Rotterdam

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Rotterdam
Erasmusbrug seen from Euromast.jpg
Laurenskerk, Rotterdam.jpg
Rotterdam zadkine monument.jpg
Overzicht - Rotterdam - 20358120 - RCE.jpg
2003-03-04 rotterdam 15 cubic houses.JPG
Rotterdam feyenoord stadion 1.jpg
Rotterdam stadhuis.jpg
Schielandshuis Rotterdam cropped.jpg
Rotterdam hotel newyork.jpg
Rotterdam aelbrechtskolk wallekant.jpg
Maasvlakte, containeropslag foto1 2014-03-09 11.12.jpg
From top down, left to right: Rotterdam at dusk,
Lawrence Church, The Destroyed City sculpture, Euromast,
Cube houses, De Kuip; stadium of Feyenoord,
City Hall of Rotterdam, Schieland House, Hotel New York,
Historic town centre of Delfshaven, Port of Rotterdam
Nickname(s): 
Rotown, Roffa, Rotjeknor, Nultien
Motto(s): 
Sterker door strijd (Stronger through struggle)
LocatieRotterdam-2010.png
Location in South Holland
Coordinates: 51°55′N4°30′E / 51.917°N 4.500°E / 51.917; 4.500 Coordinates: 51°55′N4°30′E / 51.917°N 4.500°E / 51.917; 4.500
CountryFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
ProvinceFlag Zuid-Holland.svg  South Holland
Districts
Government
[1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Ahmed Aboutaleb (PvdA)
   Aldermen
Area
  Municipality325.79 km2 (125.79 sq mi)
  Land208.80 km2 (80.62 sq mi)
  Water116.99 km2 (45.17 sq mi)
   Randstad 3,043 km2 (1,175 sq mi)
Elevation
[4]
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (Municipality, August 2017; Urban and Metro, May 2014; Randstad, 2011) [3] [5] [6] [7]
  Municipality635,389
  Density3,043/km2 (7,880/sq mi)
   Urban
1,015,215
   Metro
1,181,284
   Metropolitan region
2,261,844
   Randstad
8,219,380
Demonym(s) Rotterdammer
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
3000–3099
Area code 010
Website www.rotterdam.nl

Rotterdam ( /ˈrɒtərdæm/ , UK also /ˌrɒtərˈdæm/ ; [8] [9] Dutch:  [ˌrɔtərˈdɑm] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is the second-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland. [10]

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands, also commonly known as Holland, is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba—it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Provinces of the Netherlands first-level administrative division in the Netherlands

There are currently twelve provinces of the Netherlands, representing the administrative layer between the national government and the local municipalities, with responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance.

South Holland Province of the Netherlands

South Holland is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about 1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi), making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas. Situated on the North Sea in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland covers an area of 3,403 km2 (1,314 sq mi), of which 585 km2 (226 sq mi) is water. It borders North Holland to the north, Utrecht and Gelderland to the east, and North Brabant and Zeeland to the south. The provincial capital is The Hague, while its largest city is Rotterdam.

Contents

A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest port. It has a population of 633,471 (2017). [11] Rotterdam is known for its Erasmus University, its riverside setting, lively cultural life and maritime heritage. The near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers (an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities) designed by renowned architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel. [12] [13]

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Port of Rotterdam largest port in Europe, located in the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands

The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, located in the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands. From 1962 until 2004 it was the world's busiest port, now overtaken first by Singapore and then Shanghai. In 2011, Rotterdam was the world's eleventh-largest container port in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) handled. In 2012 Rotterdam was the world's sixth-largest port in terms of annual cargo tonnage.

Erasmus University Rotterdam is a public university located in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The university is named after Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, a 15th-century humanist and theologian.

The Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialized Ruhr. The extensive distribution system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World". [14] [15] [16]

Rhine river in Western Europe

The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in a mostly northerly direction through Germany and the Netherlands, emptying into the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

Scheldt river in France, Belgium and the Netherlands

The Scheldt is a 350-kilometre (220 mi) long river in northern France, western Belgium, and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. Its name is derived from an adjective corresponding to Old English sceald ("shallow"), Modern English shoal, Low German schol, West Frisian skol, and Swedish (obsolete) skäll ("thin").

Ruhr Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

The Ruhr is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With a population density of 2,800/km2 and a population of over 5 million (2017), it is the largest urban area in Germany and the third-largest in the European Union. It consists of several large cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. In the southwest it borders the Bergisches Land. It is considered part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region of more than 12 million people, which is among the largest in Europe.

History

Map of Rotterdam by Willem and Joan Blaeu (1652) Blaeu 1652 - Rotterdam.jpg
Map of Rotterdam by Willem and Joan Blaeu (1652)

The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as it was then known, from rot, "muddy" and a, "water", thus "muddy water") dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ("Schieland’s High Sea Dike") along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat ("High Street").

Fen type of wetland

A fen is one of the main types of wetland, the others being grassy marshes, forested swamps, and peaty bogs. Along with bogs, fens are a kind of mire. Fens are minerotrophic peatlands, usually fed by mineral-rich surface water or groundwater. They are characterised by their distinct water chemistry, which is pH neutral or alkaline, with relatively high dissolved mineral levels but few other plant nutrients. They are usually dominated by grasses and sedges, and typically have brown mosses in general including Scorpidium or Drepanocladus. Fens frequently have a high diversity of other plant species including carnivorous plants such as Pinguicula. They may also occur along large lakes and rivers where seasonal changes in water level maintain wet soils with few woody plants. The distribution of individual species of fen plants is often closely connected to water regimes and nutrient concentrations.

