By mid-July, the Washington Post reported that Perot's campaign managers were becoming increasingly disillusioned by his unwillingness to follow their advice to be more specific on issues, [27] and his need to be in full control of operations [27] with such tactics as forcing volunteers to sign loyalty oaths. [28] Perot's poll numbers began to slip to 25%, and his advisers warned that if he continued to ignore them, he would fall into single digits. Co-manager Hamilton Jordan threatened to quit, and on July 15, Ed Rollins resigned after Perot fired advertisement specialist Hal Riney, who worked with Rollins on the Reagan campaign. Rollins would later claim that a member of the campaign accused him of being a Bush plant with ties to the CIA. [29] Amid the chaos, Perot's support fell to 20%. [30] The next day, Perot announced on Larry King Live that he would not seek the presidency. He explained that he did not want the House of Representatives to decide the election if the result caused the electoral college to be split. Perot eventually stated the reason was that he received threats that digitally altered photographs would be released by the Bush campaign to sabotage his daughter's wedding. [31] Whatever his reasons for withdrawing, his reputation was badly damaged. Many of his supporters felt betrayed and public opinion polls subsequently showed a large negative view of Perot that was absent prior to his decision to end the campaign. [32]

In September, he qualified for all 50 state ballots. On October 1, he announced his intention to re-enter the presidential race. He campaigned in 16 states and spent an estimated $12.3 million of his own money. [33] Perot employed the innovative strategy of purchasing half-hour blocks of time on major networks for infomercial-type campaign advertisements; this advertising garnered more viewership than many sitcoms, with one Friday night program in October attracting 10.5 million viewers. [34]

At one point in June, Perot led the polls with 39% (versus 31% for Bush and 25% for Clinton). Just prior to the debates, Perot received 7–9% support in nationwide polls. [35] The debates likely played a significant role in his ultimate receipt of 19% of the popular vote. Although his answers during the debates were often general, many Democrats and Republicans conceded that Perot won at least the first debate. In the debate, he remarked:

Keep in mind our Constitution predates the Industrial Revolution. Our founders did not know about electricity, the train, telephones, radio, television, automobiles, airplanes, rockets, nuclear weapons, satellites, or space exploration. There's a lot they didn't know about. It would be interesting to see what kind of document they'd draft today. Just keeping it frozen in time won't hack it. [36]

Perot denounced Congress for its inaction in his speech at the National Press Club in Washington, DC, on March 18, 1992. Perot said:

This city has become a town filled with sound bites, shell games, handlers, media stuntmen who posture, create images, talk, shoot off Roman candles, but don't ever accomplish anything. We need deeds, not words, in this city. [37]

In the 1992 election, he received 18.9% of the popular vote, about 19,741,065 votes (but no electoral college votes), making him the most successful third-party presidential candidate in terms of the popular vote since Theodore Roosevelt in the 1912 election. [38] Unlike Perot, however, some other third party candidates since Roosevelt have won electoral college votes. (Robert La Follette had 13 in 1924, Strom Thurmond had 39 in 1948, George Wallace had 46 in 1968 and John Hospers won one in 1972, albeit from a faithless elector). Compared with Thurmond and Wallace, who polled very strongly in a small number of states, Perot's vote was more evenly spread across the country. Perot managed to finish second in two states: In Maine, Perot received 30.44% of the vote to Bush's 30.39% (Clinton won Maine with 38.77%); in Utah, Perot received 27.34% of the vote to Clinton's 24.65% (Bush won Utah with 43.36%). Although Perot did not win a state, he received the most votes in some counties.

A detailed analysis of voting demographics revealed that Perot's support drew heavily from across the political spectrum, with 20% of his votes coming from self-described liberals, 27% from self-described conservatives, and 53% coming from self-described moderates. Economically, however, the majority of Perot voters (57%) were middle class, earning between $15,000 and $49,000 annually, with the bulk of the remainder drawing from the upper middle class (29% earning more than $50,000 annually). [39] Exit polls also showed that Ross Perot drew 38% of his vote from Bush, and 38% of his vote from Clinton. [40] Despite widespread claims that Perot acted as a "spoiler," there is little reason to think he affected the outcome of the 1992 Presidential election. [41]

Based on his performance in the popular vote in 1992, Perot was entitled to receive federal election funding for 1996. Perot remained in the public eye after the election and championed opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), urging voters to listen for the "giant sucking sound" of American jobs heading south to Mexico should NAFTA be ratified.

