|Intercommunality||Métropole Rouen Normandie|
|• Mayor (2014–2020)||Yvon Robert (PS)|
|21.38 km2 (8.25 sq mi)|
|• Urban||448 km2 (173 sq mi)|
| • Metro|
|1,800 km2 (700 sq mi)|
|• Rank||35th in France|
|• Density||5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)|
| • Urban |
|• Urban density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
| • Metro |
|• Metro density||360/km2 (940/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Rouen ( UK: /, / , US: /, / , French: [ʁwɑ̃] (
The population of the metropolitan area (French : agglomération ) at the 2011 census was 655,013, with the city proper having an estimated population of 111,557. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais.
Rouen and its metropolitan area of 70 suburban communes form the Métropole Rouen Normandie, with 494,382 inhabitants at the 2010 census. In descending order of population, the largest of these suburbs are Sotteville-lès-Rouen, Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, Le Grand-Quevilly, Le Petit-Quevilly, and Mont-Saint-Aignan, each with a population exceeding 20,000.
Rouen was founded by the Gaulish tribe of the Veliocasses, who controlled a large area in the lower Seine valley. They called it Ratumacos; the Romans called it Rotomagus. It was considered the second city of Gallia Lugdunensis after Lugdunum (Lyon) itself. Under the reorganization of Diocletian, Rouen was the chief city of the divided province Gallia Lugdunensis II and reached the apogee of its Roman development, with an amphitheatre and thermae of which foundations remain. In the 5th century, it became the seat of a bishopric and later a capital of Merovingian Neustria.
From their first incursion into the lower valley of the Seine in 841, the Normans overran Rouen. From 912, Rouen was the capital of the Duchy of Normandy and residence of the local dukes, until William the Conqueror moved his residence to Caen.In 1150, Rouen received its founding charter which permitted self-government.
During the 12th century, Rouen was the site of a yeshiva known as La Maison Sublime. Discovered in 1976, it is now a museum.At that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town, comprising about 20% of the population.
On 24 June 1204 King Philip II Augustus of France entered Rouen and definitively annexed Normandy to the French Kingdom. He demolished the Norman castle and replaced it with his own, the Château Bouvreuil, built on the site of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre. A textile industry developed based on wool imported from England, for which the cities of Flanders and Brabant were constantly competitors, and finding its market in the Champagne fairs. Rouen also depended for its prosperity on the river traffic of the Seine, on which it enjoyed a monopoly that reached as far upstream as Paris.
In the 14th century urban strife threatened the city: in 1291, the mayor was assassinated and noble residences in the city were pillaged. Philip IV reimposed order and suppressed the city's charter and the lucrative monopoly on river traffic, but he was quite willing to allow the Rouennais to repurchase their old liberties in 1294. In 1306, he decided to expel the Jewish community of Rouen, then numbering some five or six thousands. In 1389, another urban revolt of the underclass occurred, the Harelle . It was suppressed with the withdrawal of Rouen's charter and river-traffic privileges once more.
During the Hundred Years' War, on 19 January 1419, Rouen surrendered to Henry V of England, who annexed Normandy once again to the Plantagenet domains. But Rouen did not go quietly: Alain Blanchard hung English prisoners from the walls, for which he was summarily executed; Canon and Vicar General of Rouen Robert de Livet became a hero for excommunicating the English king, resulting in de Livet's imprisonment for five years in England. Joan of Arc was burned at the stake in Rouen on 30 May 1431 in this city, where most inhabitants supported the duke of Burgundy, Joan of Arc's king enemy. The king of France Charles VII recaptured the town in 1449.
During the German occupation, the Kriegsmarine had its headquarters located in a chateau on what is now the Rouen Business School. The city was heavily damaged during World War II on D-day and its famed cathedral was almost destroyed by Allied bombs.
Rouen is known for its Rouen Cathedral, with its Tour de Beurre (butter tower) financed by the sale of indulgences for the consumption of butter during Lent. The cathedral's gothic façade (completed in the 16th century) was the subject of a series of paintings by Claude Monet, some of which are exhibited in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris.
The Gros Horloge is an astronomical clock dating back to the 14th century.It is located in the Gros Horloge street.
Other famous structures include Rouen Castle, whose keep is known as the tour Jeanne d'Arc, where Joan of Arc was brought in 1431 to be threatened with torture (contrary to popular belief, she was not imprisoned there but in the since destroyed tour de lady Pucelle); the Church of Saint Ouen (12th–15th century); the Palais de Justice , which was once the seat of the Parlement (French court of law) of Normandy; the Gothic Church of St Maclou (15th century); and the Museum of Fine Arts and Ceramics which contains a splendid collection of faïence and porcelain for which Rouen was renowned during the 16th to 18th centuries. Rouen is also noted for its surviving half-timbered buildings.
