Rotorua

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Rotorua

Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe  (Māori)
Rotorua from gondola.jpg
Nickname(s): 
Sulphur City, [1] Roto-Vegas [2]
New Zealand location map.svg
Disc Plain red.svg
Rotorua
Coordinates: 38°08′16″S176°15′05″E / 38.13778°S 176.25139°E / -38.13778; 176.25139 Coordinates: 38°08′16″S176°15′05″E / 38.13778°S 176.25139°E / -38.13778; 176.25139
Country Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Region Bay of Plenty
Territorial authority Rotorua Lakes Council
Settled by Māoric. 1350
Founded1883
Borough status1922
City status1962
City status revoked1989
ElectorateRotorua
Government
   Mayor Steve Chadwick
  Deputy MayorDave Donaldson
Area
  Territorial2,614.9 km2 (1,009.6 sq mi)
  Urban
48.04 km2 (18.55 sq mi)
  Metro
89.28 km2 (34.47 sq mi)
Elevation
280 m (920 ft)
Population
 (June 2018) [3]
  Territorial75,100
  Density29/km2 (74/sq mi)
   Urban
54,500
  Urban density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
   Metro
59,500
  Metro density670/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+12 (NZST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+13 (NZDT)
Postcode(s)
3010, 3015
Area code(s) 07
Local iwi Ngāti Whakaue, Te Arawa
Website www.rotorualakescouncil.nz

Rotorua [ˌɾɔtɔˈɾʉa] [4] [5] (Māori : Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe "The second great lake of Kahumatamomoe") is a city on the southern shores of Lake Rotorua from which the city takes its name, located in the Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand's North Island. It is the seat of the Rotorua District, a territorial authority encompassing Rotorua and several other nearby towns. The majority of the Rotorua District is in the Bay of Plenty Region, but a sizeable southern section and a small western section are in the Waikato region. [6] Rotorua is in the heart of the North Island, 60 kilometres (37 miles) south of Tauranga, 80 km (50 mi) north of Taupo, 105 km (65 mi) east of Hamilton, and 230 km (140 mi) southeast of the nation's most populous city, Auckland.

Contents

Rotorua has an estimated permanent population of 59,500, making it the country's 10th largest urban area, and the Bay of Plenty's second largest urban area behind Tauranga. The Rotorua District has a total estimated population of 74,000 [3] , of which 3,600 live in the Waikato section. [6]

Rotorua is a major destination for both domestic and international tourists; the tourism industry is by far the largest industry in the district. It is known for its geothermal activity, and features geysers – notably the Pohutu Geyser at Whakarewarewa – and hot mud pools. This thermal activity is sourced to the Rotorua caldera, in which the town lies. Rotorua is home to the Toi Ohomai Institute of Technology.

The Lakes of Rotorua are a collection of many lakes surrounding Rotorua.

History

The name Rotorua comes from Māori, the full name for the city and lake is Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe. Roto means 'lake' and rua means 'two' or in this case 'second' – Rotorua thus meaning 'Second lake'. Kahumatamomoe was the uncle of the Māori chief Ihenga, the ancestral explorer of the Te Arawa. [7] It was the second major lake the chief discovered, and he dedicated it to his uncle. It is the largest of a multitude of lakes found to the northeast, all connected with the Rotorua Caldera and nearby Mount Tarawera. The name can also mean the equally appropriate 'Crater lake'. [7]

The area was initially settled by Māori of the Te Arawa Iwi in the 14th century. During the early 1820s Ngapuhi led by chief Hongi Hika launched a series of raids into the Bay of Plenty as a part of the Musket Wars, in 1823 a Ngapuhi raiding party led by Hongi Hika attacked Te Arawa at their Pa (Fortified settlement) on Mokoia Island defeating them. The first European in the area was probably Phillip Tapsell who was trading from the Bay of Plenty coast at Maketu from 1828. He later married into Te Arawa and became highly regarded by them. [8] Missionaries Henry Williams and Thomas Chapman visited in 1831 [7] and Chapman and his wife established a mission at Te Koutu in 1835. [9] This was abandoned within a year but Chapman returned in 1838 and established a second mission at Mokoia Island. [7] [9]

The lakeshore was a prominent site of skirmishes during the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s. A "special town district" was created in 1883, to promote Rotorua's potential as a spa destination. The town was connected to Auckland with the opening of the Rotorua Branch railway and commencement of the Rotorua Express train in 1894, resulting in the rapid growth of the town and tourism from this time forward. Rotorua was established as a borough in 1922, elected its first mayor in 1923, and declared a city in 1962 before becoming a District in 1979. [10]