Reform Party and 1996 presidential campaign

Ross Perot 1996 presidential campaign.png

Perot tried to keep his movement alive through the mid-1990s, continuing to speak about the increasing national debt. He was a prominent campaigner against the NAFTA, and even debated with then Vice President Al Gore on the issue on Larry King Live. Perot's behavior during the debate was a source of mirth thereafter, including his repeated pleas to "let me finish" in his southern drawl. The debate was seen by many as effectively ending Perot's political career. [42] Support for NAFTA went from 34% to 57%. [43]

In 1995, he founded the Reform Party and won their presidential nomination for the 1996 election. His vice presidential running mate was Pat Choate. Because of the ballot access laws, he had to run as an Independent on many state ballots. Perot received 8% of the popular vote in 1996, lower than in the 1992 race, but still an unusually successful third-party showing by U.S. standards. He spent much less of his own money in this race than he had four years before, and also allowed other people to contribute to his campaign, unlike his prior race. One common explanation for the decline was Perot's exclusion from the presidential debates, based on the preferences of the Democratic and Republican party candidates. Jamie B. Raskin of Open Debates filed a lawsuit about Perot's exclusion years later. [44] [45]

Later activities

Perot attending the 2009 EagleBank Bowl in Washington, D.C. Ross Perot - 2009 Eagle Bank Bowl.jpg
Perot attending the 2009 EagleBank Bowl in Washington, D.C.

Later in the 1990s, Perot's detractors accused him of not allowing the Reform Party to develop into a genuine national political party, but rather using it as a vehicle to promote himself. They cited as evidence the control of party offices by operatives from his presidential campaigns. Perot did not give an endorsement during Jesse Ventura's run for governor of Minnesota in the 1998 election, and this became suspicious to detractors when he made fun of Ventura at a conference after Ventura had a falling out with the press. The party leadership grew in tighter opposition to groups supporting Ventura and Jack Gargan. Evidence of this was demonstrated when Gargan was officially removed as Reform Party chairman by the Reform Party National Committee.

In the 2000 presidential election, Perot refused to become openly involved with the internal Reform Party dispute between supporters of Pat Buchanan and John Hagelin. Perot was reportedly unhappy with what he saw as the disintegration of the party, as well as his own portrayal in the press; thus, he chose to remain quiet. He appeared on Larry King Live four days before the election and endorsed George W. Bush for president. Despite his earlier opposition to NAFTA, Perot remained largely silent about expanded use of guest-worker visas in the United States, with Buchanan supporters attributing this silence to his corporate reliance on foreign workers. [46] Some state parties affiliated with the new (Buchananite) America First Party.

Perot speaking in 2006 Perot.jpg
Perot speaking in 2006

Since then, Perot has been largely silent on political issues, refusing to answer most questions from the press. When interviewed, he usually remains on the subject of his business career and refuses to answer specific questions on politics, candidates, or his past activities.

One exception to this came in 2005, when he was asked to testify before the Texas Legislature in support of proposals to extend technology to students, including making laptops available to them. He also supported changing the process of buying textbooks by making e-books available and by allowing schools to buy books at the local level instead of going through the state. In an April 2005 interview, Perot expressed concern about the state of progress on issues that he had raised in his presidential runs. [47]

Two further exceptions came with his endorsements in the 2008 and 2012 elections. In January 2008, Perot publicly came out against Republican candidate John McCain and endorsed Mitt Romney for president. He also announced that he would soon be launching a new website with updated economic graphs and charts. [48] In June 2008, this blog launched, focusing on entitlements (Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security), the U.S. national debt, and related issues. [49] In 2012, Perot endorsed Romney for president again. [50] Perot did not give any endorsements for the 2016 election.

Political views

During Perot's political campaigns, he spoke less on social issues and instead focused on the fiscal issues of the time. Perot did not fit the typical stereotype of a conservative southerner; his views were seen as liberal and usually focused on his economic policy to keep support during his campaigns and gain support from both Democrats and Republican voters from his home state of Texas. Perot is pro-choice, supports gay rights, stricter gun controls such as an assault rifle ban and increased research in AIDS. [51] [52] [53]

Social issues

Since 1992, Perot was a pro-choice activist, and a strong supporter of Planned Parenthood. He has stated poorer women in particular should have access to abortions via federal funding. Since 2000, he has been pro-choice reluctantly. [54]

Economic policy

Perot believes tax should be increased on the wealthy, while spending should be cut to help pay off the national debt. Perot also believes capital gains tax should be increased, while giving tax breaks to those starting new businesses.

We cut the capital gains tax rate from a maximum rate of 35% to a maximum rate that got as low as 20% during the 1980s. Who got the benefit? The rich did, of course, because that's who owns most of the capital assets.