There are many museums in Rouen: the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, an art museum with pictures of well-known painters such as Claude Monet and Géricault; the Musée maritime fluvial et portuaire, a museum on the history of the port of Rouen and navigation; Musée des antiquités,an art and history museum with local works from the Bronze Age through the Renaissance, the Musée de la céramique and the Musée Le Secq des Tournelles.
The Jardin des Plantes de Rouen is a notable botanical garden once owned by Scottish banker John Law dated from 1840 in its present form. It was the site of Élisa Garnerin's parachute jump from a balloon in 1817.
In the centre of the Place du Vieux Marché (the site of Joan of Arc's pyre)is the modern church of St Joan of Arc. This is a large, modern structure which dominates the square. The form of the building represents an upturned viking boat and a fish shape.
Rouen was also home to the French Grand Prix, hosting the race at the nearby Rouen-Les-Essarts track sporadically between 1952 and 1968. In 1999 Rouen authorities demolished the grandstands and other remnants of Rouen's racing past. Today, little remains beyond the public roads that formed the circuit.
Rouen has its own palace of Rouen Opera House, whose formal name is Rouen Normandy Opera House – Theatre of Arts (in French: Opéra de Rouen Normandie – Théâtre des arts).
Rouen has an oceanic climate (Cfb in the Koeppen climate classification).
|Climate data for Rouen (URO), elevation: 151 m (495 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1968–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.7|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.4|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.7|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.1|
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.1|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||76.3|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||13.0||10.3||11.9||10.7||11.8||9.5||9.4||9.0||9.7||12.4||13.0||13.0||133.6|
|Average snowy days||4.7||4.2||3.3||1.8||0.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.7||3.4||19.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||90||86||83||78||79||80||79||80||84||89||90||91||84|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58.6||74.5||117.4||158.0||182.8||202.2||199.2||191.8||156.1||107.8||60.0||49.2||1,557.5|
|Source #1: Meteo France|
|Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (relative humidity 1961–1990)|
Mainline trains operate from Gare de Rouen-Rive-Droite to Le Havre and Paris, and regional trains to Caen, Dieppe and other local destinations in Normandy. Daily direct trains operate to Amiens and Lille, and direct TGVs (high-speed trains) connect daily with Lyon and Marseille.
City transportation in Rouen consists of a tram and a bus system. The tramway branches into two lines out of a tunnel under the city centre. Rouen is also served by TEOR (Transport Est-Ouest Rouennais) and by buses run in conjunction with the tramway by TCAR (Transports en commun de l'agglomération rouennaise), a subsidiary of Veolia Transport.
Rouen has its own airport, serving major domestic destinations as well as international destinations in Europe.
The Seine is a major axis for maritime cargo links in the Port of Rouen. The Cross-Channel ferry ports of Caen, Le Havre, Dieppe (50 minutes) and Calais, and the Channel Tunnel are within easy driving distance (two and a half hours or less).
The main schools of higher education are the University of Rouen and the École Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen (NEOMA Business School), ésitpa (agronomy and agriculture), both located at nearby Mont-Saint-Aignan, and the INSA Rouen, ESIGELEC and the CESI, both at nearby Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray.
The main opera company in Rouen is the Opéra de Rouen – Normandie. The company performs in the Théâtre des Arts, 7 rue du Docteur Rambert. The company presents opera, classical and other types of music, both vocal and instrumental, as well as dance performances.Every five years, the city hosts the large maritime exposition, L'Armada.
Rouen was the birthplace of:
Rouen is twinned with:
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Rouen Cathedral is the subject of a series of paintings by the Impressionist painter Claude Monet, who painted the same scene at different times of the day. Two paintings are in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.; two are in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow; one is in the National Museum of Serbia in Belgrade. The estimated value of one painting is over $40 million.
During the second half of the 20th century, several sculptures by Jean-Yves Lechevallier were erected in the city.
Inaugurated in 2010, the Rouen Impressionnée hosted the contemporary urban (re)developmentinstallation sculpture 'Camille' by Belgian artist Arne Quinze. Quinze's use of interlocking systems in sculpture employ wood, concrete, paint and metal. The Quasi-Quinze method of sculpture utilizes structural integrity and randomness as key elements for 'Camille'. Located on the Boieldieu Bridge in the center of Rouen, this intentional location was chosen by the artist to magnify the historical separation of its city's citizens.
The Rouen area is an integral part of the work of French writer Annie Ernaux.
|The arms of Rouen are blazoned :|
Gules, a pascal lamb, haloed and contorny, holding a banner argent charged with a cross Or, and on a chief azure, 3 fleurs de lys Or
This may be rendered, "On a red background a haloed white pascal lamb looking back over its shoulder (contorny) holds a white banner bearing a gold cross; above, a broad blue band across the top bears 3 gold fleurs de lis".