The Rotorua Museum of Art and History Rotorua museum.jpg
The Rotorua Museum of Art and History
Pictured as a bath house in the early 20th century New Zealand before 1913.jpg
Pictured as a bath house in the early 20th century
Hot springs present in much of Rotorua RotoruaHotSpringNZ.jpg
Hot springs present in much of Rotorua
Maori meeting house in Rotorua, January 2001 2001-01 Rotorua.jpg
Māori meeting house in Rotorua, January 2001
A panoramic view of Rotorua taken at the top of Mt Ngongotaha, December 2015 Skyline of Rotorua.jpeg
A panoramic view of Rotorua taken at the top of Mt Ngongotahā, December 2015

Geography

Climate

The Rotorua region enjoys a mild temperate climate. Rotorua is situated inland from the coast and is sheltered by high country to the south and east of the city, resulting in less wind than many other places in New Zealand. During the winter months June – August temperatures can drop below 0 °C. Frost is common in Rotorua during its winter months, with an average of 57 ground frosts annually, and 20 nights per year below 0 °C. Snowfall in Rotorua is rare and since the 1970s has only been recorded twice. On 15 August 2011 and 13 July 2017 snowflakes fell in the town centre, and during the July 2017 snowfall, snow accumulated in the nearby Mamaku ranges and in the outer reaches of the district, where snowfall occurs on average once every three years.

Climate data for Rotorua (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)22.8
(73.0)
22.9
(73.2)
20.9
(69.6)
18.0
(64.4)
15.1
(59.2)
12.6
(54.7)
12.0
(53.6)
12.8
(55.0)
14.6
(58.3)
16.4
(61.5)
18.6
(65.5)
20.8
(69.4)
17.3
(63.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)17.7
(63.9)
17.9
(64.2)
16.0
(60.8)
13.3
(55.9)
10.7
(51.3)
8.5
(47.3)
7.8
(46.0)
8.4
(47.1)
10.2
(50.4)
12.0
(53.6)
13.9
(57.0)
16.2
(61.2)
12.7
(54.9)
Average low °C (°F)12.6
(54.7)
13.0
(55.4)
11.1
(52.0)
8.5
(47.3)
6.3
(43.3)
4.3
(39.7)
3.5
(38.3)
4.1
(39.4)
5.8
(42.4)
7.6
(45.7)
9.2
(48.6)
11.5
(52.7)
8.1
(46.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)92.7
(3.65)
93.9
(3.70)
99.2
(3.91)
107.2
(4.22)
116.9
(4.60)
136.1
(5.36)
134.5
(5.30)
131.4
(5.17)
109.3
(4.30)
112.3
(4.42)
93.8
(3.69)
114.2
(4.50)
1,341.8
(52.83)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)8.27.48.58.29.511.211.011.611.310.99.410.0117.0
Average relative humidity (%)78.881.481.583.487.187.587.385.981.679.777.278.982.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 242.9205.9199.7170.5145.1119.1130.7152.1155.1190.8200.1215.82,127.8
Source: NIWA Climate Data [11]

Suburbs

Inner suburbs
Outer suburbs

Geothermal areas

Mud pool, Tikitere ("Hell's Gate"), Rotorua. Tikitere Mud Pool n.jpg
Mud pool, Tikitere ("Hell's Gate"), Rotorua.
The Prince of Wales Feathers thermal spring erupting Rotorua PoW.jpg
The Prince of Wales Feathers thermal spring erupting

Thermal activity is at the heart of much of Rotorua's tourist appeal. Geysers and bubbling mud pools, hot thermal springs and Te Wairoa ("The Buried Village") — so named after it was buried by the 1886 Mount Tarawera eruption— are within easy reach of Rotorua.

In Kuirau Park, to the west end of Rotorua, hot bubbling mud pools dot the park. [12] Visitors can soak their feet in hot pools.

A common nickname for Rotorua is "Sulphur City" due to the hydrogen sulphide emissions, which gives the city a smell similar to "rotten eggs", [1] as well as "Rotten-rua" combining its legitimate name and the rotten smell prevalent. Another common nickname is "Roto-Vegas", likening the city's own strip of road flanked by businesses and restaurants to that of Las Vegas.

The especially pungent smell in the central-east 'Te Ngae' area is due to the dense sulphur deposits located next to the southern boundary of the Government Gardens, in the area known as 'Sulphur Point'.

Lakes

The Rotorua region has 17 lakes, known collectively as the Lakes of Rotorua. Fishing, waterskiing, swimming and other water activities are popular in summer. The lakes are also used for event venues; Rotorua hosted the 2007 World Waterski Championships and Lake Rotorua was the venue for the World Blind Sailing Championships in March 2009. [13] Lake Rotorua is also used as a departure and landing point for float planes.