Rotte (river) watercourse in the Netherlands

The Rotte is a river in the Rhine-Maas-delta in the Netherlands. The Rotte is the eponym of the city of Rotterdam: the city was founded in the 13th century when a dam was built along the river.

Flood Overflow of water that submerges land that is not normally submerged

A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health.

On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, whose population then was only a few thousand. [10] Around the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands, England and Germany, and to urbanize. [17]

William II, Count of Hainaut Count of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland

William II was Count of Hainaut from 1337 until his death. He was also Count of Holland and Count of Zeeland. He succeeded his father, William I, and married Joanna of Brabant in 1334, but had no issue.

City rights are a feature of the medieval history of the Low Countries. A liege lord, usually a count, duke or similar member of the high nobility, granted to a town or village he owned certain town privileges that places without city rights did not have.

Schie river in the Netherlands

Schie is the name for four waterways in the area of Overschie, South Holland, the Netherlands. There are the Delftse Schie, the Delfshavense Schie, the Rotterdamse Schie and the Schiedamse Schie. The existence of these four streams is the result of medieval rivalry among the cities of Delft, Rotterdam, and Schiedam for toll rights.

The Delftsevaart, c. 1890-1905 Detroit Publishing Company - Rotterdam - Delftsevaart, c. 1895.jpg
The Delftsevaart, c. 1890–1905

The port of Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), the Dutch East India Company.

The Dutch East India Company was an early megacorporation founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early 17th century. It was established on March 20, 1602 as a chartered company to trade with India and Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. It has been often labelled a trading company or sometimes a shipping company. However, VOC was in fact a proto-conglomerate company, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade, shipbuilding, and both production and trade of East Indian spices, Formosan sugarcane, and South African wine.. The Company was a transcontinental employer and an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment. The Company's investment projects helped raise the commercial and industrial potential of many underdeveloped or undeveloped regions of the world in the early modern period. In the early 1600s, by widely issuing bonds and shares of stock to the general public, VOC became the world's first formally-listed public company. In other words, it was the first corporation to be listed on an official stock exchange. It was influential in the rise of corporate-led globalisation in the early modern period.

The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, [18] inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m (147.64 ft).

Rotterdam centre after the 1940 bombing of Rotterdam. The ruined St. Lawrence' Church has been restored Rotterdam, Laurenskerk, na bombardement van mei 1940.jpg
Rotterdam centre after the 1940 bombing of Rotterdam. The ruined St. Lawrence' Church has been restored
Tower blocks in the Kop van Zuid neighbourhood Rotterdam-Kop van Zuid, World Portcenter, Montevideo en hotel New York foto12 2011-01-09 14.12.JPG
Tower blocks in the Kop van Zuid neighbourhood

During World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain, Germany and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British coordinated espionage in Germany and occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied prisoners of war. [19]

During World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. [20] Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance. The Dutch army was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and the threat of bombing of other Dutch cities. [21] [22] [23] The heart of Rotterdam was almost completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe. Some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed; a relatively low number due to the fact that many had fled the city because of the warfare and bombing going on in Rotterdam since the start of the invasion three days earlier. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine later attempted to capture the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad ('The Destroyed City'). The statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas.

Rotterdam was gradually rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s. It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more 'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism. [13] A Guardian profile of Rem Koolhaas begins "If you put the last 50 years of architecture in a blender, and spat it out in building-sized chunks across the skyline, you would probably end up with something that looked a bit like Rotterdam." [24]

Geography

Topographic map image of Rotterdam (city), as of Sept. 2014 Rotterdam-plaats-OpenTopo.jpg
Topographic map image of Rotterdam (city), as of Sept. 2014

'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by (from west to east): the Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug ('Erasmus Bridge'); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel ('Willems railway tunnel'); the Willemsbrug ('Willems Bridge'); the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge'); and the Van Brienenoordbrug ('Van Brienenoord Bridge'). The former railway lift bridge De Hef ('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland ('North Island') and the south of Rotterdam.

The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid ('the Head of South', i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour area.

Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam are below sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of Rotterdam extends 6 metres (20 ft) below sea level, or rather below Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) or 'Amsterdam Ordnance Datum'. The lowest point in the Netherlands (6.76 metres (22.2 ft) below NAP) is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel.

Satellite image of Rotterdam and its port Satellite image of Europoort, Netherlands (4.25E 51.90N).png
Satellite image of Rotterdam and its port

The Rotte river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat.

The 24 municipalities of the Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag (Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area).svg
The 24 municipalities of the Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area

Between the summers of 2003 and 2008, an artificial beach was created at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the Erasmus Bridge and the Willems Bridge. Swimming was not possible, digging pits was limited to the height of the layer of sand, about 50 cm (20 in). Alternatively people go the beach of Hoek van Holland (which is a Rotterdam district) or one of the beaches in Zeeland: Renesse or the Zuid Hollandse Eilanden: Ouddorp, Oostvoorne.

Rotterdam forms the centre of the Rijnmond conurbation, bordering the conurbation surrounding The Hague to the north-west. The two conurbations are close enough to be a single conurbation. They share the Rotterdam The Hague Airport and a light rail system called RandstadRail. Consideration is being given to creating an official Metropolitan region Rotterdam The Hague (Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag), which would have a combined population approaching 2.5 million.