Normandy is the northwesternmost of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Seine-Maritime is a department of France in the Normandy region of northern France. It is situated on the northern coast of France, at the mouth of the Seine, and includes the cities of Rouen and Le Havre. Until 1955 it was named Seine-Inférieure.
Honfleur is a commune in the Calvados department in northwestern France. It is located on the southern bank of the estuary of the Seine across from le Havre and very close to the exit of the Pont de Normandie. Its inhabitants are called Honfleurais.
Lisieux is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. It is the capital of the Pays d'Auge area, which is characterised by valleys and hedged farmland.
Rouen Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Rouen, Normandy, France. It is the see of the Archbishop of Rouen, Primate of Normandy. The cathedral is in the Gothic architectural tradition.
The Agglomeration community of Rouen is a former intercommunality located in the Seine-Maritime département in the Haute-Normandie region of northern France. With three other intercommunalities it formed the Agglomeration community of Rouen-Elbeuf-Austreberthe in 2010, which was replaced by the Métropole Rouen Normandie in 2015.
The once vast Forêt de Rouvray was a forest that extended from west of Paris in the Île-de-France region westwards into Normandy, virtually unbroken, threaded by the winding loops of the River Seine, traversed by forest traces and dotted with isolated woodland hamlets, as far as Rouen. A rural relict is the 5 100 ha of the protected Forêt Domaniale de la Londe-Rouvray, at Les Essarts, Normandy, near Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, south of Rouen, on an upland massif above the left bank of the Seine, which makes a wide arc enclosing it. On the right bank, to the west, is what is left of the Forêt de Roumare, another former royal forest.
The musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen is an art museum in Rouen, Normandy, France. Founded in 1801 by Napoleon I, its current building was built between 1880 and 1888 and underwent complete renovation in 1994. It houses painting, sculpture, drawing and decorative art collections.
Métropole Rouen Normandie is the métropole, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Rouen. It is located in the Seine-Maritime department, in the Normandy region, north-western France. It was created in January 2015, replacing the previous Communauté d'agglomération Rouen-Elbeuf-Austreberthe. Its population was 499,570 in 2014, of which 113,313 in Rouen proper.
Robert Antoine Pinchon was a French Post-Impressionist landscape painter of the Rouen School who was born and spent most of his life in France. He was consistent throughout his career in his dedication to painting landscapes en plein air. From the age of nineteen he worked in a Fauve style but never deviated into Cubism, and, unlike others, never found that Post-Impressionism did not fulfill his artistic needs. Claude Monet referred to him as "a surprising touch in the service of a surprising eye".
Pierre Jean Baptiste Louis Dumont more commonly known as Pierre Dumont, was a French painter of the Rouen School. He was schooled at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille and subsequently studied painting with Joseph Delattre. Dumont founded the Groupe des XXX (1907), and along with Robert Antoine Pinchon, Yvonne Barbier, and Eugène Tirvert founded the Société Normande de Peinture Moderne (1909). From 1910 to 1916 Dumont lived at the Le Bateau-Lavoir becoming friends with Juan Gris, Max Jacob and Guillaume Apollinaire. He turned towards Cubism during this period and played a crucial role in the organization of the Salon de la Section d'Or at the Galerie La Boétie in Paris, October 1912.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Rouen, France.
Gaston Sébire was a French painter of seascapes, landscapes, still lifes and flowers.
Albert Lebourg, birth name Albert-Marie Lebourg, also called Albert-Charles Lebourg and Charles Albert Lebourg, was a French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist landscape painter of the Rouen School. Member of the Société des Artistes Français, he actively worked in a luminous Impressionist style, creating more than 2,000 landscapes during his lifetime. The artist was represented by Galerie Mancini in Paris in 1896, in 1899 and 1910 by : Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, 1903 and 1906 at the Galerie Paul Rosenberg, and 1918 and 1923 at Galerie Georges Petit.
Corneille's Chapel, formally known as Corneille's Chapel, Auditorium of Normandy, is an auditorium, formerly Saint-Louis Church, located in the northeast of the city centre of Rouen, Normandy.
The Rouen Opera House, formally known as Rouen Normandy Opera House -Theatre of Arts is a French opera house located in Rouen, Normandy. It is home to the Rouen Philharmonic Orchestra.
Théodore-Éloi Lebreton was a 19th-century autodidact French poet, chansonnier and bibliographer.
The cimetière monumental de Rouen is the most important cemetery of the Norman city of Rouen. The entrance gate, the chapel and the monumental cross are the work of Charles Felix Maillet du Boullay.
Émile Picot was a French Romance philologist.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rouen .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Rouen .|