Other activities

Rotorua is also home to botanical gardens and historic architecture. Known as a spa town and major tourist resort since the 1800s, many of its buildings hint at this history. Government Gardens, close to the lake-shore at the eastern edge of the town, are a particular point of pride. The Rotorua Museum of Art and History is housed in the large Tudor-style bath house building while the Art Deco style Blue Baths, noted for their embrace of mixed sex bathing in the 1930s, remain open today.

Another of Rotorua's attractions is mountain biking. Whakarewarewa Forest was listed as one of the Top 8 locations globally by Red Bull Magazine in 2012.[ citation needed ] The forest includes over 100 km of mountain bike trails and in August 2006 was a host of the UCI Mountain Bike and Trials World Championships. In 2015 Rotorua hosted the Southern Hemisphere leg of the Crankworx mountain bike event.[ citation needed ]

The Rotorua Pistol club is among the largest in the Southern Hemisphere and hosted the 2013 Australasian IPSC Handgun Championship.[ citation needed ]

The Kaituna River, 15 minutes drive north east of the CBD provides class 5 whitewater kayaking and rafting through a spectacular tree lined gorge.[ citation needed ]

The region is home to 16 lakes. These are popular for recreation such as boating and fishing. Several of the lakes are stocked for sports fishing with trout from the Fish and Game New Zealand hatchery at Ngongotahā.

Demographics

At the 2013 Census of Population and Dwellings, 67.5 percent of Rotorua District residents identified as of European ethnicity, 37.5 percent as Māori, 6.3 percent as Asian, 5.1 percent as Pacific Peoples, 0.6 percent as Middle Eastern/Latin American/African, and 1.7 percent as another ethnicity (mainly 'New Zealander'). [14]

After English, the next most common language is Te Reo Māori, spoken by 11.6% of the population. The median age of the population is 37.3 years, with 13.8% of the population being over 65. [14]

Around 50.3 percent of Rotorua residents affiliate with Christianity and 4.0 percent affiliate with non-Christian religions, while 42.8 percent are irreligious. [15]

Government

Steve Chadwick, Mayor of Rotorua. Steve Chadwick.jpg
Steve Chadwick, Mayor of Rotorua.

In October 2013, Steve Chadwick was elected Mayor of Rotorua and was re-elected in the 2016 mayoral election and the 2019 mayoral election. She previously served as the Member of Parliament for Rotorua between 1999 and 2008, and served as a Cabinet Minister in the Fifth Labour Government. [16]

Media

Rotorua has several media organisations, including the Rotorua Daily Post, More FM Rotorua and The Hits Rotorua.

Transport

Road

Rotorua is served by state highways 5, 30, and 30A, and the Thermal Explorer Highway touring route, with state highways 33 and 36 terminating on the outskirts of the town.

State Highway 5, running concurrently with the Thermal Explorer Highway, is the main north–south route through Rotorua, bypassing the town centre to the west. North of the town at Ngongotahā, State Highway 36 splits off to provide a route to Tauranga via Pyes Pa, while State Highway 5 turns westward, connecting to State Highway 1 at Tirau and providing the main route into Rotorua from Hamilton and Auckland. To the south, State Highway 5 provides the main route from Taupo, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu, and Wellington.

State Highway 30 runs southwest to northeast through the town. It enters the town in the southwest (running concurrently with SH 5), before crossing the southern suburbs to the shore of Lake Rotorua east of the town centre. It then runs through the suburb of Te Ngae, before splitting off SH 33 to continue eastwards.

State Highway 30A runs northwest to southeast, connecting State Highways 5 and 30 with each other via the town centre.

Bus

Rotorua has a public bus service, [17] with bike racks since 2017. [18]

Air

Rotorua Regional Airport is located 9 km (6 mi) northeast of the city centre, off State Highway 30. Air New Zealand provides daily turbo-prop flights between Rotorua and Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch airports. Previously Qantas also operated Boeing 737 aircraft from Christchurch, but upon their departure from domestic flights in New Zealand this was discontinued.[ citation needed ]

Scenic and chartered flights in both helicopters and float planes are operated by Volcanic Air who are based on Rotorua's lake front.[ citation needed ]

From 2009 to 2015 there was also an international link, with direct Sydney to Rotorua flights. [19]

Rail

Rotorua is connected to the rail network by the Rotorua Branch line from Putaruru. Up until 2001, passenger trains ran from Auckland to Rotorua via Hamilton daily using Silver Fern railcars, terminating north of the town centre at Koutu (the original station on Amohau Street was closed and relocated to Koutu in 1989). However, owing to poor advertising of the service and the location of the station being a 15-minute walk from the town centre in an industrial area, passenger services stopped in October 2001. Freight services on the line declined over the decades up until the nightly freight service stopped in 2000, largely due to a continual move of freight and passengers onto road transport using ever-improving highways in the region. The line is currently disused.