On its turn, the Rijnmond conurbation is part of the southern wing (the Zuidvleugel) of the Randstad, which is one of the most important economic and densely populated areas in the north-west of Europe. Having a population of 7.1 million, the Randstad is the sixth-largest urban area in Europe (after Moscow, London, Paris, Istanbul, and the Rhein-Ruhr Area). The Zuidvleugel, situated in the province of South Holland, has a population of around 3 million.

Climate

Rotterdam experiences a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to all of the coastal areas in Netherlands. Located near to the coast, its climate is slightly milder than locations further inland. Winters are cool with frequent cold days, while the summers are mild to warm, with occasional hot temperatures. Temperatures above 30 °C are not rare during summer, as well as temperatures under -5 °C during winter. The following climate box is from the airport, which is slightly cooler than the city, being surrounded by water canals which make the climate milder and with a higher Relative Humidity. The city experiences the Urban heat island effect, especially inside the city centre.

Climate data for Rotterdam The Hague Airport (1981-2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)14.1
(57.4)
16.7
(62.1)
23.8
(74.8)
27.5
(81.5)
31.3
(88.3)
33.0
(91.4)
36.1
(97.0)
34.9
(94.8)
32.1
(89.8)
26.0
(78.8)
18.5
(65.3)
15.1
(59.2)
36.1
(97.0)
Average high °C (°F)6.0
(42.8)
6.6
(43.9)
9.9
(49.8)
13.5
(56.3)
17.5
(63.5)
19.9
(67.8)
22.2
(72.0)
22.1
(71.8)
18.9
(66.0)
14.7
(58.5)
9.9
(49.8)
6.6
(43.9)
14.0
(57.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
3.7
(38.7)
6.4
(43.5)
9.1
(48.4)
12.9
(55.2)
15.5
(59.9)
17.8
(64.0)
17.6
(63.7)
14.8
(58.6)
11.2
(52.2)
7.3
(45.1)
4.2
(39.6)
10.4
(50.7)
Average low °C (°F)0.8
(33.4)
0.5
(32.9)
2.6
(36.7)
4.3
(39.7)
7.8
(46.0)
10.6
(51.1)
13.1
(55.6)
12.8
(55.0)
10.6
(51.1)
7.5
(45.5)
4.2
(39.6)
1.4
(34.5)
6.4
(43.5)
Record low °C (°F)−17.1
(1.2)
−16.5
(2.3)
−13.4
(7.9)
−6.0
(21.2)
−1.4
(29.5)
0.5
(32.9)
3.6
(38.5)
4.6
(40.3)
0.4
(32.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
−9.0
(15.8)
−13.3
(8.1)
−17.1
(1.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)69.1
(2.72)
57.9
(2.28)
64.9
(2.56)
42.6
(1.68)
58.3
(2.30)
65.2
(2.57)
74.0
(2.91)
81.0
(3.19)
87.1
(3.43)
90.1
(3.55)
87.1
(3.43)
78.3
(3.08)
855.6
(33.69)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)1210129910101012121313131
Average snowy days65420000002422
Average relative humidity (%)88858378777979808486898983
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.583.8124.0174.9213.9203.6213.1196.6137.6106.960.446.71,623.8
Source #1: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1981–2010 normals, snowy days normals for 1971–2000) [25]
Source #2: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1971–2000 extremes) [26]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1398 2,500    
1477 5,738+1.06%
1494 4,374−1.58%
1514 5,116+0.79%
1622 19,532+1.25%
1632 29,500+4.21%
1665 40,000+0.93%
1732 56,000+0.50%
1795 53,212−0.08%
1830 72,300+0.88%
1849 90,100+1.17%
1879 148,100+1.67%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1899 318,500+3.90%
1925 547,900+2.11%
1965 731,000+0.72%
1984 555,000−1.44%
2005 596,407+0.34%
2006 588,576−1.31%
2007 584,046−0.77%
2010 603,425+1.09%
2011 612,502+1.50%
2012 617,347+0.79%
2014 624,799+0.60%
Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 116–117 (1398–1795)
City of Rotterdam population by country of origin (2017) [27]
Country/TerritoryPopulation
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 315,300 (49.7%)
Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname 52,579 (8.3%)
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 47,772 (7.5%)
Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco 43,555 (6.9%)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Dutch Caribbean 24,475 (3.9%)
Flag of Cape Verde.svg Cape Verde 15,453 (2.4%)
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia 12,124 (1.9%)
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 9,580 (1.5%)
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Yugoslavia 9,371 (1.5%)
Flag of Poland.svg Poland 9,107 (1.4%)
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 7,151 (1.1%)
Other88,193 (13.9%)

Overall the demographics differ per city area. According to a recent area analysis, the city centre has a singles population of 70%, between the ages of 20 and 40, [28] considerably more than other city areas. Also the city centre has a much larger population of people with higher education and higher income. Nonetheless, 80% of the homes are rented, not owned. The city centre also has a higher percentage (51% vs 45%) of foreign-born citizens. The majority (70%) of shops are also run by foreign-born citizens. [29]

Composition

On 1 January 2015 (source: Statistics Netherlands), the municipality covered an area of 319 km2 (206.44 km2 of which is land) with a population of 623,956. It is part of the Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area with a total population of approximately 2.3 million. In 1965, the municipal population of Rotterdam reached its peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it had decreased to 555,000 as a result of suburbanization. [ citation needed ]

Rotterdam consists of 14 submunicipalities: Centrum, Charlois (including Heijplaat), Delfshaven, Feijenoord, Hillegersberg-Schiebroek, Hoek van Holland, Hoogvliet, IJsselmonde, Kralingen-Crooswijk, Noord, Overschie, Pernis, and Prins Alexander (the most populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants). One other area, Rozenburg, does have an official submunicipality status since 18 March 2010.