Not For Sale at Any Price

In his book, Perot showed support for giving tax cuts for SME's, as opposed to larger corporations. [55] Additionally, Perot has supported a balanced budget amendment, stating: "spending should not exceed revenue for 27 consecutive years." On trade, Perot has stated that there is a trade deficit between Mexico and the U.S. and a loss of manufacturing jobs which he believes is caused by NAFTA. [56] His position on Free Trade and NAFTA became his defining campaign principles of both the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections. Ross Perot argued: "We have got to stop sending jobs overseas. It's pretty simple: If you're paying $12, $13, $14 an hour for factory workers and you can move your factory South of the border, pay a dollar an hour for labor, ... have no health care—that's the most expensive single element in making a car— have no environmental controls, no pollution controls and no retirement, and you don't care about anything but making money, there will be a giant sucking sound going south."

"... when [Mexico's] jobs come up from a dollar an hour to six dollars an hour, and ours go down to six dollars an hour, and then it's leveled again. But in the meantime, you've wrecked the country with these kinds of deals.

"THE 1992 CAMPAIGN; Transcript of 2d TV Debate Between Bush, Clinton and Perot". The New York Times. New York Times Company. 16 October 1992. Retrieved 16 May 2016.

Personal life

Perot and his wife Margot (née Birmingham) have five children (Ross Jr., Nancy, Suzanne, Carolyn, and Katherine). As of 2012, the Perots had 16 grandchildren.[ citation needed ]

With an estimated net worth of about US$4.1 billion in 2017, he is ranked by Forbes as the 167th-richest person in the United States. [57]

Honors and achievements

Electoral history

United States presidential election, 1992

United States presidential election, 1996

Related Research Articles

1996 United States presidential election 53rd quadrennial presidential election in the United States

The 1996 United States presidential election was the 53rd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 5, 1996. Incumbent Democratic President Bill Clinton defeated former Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole, the Republican nominee, and Ross Perot, the Reform Party nominee.

1992 United States presidential election 52nd quadrennial presidential election in the United States

The 1992 United States presidential election was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush, independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, and a number of minor candidates.

Third party (United States) in American politics

Third party is a term used in the United States for American political parties other than the Republican and Democratic parties.

1992 Republican National Convention

The 1992 Republican National Convention was held in the Astrodome in Houston, Texas, from August 17 to August 20, 1992. The convention nominated President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle for reelection. It was Bush's fourth consecutive appearance as a candidate on a major party ticket; only Bush and Franklin D. Roosevelt have been nominated on four consecutive presidential tickets. Richard M. Nixon and Roosevelt were nominated five times, but not consecutively.

Bill Clinton 1992 presidential campaign

The 1992 presidential campaign of Bill Clinton, then Governor of Arkansas, was announced on October 3, 1991 in Little Rock, Arkansas. After winning a majority of delegates in the Democratic primaries of 1992, the campaign announced that then-junior Senator from Tennessee, Al Gore, would be Clinton's running mate. The Clinton-Gore ticket went on to defeat Republican incumbent President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle in the presidential election on November 3, 1992, and took office as the 42nd President and 45th Vice President, respectively, on January 20, 1993.

1992 Democratic National Convention

The 1992 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party nominated Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas for President and Senator Al Gore from Tennessee for Vice President; Clinton announced Gore as his running-mate on July 9, 1992. The convention was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York from July 13 to July 16, 1992. The Clinton-Gore ticket then faced and defeated their Republican opponents, President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle as well as the independent ticket of Ross Perot and James Stockdale in the 1992 presidential election.

The "giant sucking sound" was United States presidential candidate Ross Perot's phrase for what he believed would be the negative effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which he opposed.

Ross Perot 1992 presidential campaign

In 1992, Ross Perot ran unsuccessfully as an independent candidate for President of the United States. Perot, a Texas industrialist, had never served as a public official but had experience as the head of several successful corporations and had been involved in public affairs for the previous three decades. Spawned by the American dissatisfaction with the political system, grassroots organizations sprang up in every state to help Perot achieve ballot access following his announcement on the February 20, 1992 edition of Larry King Live. James Stockdale, a retired United States Navy vice admiral, was Perot's vice presidential running mate.

In the United States, Presidential plurality victories are those elections in which the winning candidate received less than 50% of the popular votes cast but the largest share of votes.

Russ Verney American campaign manager

Russell J. Verney is a political advisor who served as chairman of the Reform Party of the United States from 1995 to 1999. He worked on the presidential campaigns of Ross Perot and Bob Barr.

1992 United States elections Election in the United States on 1992

The 1992 United States elections elected state governors, the national president, and members of the 103rd United States Congress. The election took place after the redistricting that resulted from the 1990 Census. Democrats won control of the presidency and both chambers of Congress for the first time since the Republican victory in the 1980 elections.