Education

Tertiary

Rotorua is home to the central campus of Toi Ohomai Institute of Technology, which provides a range of Certificate, Diploma and a limited number of degree-level programmes. The largest programmes on offer are Te Reo Māori (Māori language), nursing, forestry, business, computing, tourism and hospitality. Toi Ohomai Institute of Technology is the 3rd largest tertiary education institution in New Zealand with campuses throughout the Bay of Plenty region.

Secondary

Rotorua has five secondary schools:

Chapman College is a Christian school (similar to Tauranga's Bethlehem College) which currently offers primary (years 0–6), intermediate (years 7–8) as well as secondary education up to Year 10 but intends to move into full secondary education in the future. [25]

Kura Kaupapa Māori (Māori language immersion schools)

Rotorua has three Kura Kaupapa Māori:

Notable people

See also Category:People from Rotorua

Sister cities

Rotorua has four sister cities:

Related Research Articles

Tokoroa Place in Waikato, New Zealand

Tokoroa is the fifth-largest town in the Waikato region of the North Island of New Zealand and largest settlement in the South Waikato District. Located 30 km southwest of Rotorua, close to the foot of the Mamaku Ranges, it is midway between Taupo and Hamilton on State Highway One.

Takapau Rural community in New Zealand

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Te Puke Place in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

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Ngongotahā Town in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Ngongotahā is a town on the western shores of Lake Rotorua in New Zealand's North Island. It is 10 kilometers northwest of Rotorua city, and is often regarded as an outer suburb of the larger centre. Its population was 4,107 in the 2013 census.

Papamoa Place in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Papamoa or Papamoa Beach is a suburb of Tauranga, located about 11 kilometres from the city centre. It is the largest residential suburb in Tauranga, having a population of 20,091 at the 2013 census. It is bordered to the west by Mount Maunganui, the east by the Kaituna River and to the south by State Highway 2.

Opunake Minor urban area in Taranaki, New Zealand

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Waiariki Institute of Technology was a tertiary institution based in the city of Rotorua, New Zealand, in the Bay of Plenty region in the central North Island. In May 2016, it merged with Bay of Plenty Polytechnic to form Toi Ohomai Institute of Technology.

Kura Kaupapa Māori Māori-language immersion schools

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Windsor Park is a suburb of Auckland's North Shore in northern New Zealand.

Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand

The Bay of Plenty is a bight in the northern coast of New Zealand's North Island. It stretches 260 km from the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east. The Bay of Plenty Region is situated around this body of water, also incorporating several large islands in the bay. The bay was named by James Cook after he noticed the abundant food supplies at several Māori villages there, in stark contrast to the earlier observations he had made in Poverty Bay.

Horohoro, New Zealand

Horohoro is a rural farming community 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south-west of Rotorua, New Zealand. Horohoro is a prominent landmark in the Rotorua area: a flat topped mountain with perpendicular cliffs. It is the traditional home of Ngāti Kea Ngāti Tuarā, whose ancestors related an incident in which Kahumatamomoe, a Te Arawa chief, washed his hands in a stream at the northern end of the Horohoro mountain. Hence the full name of the mountain is Te Horohoroinga o ngā ringa o Kahumatamomoe.

Tauranga City in North Island, New Zealand

Tauranga is the most populous city in the Bay of Plenty region and the fifth most populous city of New Zealand, with an urban population of 141,600. It was settled by Māori late in the 13th century, by Europeans in the early 19th century, and was constituted as a city in 1963.

Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Koutu is a co-educational Māori immersion school in Rotorua, New Zealand offering education within a unique Maori environment for Māori students from Year 1 to Year 13. Te Koutu students from year 1 - 13 learn Spanish as well as Māori and English.

Welcome Bay Place in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Welcome Bay is a suburb of Tauranga, New Zealand. In the 2013 census the population of the greater Welcome Bay area was 8670, which includes Kaitemako (1419), Welcome Bay East (3582), and Welcome Bay West (3669). It is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from central Tauranga. Neighbouring suburbs include Hairini and Maungatapu. There are a number of schools in Welcome Bay, including three primary schools.

Rotoiti Forest or Rotoiti is a settlement on the southern shore of the Lake Rotorua, in the Rotorua District and Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand's North Island.

Mourea is a settlement in the Rotorua District and Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand's North Island.

Mangakakahi is a suburb of Rotorua in the Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand's North Island.

References

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