The current size of the municipality of Rotterdam is the result of the amalgamation of the following former municipalities, [30] some of which now are a submunicipality:

Ethnic make-up

In the Netherlands, Rotterdam has the highest percentage of foreigners from non-industrialised nations. They form a large part of Rotterdam's multi ethnic and multicultural diversity. 50.3% of the population are of non Dutch origins or have at least one parent born outside the country. There are 80,000 Muslims, constituting 13% of the population. [31] The mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb, is of Moroccan descent and is a practicing Muslim. The city is home to the largest Dutch Antillean community. The city also has its own China Town at the West-Kruiskade, close to Rotterdam Centraal.

Religion

Religions in Rotterdam (2013) [32]

   Irreligion (46.7%)
   Roman Catholic (18.7%)
  Other Christian denominations (7.1%)
   Islam (13.1%)
   Hinduism (3.3%)
   Buddhism (0.5%)
   Judaism (0.1%)

Christianity is the largest religion in Rotterdam, with 31.1% of the population identifying. The second and third largest religions are Islam (13.3%) and Hinduism (3.3%), while about half of the population has no religious affiliation.

Since 1795 Rotterdam has hosted the chief congregation of the liberal Protestant brotherhood of Remonstrants. From 1955 it has been the see of the bishop of Rotterdam when the Rotterdam diocese was split from the Haarlem diocese. Since 2010 the city is home to the largest mosque in the Netherlands, the Essalam mosque, (capacity 1,500).

Economy

Gebouw Delftse Poort, one of the tallest office buildings in the Netherlands Rotterdam NationaleNederlanden.jpg
Gebouw Delftse Poort, one of the tallest office buildings in the Netherlands

Rotterdam has always been one of the main centres of the shipping industry in the Netherlands. From the Rotterdam Chamber of the VOC, the world's first multinational, established in 1602, to the merchant shipping leader Royal Nedlloyd established in 1970, with its corporate headquarters located in the landmark building the 'Willemswerf' in 1988. [33] In 1997, Nedlloyd merged with the British shipping industry leader P&O forming the third largest merchant shipping company in the world. The Anglo-Dutch P&O Nedlloyd was bought by the Danish giant corporation 'AP Moller Maersk' in 2005 and its Dutch operations are still headquartered in the 'Willemswerf'.

Nowadays, well-known companies with headquarters in Rotterdam are consumers goods company Unilever, asset management firm Robeco, energy company Eneco, dredging company Van Oord, oil company Shell Downstream, terminal operator Vopak, commodity trading company Vitol and architecture firm Office for Metropolitan Architecture. It is also home to the regional headquarters of chemical company LyondellBasell, commodities trading company Glencore, pharmaceutical company Pfizer, logistics companies Stolt-Nielsen, electrical equipment company ABB Group and consumer goods company Procter & Gamble. Furthermore, Rotterdam has the Dutch headquarters of Allianz, Maersk, Petrobras, Samskip, Louis Dreyfus Group, Aon and MP Objects.

The City of Rotterdam makes use of the services of semi-government companiesRoteb and students of Rotterdam Business school RBS (to take care of sanitation, waste management and assorted services) and the Port of Rotterdam Authority (to maintain the Port of Rotterdam). Both these companies were once municipal bodies, now they are autonomous entities, owned by the City.

Being the largest port and one of the largest cities of the country, Rotterdam attracts many people seeking jobs, especially in the cheap labour segment. The city's unemployment rate is 12%, almost twice the national average. [34]

Ports

The Waalhaven by night ECT waalhaven bij nacht.jpg
The Waalhaven by night
Unmanned vehicles handle containers at Europe Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal operator in Europe. 9-028 Rotterdam ECT.jpg
Unmanned vehicles handle containers at Europe Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal operator in Europe.

Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel, Switzerland and into France. In 2004 Shanghai took over as the world's busiest port. In 2006, Rotterdam was the world's seventh largest container port in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) handled. [35]

The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general cargo handling and transshipment. The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the Betuweroute , a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.

Shopping

Well-known streets in Rotterdam are the Lijnbaan (the first set of pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse ("Stock Exchange Traverse"), better known by its informal name 'Koopgoot' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its subterranean position), which crosses the Coolsingel below street level). The Kruiskade is a more upscale shopping street, with retailers like Michael Kors, 7 For All Mankind, Calvin Klein, Hugo Boss, Tommy Hilfiger and the Dutch well known men's clothier Oger. Another upscale shopping venue is a flagship store of department store De Bijenkorf. Located a little more to the east is the Markthal, with lots of small retailers inside. This hall is also one of Rotterdam's famous architectural landmarks.

The main shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which lies close to Rotterdam Ahoy, an accommodation center for shows, exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium, lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center.