1992 United States presidential election in Colorado

The 1992 United States presidential election in Colorado took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1992 United States presidential election in Iowa

The 1992 United States presidential election in Iowa took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose seven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1992 United States presidential election in Kansas

The 1992 United States presidential election in Kansas took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose six representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1992 United States presidential election in Maine

The 1992 United States presidential election in Maine took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1992 United States presidential election in New York

The 1992 United States presidential election in New York took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose thirty-three representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1992 United States presidential election in Oregon

The 1992 United States presidential election in Oregon took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose seven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1992 United States presidential election in Texas

The 1992 United States presidential election in Texas took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose thirty-two representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

2016 United States presidential election in Wisconsin 2016 race in Wisconsin

The 2016 United States presidential election in Wisconsin was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election in which all 50 states plus Washington, D.C. participated. Wisconsin voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting Republican Party nominee Donald Trump against Democratic Party nominee Hillary Clinton.

2016 United States presidential election in New Mexico

The 2016 United States presidential election in New Mexico was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the General Election in which all fifty states and the District of Columbia participated. New Mexico voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote.

References

  1. "The Ancestors of Ross Perot". Wargs.com. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  2. Posner, Gerald (1996). Citizen Perot. New York City: Random House. p. 8.
  3. Reagan, Danny. "The Perot/Bordelon Branches". Archived from the original on July 18, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
  4. "Texarkana Independent School District Names H. Ross Perot as 2009 Distinguished Alumni" (PDF). Texarkana Independent School District. September 17, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  5. Furlong, Tom (June 10, 1992). "Perot as Hometown Hero: Just Don't Get in His Way". articles.latimes.com. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  6. 1 2 Townley, Alvin (December 26, 2006). Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 89–100, 108, 187, 194, 249, 260, 265. ISBN   0-312-36653-1 . Retrieved December 29, 2006.
  7. Ray, Mark (2007). "What It Means to Be an Eagle Scout". Scouting Magazine. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
  8. The Associated Press. "Ross Perot Gives $1 Million to Texarkana College" . Retrieved April 7, 2012.
  9. Martin, Marie Murray (March 25, 2012). "Native Son: TC benefactor Ross Perot reflects on growing up in Texarkana". Texarkana Gazette. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
  10. Sam Wyly, 1000 Dollars & an Idea, Publisher: Newmarket, ISBN   1-55704-803-7
  11. Landrum, Gene N. (2004). Entrepreneurial Genius: The Power of Passion. Naples, FL: Brendan Kelly Publishing Inc. p. 174. ISBN   9781895997231 . Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  12. "Ross Perot". Famous Entrepreneurs. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  13. Henry Moscow, "An Astonishment of New York Superlatives: Biggest, Smallest, Longest, Shortest, Oldest, First, Last, Most, Etc." New York Magazine vol. 7, no. 1 (31 December 1973/7 January 1974) p. 53.
  14. Magna Carta Is Going on the Auction Block, The New York Times September 25, 2007
  15. "Magna Carta Copy Sold". The New York Times . Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  16. Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN   1-4516-4853-7.
  17. Guglielmo, Connie; Hoffmann, Katie (September 22, 2009). "Dell Pays 68% Premium for Perot's Health Technology (Update3)". Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
  18. 1 2 3 Patrick E. Tyler (June 20, 1992). "Perot and Senators Seem Headed for a Fight on P.O.W.'s-M.I.A.'s". The New York Times . Retrieved January 5, 2008.
  19. 1 2 3 George J. Church (June 29, 1992). "The Other Side of Perot". Time . Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  20. Patrick E. Tyler (June 5, 1992). "Perot to Testify in Senate on Americans Missing in Southeast Asia". The New York Times . Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  21. Isikoff, Michael (May 31, 1992). "Unlikely Suitors Pushed Perot Bid". Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  22. "The 1992 Run For The Presidency". Reform Party. Archived from the original on January 31, 2014.
  23. QUINDLEN, Anna (June 3, 1992). "Public & Private; Waiting for Perot". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
  24. "The Pew Research Center for People & the Press: Year of the Outsider". June 16, 1992. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