Education

Bronze statue of Erasmus created by Hendrick de Keyser in 1622 Rotterdam standbeeld Erasmus.jpg
Bronze statue of Erasmus created by Hendrick de Keyser in 1622

Rotterdam has one major university, the Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants, Desiderius Erasmus. The Woudestein campus houses (among others) Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University. In Financial Times' 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the 2009 rankings of Masters of Management, the school reached first place with the CEMS Master in Management and a tenth place with its RSM Master in Management. [36] The university is also home to Europe's largest student association, STAR Study Association Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the world's largest student association, AIESEC, has its international office in the city.

The Willem de Kooning Academy Rotterdam's main art school, which is part of the Hogeschool Rotterdam. It is regarded as one of the most prestigious art schools in the Netherlands and the number 1 in Advertising and Copywriting. Part of the Willem de Kooning Academy is the Piet Zwart Institute for postgraduate studies and research in Fine Art, Media Design and Retail Design. The Piet Zwart Institute boasts a selective roster of emerging international artists.

The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the University. They are known collectively as the Erasmus Medical Center. This center is ranked third in Europe by CSIC [37] as a hospital, and is also ranked within top 50 universities of the world in the field of medicine (clinical, pre-clinical & health, 2017). [38]

Three Hogescholen (Universities of applied sciences) exist in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a professional Bachelor's degree and postgraduate or Master's degree. The three Hogescholen are Hogeschool Rotterdam, Hogeschool Inholland and Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (uni for music and dance) which is also known as CodArts.

As there are many international and American schools scattered across Europe such as ASH (American International School of the Hague) Rotterdam also has its own international/American school by the name AISR (American International School of Rotterdam). At AISR children receive a multicultural education in a culturally diverse community and it offers the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program.

Unique to the city is the Shipping & Transport College which offers masters, bachelors and vocational diplomas on all levels.

Culture

Rotterdam waterfront, with spotlights shining into the air to commemorate the Rotterdam Blitz HerdenkingVuurgrensRotterdam1940 2007 edit1.jpg
Rotterdam waterfront, with spotlights shining into the air to commemorate the Rotterdam Blitz

Alongside Porto, Rotterdam was European Capital of Culture in 2001. The city has its own orchestra, the Rotterdam Philharmonic, with its well-regarded young music director Yannick Nézet-Séguin; a large congress and concert building called De Doelen ; several theaters (including the new Luxor) and movie theatres; and the Ahoy Rotterdam complex in the south of the city, which is used for pop concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments, and other activities. A major zoo called Diergaarde Blijdorp is situated at the northwest side of Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the Oceanium.

Rotterdam features some urban architecture projects, nightlife, and many summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired "Summer Carnival", the Dance Parade, Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World Port days. In the years 2005–2011 the city struggled with venues for popmusic.[ citation needed ] Many of the venues suffered severe financial problems. This resulted in the disappearance of the major music venues Nighttown and WATT and smaller stages such as Waterfront, Exit, and Heidegger. Currently the city has a few venues for pop music like Rotown, Poortgebouw and Annabel. The venue WORM focuses on experimental music and related cutting edge subcultural music. There are also the International Film Festival in January, the Poetry International Festival in June, the North Sea Jazz Festival in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in Rotterdam and the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured Jefferson Airplane, The Byrds, Canned Heat, It's a Beautiful Day, and Santana) was held and filmed at the Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam.

There is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying: "Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live, Rotterdam to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in Rotterdam, distributed in The Hague and spent in Amsterdam". Another saying that reflects both the rivalry between Rotterdam and Amsterdam is "Amsterdam has it, Rotterdam doesn't need it". [ citation needed ]

In terms of alternative culture, Rotterdam had from the 1960s until the 2000s a thriving squatters movement which as well as housing thousands of people, occupied venues, social centres and so on. [39] From this movement came clubs like Boogjes, Eksit, Nighttown, Vlerk and Waterfront. The Poortgebouw was squatted in the 1980s and quickly legalised.

Rotterdam is also the home of Gabber, a type of hardcore electronic music popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like Neophyte and Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam, playing at clubs like Parkzicht.

The main cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the Concertgebouw and Holland Festival, have joint forces with similar organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations published with plans for co-operation. [40] One of the goals is to strengthen the international position of culture and art in the Netherlands in the international context.

Museums

Rotterdam has many museums. Well known museums are the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, the Netherlands Architecture Institute, the Wereldmuseum, the Kunsthal, Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art [41] and the Maritime Museum Rotterdam. [42] The Historical Museum Rotterdam has changed into Museum Rotterdam which aims to exhibit Rotterdam as a contemporary transnational city, and not a past city. [43]

Other museums include the tax museum and the natural history museum. At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft', the reconstruction of ship of the line Delft can be visited. [44]

Architecture

Rotterdam vanaf de Euromast (5088248387).jpg
The former headquarters of the Holland America Line next to modern residential architecture in 2010 Montevideo 2010.JPG
The former headquarters of the Holland America Line next to modern residential architecture in 2010
Erasmus Bridge in 2011 Erasmusbrug across the Nieuwe Maas river.jpg
Erasmus Bridge in 2011

In 1898, the 45-metre (148-foot) high-rise office building the White House (in Dutch Witte Huis) was completed, at that time the tallest office building in Europe. In the first decades of the 20th century, some influential architecture in the modern style was built in Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of modern factory design by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt, the Jugendstil clubhouse of the Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and Feyenoord's football stadium De Kuip (1936) also by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt. The architect J. J. P. Oud was a famous Rotterdammer in those days. The Van Nelle Factory obtained the status of UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014. During the early stages of World War II the center of Rotterdam was bombed by the German Luftwaffe, destroying many of the older buildings in the center of the city. After initial crisis re-construction the center of Rotterdam has become the site of ambitious new architecture.

The Cube Houses in 2011 Kubuswoningen in rotterdam.jpg
The Cube Houses in 2011
The Markthal as seen from the Binnenrotte, Rotterdam center. Markthal Rotterdam 2015.jpg
The Markthal as seen from the Binnenrotte, Rotterdam center.
The Euromast in 2005. Euromast2.jpg
The Euromast in 2005.

Rotterdam is also famous for its Lijnbaan 1952 by architects Broek en Bakema, Peperklip by architect Carel Weeber, Kubuswoningen or cube houses designed by architect Piet Blom 1984.

The newest landmark in Rotterdam is the Markthal, designed by architect firm MVRDV. In addition to that there are many international well known architects based in Rotterdam like O.M.A (Rem Koolhaas), Neutelings & Riedijk and Erick van Egeraat to name a few. Two architectural landmarks are located in the Lloydkwartier: the STC college building and the Schiecentrale 4b.

Rotterdam also houses several of the tallest structures in the Netherlands.

Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute), which is open to the public and has a variety of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues.

Over 30 new highrise projects are being developed at the moment. A Guardian journalist wrote in 2013 that "All this is the consequence of the city suffering a bombardment of two things: bombs and architects." [47]

Highrise buildings that are currently being built:

Skyline Rotterdam from Schiebroek cropped.jpg

Sports

Rotterdam calls itself Sportstad (City of Sports). The city annually organises several world-renowned sporting events. Some examples are the Rotterdam Marathon, the World Port Tournament, and the Rotterdam World Tennis Tournament. Rotterdam also organises one race of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship and the car racing event Monaco aan de Maas (Monaco at the Meuse).

The city is also the home of many sports clubs and some historic and iconic athletes.

Football

Robin van Persie began his career with SBV Excelsior and broke through in Feyenoord. Robin Van Persie August 2007.jpg
Robin van Persie began his career with SBV Excelsior and broke through in Feyenoord.
De Kuip, Feyenoord home stadium. Rotterdam feyenoord stadion 1.jpg
De Kuip, Feyenoord home stadium.

Rotterdam is the home of three professional football clubs, being first tier clubs Feyenoord and Excelsior and second tier club Sparta.

Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three professional clubs, has won fifteen national titles since the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup (current Champions league) as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the UEFA Cup and in 2002, Feyenoord won the UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary, Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup.

Seating 51,480, its 1937 stadium, called Stadion Feijenoord but popularly known as De Kuip ('the Tub'), is the second largest in the country, after the Amsterdam Arena. De Kuip, located in the southeast of the city, has hosted many international football games, including the final of Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. There are concrete plans to build a new stadium with a capacity of at least 63,000 seats.

Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam, won the national title six times; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the northeast, has never won any.

Rotterdam also has three fourth tier clubs, SC Feijenoord (Feyenoord Amateurs), PVV DOTO and TOGR. Rotterdam is and has been the home to many great football players and coaches, among whom:

Marathon

Runners during the marathon in Rotterdam Hardlopers marathon in Rotterdam.JPG
Runners during the marathon in Rotterdam

Rotterdam has its own annual international marathon, which offers one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the world record was set in Rotterdam, first by Carlos Lopes and later in 1988 by Belayneh Densamo.

In 1998, the world record for women was set by Tegla Loroupe, in a time of 2:20.47. Loroupe won the Rotterdam Marathon three consecutive times, from 1997 to 1999.

The current track record for men is held by Duncan Kibet, who ran a time of 2:04.27 in 2009. The female record was set in 2012, when Tiki Gelana finished the race in 2:18.58. Gelana went on to become the 2012 Olympic champion in London, a few months later.

The marathon starts and ends on the Coolsingel in the heart of Rotterdam. It attracts a total of 900.000 visitors.

Tennis

Arthur Ashe at the 1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament Arthur Ashe.jpg
Arthur Ashe at the 1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament

Since 1972, Rotterdam hosts the indoor hard court ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament, part of the ATP Tour. The event was first organised in 1972, when it was won by Arthur Ashe. Ashe went on to win the tournament two more times, making him the singles title record holder.

Former Wimbledon winner Richard Krajicek became the tournament director after his retirement in 2000. The latest edition of the tournament attracted a total of 116.354 visitors. [48]

Tour de France 2010

In November 2008 Rotterdam was chosen as the host of the Grand Départ of the 2010 Tour de France. Rotterdam won the selection over the Dutch city of Utrecht. Germany's Düsseldorf had previously also expressed interest in hosting. The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), organizer of the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose Rotterdam because, in addition to it being another big city, like London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it provided a location well positioned considering the rest of the route envisioned for the 2010 event.

The start in Rotterdam was the fifth in the Netherlands. The prologue was a 7 km (4.35 mi) individual time trial crossing the centre of the city. The first regular stage left the Erasmusbrug and went south, towards Brussels.