  25. "Time magazine cover: H. Ross Perot". May 25, 1992. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  26. "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: On the Trail; POLL GIVES PEROT A CLEAR LEAD". The New York Times. June 11, 1992. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 24, 2016.
  27. 1 2 "Perot advisers reportedly at odds". The Milwaukee Sentinel . Milwaukee, Wisconsin. July 14, 1992. p. 2A. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  28. "Perot asks volunteers to sign loyalty oaths". St. Petersburg Times . Associated Press. July 14, 1992. p. 2A.
  29. Lewis, Anthony (October 2, 1992). "Abroad at Home; Why Perot?". The New York Times. p. 31. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  30. Holmes, Steven A. (July 16, 1992). "Rollins Quits Perot's Campaign; Asserts His Advice Was Ignored". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  31. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Overview; PEROT SAYS HE QUIT IN JULY TO THWART G.O.P. 'DIRTY TRICKS', Richard L. Berke, The New York Times , October 26, 1992
  32. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Ross Perot; Perot Says He May Rejoin Race To Publicize His Economic Plan, Richard L. Berke, The New York Times , September 19, 1992
  33. Clymer, Adam (August 25, 1992). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Perot Gave $12 Million to Aborted Campaign". New York Times .
  34. Kolbert, Elizabeth (October 27, 1992). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Media; Perot's 30-Minute TV Ads Defy the Experts, Again". New York Times. p. A.19.
  35. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: On the Trail; POLL GIVES PEROT A CLEAR LEAD. The New York Times . New York, N.Y.: June 11, 1992.
  36. Sumner, Mark (April 19, 2009). "All This Has Happened Before". Daily Kos. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  37. Perot, Ross, James W. Robinson. Ross Perot speaks out: issue by issue, what he says about our nation: its problems and its promise. p 55. Prima Pub., 1992. ISBN   978-1-55958-274-2.
  38. "Presidential Election of 1912". 270towin.com. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  39. Peirce Lewis; Casey McCracken; Roger Hunt (October 1994). "Politics: Who Cares". American Demographics. 16: 23.
  40. Holmes, Steven A. (November 5, 1992). "THE 1992 ELECTIONS: DISAPPOINTMENT -- NEWS ANALYSIS An Eccentric but No Joke; Perot's Strong Showing Raises Questions On What Might Have Been, and Might Be". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  41. https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-ross-perot-myth/
  42. Reaves, Jessica; Frank Pelligrini (October 3, 2000). "Bush plays off expectations; Gore learns from mistakes". cnn.com. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2008. Gore's decisive victory was the saving of NAFTA and the beginning of the end of Perot as even a semi-serious public figure.
  43. Tharoor, Ishaan (December 15, 2010). "Al Gore and Ross Perot Debate NAFTA". Time.
  44. "Open Debates: Board of Directors". Opendebates.org. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
  45. Richards, Paul J. "Do the debates unfairly shut out third parties?". CBS news.
  46. "Perot: H1Bs and PNTR -- The Giant Silence". Buchanan.org. May 24, 2000. Archived from the original on August 16, 2000. Retrieved October 20, 2004.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  47. "Point of Contact: H. Ross Perot". Dallas Morning News. April 23, 2005. Archived from the original on May 15, 2007.
  48. "Ross Perot Slams McCain". Newsweek. January 16, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  49. Jason Carroll (June 19, 2008). "Ross Perot wants more focus on national debt". CNN.
  50. Dinan, Stephen. "Ross Perot endorses Mitt Romney". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
  51. "Ross Perot on Gun Control". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  52. "Ross Perot on Health Care". OnTheIssues.
  53. "Ross Perot on Civil Rights". OnTheIssues.
  54. "Ross Perot on Abortion". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  55. "Not For Sale at Any Price, by Ross Perot". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  56. "Ross Perot on Free Trade". OnTheIssues.
  57. "Forbes 400: 2017 Ranking". Forbes. October 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  58. "Jefferson Awards FoundationNational - Jefferson Awards Foundation". Jeffersonawards.org. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  59. Martin, Marie Murray (September 19, 2009). "Perot receives TISD Distinguished Alumni Award". Texarkana Gazette. Archived from the original on September 24, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
  60. "List of Thayer Award Recipients". West Point AOG. October 10, 2009. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  61. Martin, Marie Murray (June 9, 2010). "Native Son gets birthday surprise". Texarkana Gazette. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
  62. "CGSC Foundation presents Ross Perot with 2010 Distinguished Leadership Award". The Command and General Staff College Foundation, Inc. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
  63. Martin, Marie Murray (September 30, 2010). "Perot to be given distinguished award". Texarkana Gazette. Retrieved September 30, 2010.[ permanent dead link ]
  64. Martin, Marie Murray (July 7, 2011). "Ross Perot will be presented with award". Texarkana Gazette. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
  65. "New dinosaur species named for Perot family". statesman.com. Associated Press. October 28, 2011. Archived from the original on November 1, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2011.

Further reading

Party political offices
First Reform nominee for President of the United States
1996
Succeeded by
Pat Buchanan