Rowing

Members of the student rowing club Skadi were part of the 'Holland Acht', winning a gold medal at the Olympics in 1996. [ citation needed ]. Since the opening in April 2013, Rotterdam hosts the rowing venue Willem-Alexander Baan that hosted the 2016 World Rowing Championships for Seniors, U23 and Juniors.

Field hockey

In field hockey, Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the Netherlands, HC Rotterdam, with its own stadium in the north of the city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse.

Baseball

Rotterdam is home to the most successful European baseball team, Neptunus Rotterdam, winning the most European Cups.

Boxing

Bep van Klaveren Bep van Klaveren, Olympische Spelen 1928 Amsterdam.jpg
Bep van Klaveren

Rotterdam has a long boxing tradition starting with Bep van Klaveren (1907–1992), aka 'The Dutch Windmill', Gold medal winner of the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics, followed by professional boxers like Regilio Tuur and Don Diego Poeder.

Swimming

Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with Marie Braun aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. In her career as 14 time national champ, she broke 6 world records. Ma Braun later also coached the Rotterdam born, three-times Olympic champion Rie Mastenbroek during the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In later years Inge de Bruijn became a Rotterdam sport icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001.

Motor cycle racing

Motor cycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord Stadium after the second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as the Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English and Australian riders.

Sportsmen of the year election

Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team at the Rotterdam Sports Awards Election, held in December.

Other famous Rotterdam athletes

Francisco Elson Francisco Elson.jpg
Francisco Elson

Yearly events

Rotterdam hosts several annual events unique to the city. It hosts the Zomercarnaval (Summercarnaval), the second largest Caribbean carnival in Europe, originally called the Antillean carnival. Other events include: North Sea Jazz Festival, the largest Jazz festival in Europe, Bavaria City Race, a Formula 1 race inside the city center and a 3 day long maritime extravaganza called the World Port Days celebrating the Port of Rotterdam.

Transportation

Rotterdam offers connections by international, national, regional and local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch motorway network.

Motorways
There are several motorways to/from Rotterdam. The following four are part of its 'Ring' (ring road):

The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam:

Airport
Much smaller than the international hub Schiphol Airport, Rotterdam The Hague Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the third largest airport in the country, behind Schiphol Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost carrier market. For business travelers, Rotterdam The Hague Airport offers advantages in terms of rapid handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain.

Train

Rotterdam's new Central Station reopened in March 2014, designed to handle up to 320,000 passengers daily. Rtd CS-III.JPG
Rotterdam's new Central Station reopened in March 2014, designed to handle up to 320,000 passengers daily.

Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railway network, and has several international connections:

Railway stations

The main connections:

In Rotterdam, public transport services are provided by the following companies:

Metro

In 1968, Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a metro system. Currently the metro system consists of three main lines, each of which has its own variants. The metro network has 78.3 km (48.7 mi) of railtracks and there are 62 stations, which makes it the biggest of the Benelux. The system is operated by 5 lines; 3 lines (A, B and C) on the east-west line, and two (D and E) on the north-south line. Line E (Randstadrail) connects Rotterdam with The Hague as of December 2011.

Map of Rotterdam Metro Metrokaart Rotterdam per 2011.svg
Map of Rotterdam Metro
LineSouthern / western terminusNorthern / eastern terminus
Line A Schiedam Centrum Binnenhof
Line B Schiedam Centrum Nesselande
Line C De Akkers De Terp
Line D De Akkers Rotterdam Centraal
Line E Slinge Den Haag Centraal
Rotterdam metro 15-05-2007 Metro Maashaven.jpg
Rotterdam metro

Tram

The Rotterdam tramway network offers 9 regular tram lines and 4 special tram lines with a total length of 93.4 km (58.0 mi). Service Tramlines in Rotterdam as of 2016:

A Citadis tram outside the former Rotterdam Centraal, 2008 RET 2022 Rotterdam Centraal 15-05-2007.JPG
A Citadis tram outside the former Rotterdam Centraal, 2008

Special tram lines:

Water Taxi in Rotterdam Rotterdam Watertaxi (4).JPG
Water Taxi in Rotterdam

Bus
Rotterdam offers 55 city bus lines with a total length of 432.7 km (268.9 mi).

RET runs buses in the city of Rotterdam and surrounding places like Spijkenisse, Barendrecht, Ridderkerk, Rhoon, Poortugaal, Schiedam, Vlaardingen, Delft and Capelle aan den IJssel. .

Arriva Netherlands, Connexxion and Veolia run buses from other cities to Rotterdam.

Waterbus
The Waterbus network consists of seven lines. The main line (Line 20) stretches from Rotterdam to Dordrecht. The ferry carries about 130 passengers and there is space for 60 bicycles. The stops between Rotterdam and Dordrecht are:

International relations

Rotterdam has city and port connections throughout the world. In 2008, the city had 13 sister cities, 12 partner cities, and 4 sister ports. [56] Since 2008, the City of Rotterdam doesn't forge new sister or partner connections. Sister and partner cities are not a priority in international relations. [57]

On 15 March 2017 the Turkish president expressed his wish that Istanbul should no longer be the twin town of Rotterdam. A speaker of the Rotterdam municipality then explained that the two cities have no official partnership. Both authorities do cooperate often. [58]

Twin towns – Sister cities

Rotterdam is twinned with:

Partner cities

Sister ports

Places named after Rotterdam

Notable residents

Rotterdam features in Edgar Allan Poe's short story ‘The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall’ (1835), as well as J.T. Sheridan Le Fanu's 'Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter' (1839). [60]

Part of Jackie Chan's 1998 film Who am I? is set in Rotterdam.

Ender's Shadow , part of the series Ender's Game is partially set in Rotterdam.

In season 1, episode 2 of The Golden Girls ("Guess Who's Coming to the Wedding?"), Dorothy reminisces how her ex-husband, Stan, would buy her tulips after they had a fight. "Towards the end, our house looked like Easter in Rotterdam."

In 1996, the British band The Beautiful South recorded a song named after this region titled Rotterdam (or Anywhere). [61]

In the 2004 video game Hitman: Contracts, the levels "Rendezvous in Rotterdam" and "Deadly Cargo" both take place in Rotterdam.

The 2017 Olivier award winning play, Rotterdam, written by Jon Brittain, is set in the city.

In Battlefield V, this city is used as a BFV map and according to its history, the white building was almost left untouched by the bombing during WWII and that building can be seen on both in-game and real world.

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Hague City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

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Europoort area of the Port of Rotterdam and the adjoining industrial area in the Netherlands

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Randstad Megalopolis in Netherlands

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MVRDV architecture firm (est.1993)

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De Kuip stadium

Stadion Feijenoord, more commonly known by its nickname De Kuip (pronounced [də ˈkœyp] the Tub, is a stadium in Rotterdam, Netherlands, that was completed in 1937. The name is derived from the Feijenoord district in Rotterdam, and from the club with the same name.

Rotterdam The Hague Airport airport serving the cities of Rotterdam and The Hague, located in Rotterdam

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Amsterdam Zuid station railway station in the Dutch city of Amsterdam

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UNStudio is a Dutch architectural practice specializing in architecture, urban development and "infrastructural" projects. The practice was founded in 1988 by Ben van Berkel and Caroline Bos. The initials "UN" stand for United Network, a reference to the collaborative nature of the practice comprising individuals from various countries with backgrounds and technical training in numerous fields. In 2009 UNStudio Asia was established, with its first office located in Shanghai, China. UNStudio Asia is a full daughter of UNStudio and is intricately connected to UNStudio Amsterdam. Initially serving to facilitate the design process for the Raffles City project in Hangzhou, UNStudio Asia has expanded into a full-service design office with a multinational team of all-round and specialist architects. UNStudio has an average work-force of 140 employees and a management team made up of two co-founders and three directors, Harm Wassink, Gerard Loozekoot and Astrid Piber.

Den Haag Centraal railway station railway station in The Hague

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Rotterdam Metro rapid transit system in Rotterdam, Netherlands

The Rotterdam Metro is a rapid transit system operated in Rotterdam, Netherlands and surrounding municipalities by RET. The first line, called Noord – Zuidlijn opened in 1968 and ran from Centraal Station to Zuidplein, crossing the river Nieuwe Maas in a tunnel. It was the first metro system to open in the Netherlands. At the time it was also one of the shortest metro lines in the world with a length of only 5.9 km (3.7 mi).

Utrecht Centraal railway station railway station

Utrecht Centraal is the central railway station for the city of Utrecht, Netherlands. It is the largest and busiest railway station in the Netherlands, with sixteen platforms and with more than 176,000 passengers per day. With Utrecht being located centrally in the Netherlands, Utrecht Centraal is also the most important railway hub of the country with more than 900 trains leaving this station per day, making it the largest junction station in the Netherlands. Therefore, disruptions at the station can easily affect the rest of the country's railway network.

Rotterdam Centraal station railway station in Rotterdam, Netherlands

Rotterdam Centraal is the main railway station of the city Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The station received an average of 110,000 passengers daily in 2007. The current station building, located at Station Square, was officially opened in March 2014.

Schiedam Centrum station metro and railway station in Schiedam, Netherlands

Schiedam Centrum is a railway station and metro station in Schiedam, just to the west of Rotterdam, Netherlands, on the railway line between The Hague and Rotterdam Centraal, and is the junction for the branch to Hoek van Holland. Trains are operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen.

Trams in The Hague tram system

The Hague Tram is a tram network forming part of the public transport system in and around the city of The Hague in South Holland, the Netherlands.

The following is a timeline of the history of the municipality of Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Schiphol Airport railway station railway station

Schiphol Airport railway station is a major passenger railway station in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands. It is located directly beneath the terminal complex of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and is operated by the Nederlandse Spoorwegen. The station's six platforms are accessible via twelve escalators and three elevators located in the main concourse of the airport. The original station was opened in 1978, and the current station was opened in 1995. It connects the airport to Amsterdam and to various other cities in the Netherlands, as well as to Belgium and France.

References

Bibliography

Notes

  1. "College van b en w" [Board of mayor and aldermen] (in Dutch). Gemeente Rotterdam. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  3. 1 2 Anita Bouman–Eijs; Thijmen van Bree; Wouter Jonkhoff; Olaf Koops; Walter Manshanden; Elmer Rietveld (17 December 2012). De Top 20 van Europese grootstedelijke regio's 1995–2011; Randstad Holland in internationaal perspectief [Top 20 of European metropolitan regions 1995–2011; Randstad Holland compared internationally](PDF) (Technical report) (in Dutch). Delft: TNO . Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  4. "Postcodetool for 3011AD". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
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Preceded by
Event created
World Gymnaestrada host city
1953
Succeeded by
Zagreb, Yugoslavia (1957)