Roy Jenkins

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The Lord Jenkins of Hillhead

Roy Jenkins 1977b.jpg
President of the European Commission
In office
6 January 1977 19 January 1981
Vice President Wilhelm Haferkamp
Preceded by François-Xavier Ortoli
Succeeded by Gaston Thorn
Leader of the Liberal Democrats in the House of Lords
In office
16 July 1988 19 December 1997
Leader Paddy Ashdown
Preceded by The Baroness Seear (Liberal)
Succeeded by The Lord Rodgers of Quarry Bank
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
In office
14 March 1987 5 January 2003
Vice-Chancellor The Lord Neill
Sir Richard Southwood
Sir Peter North
Sir Colin Lucas
Preceded by The Earl of Stockton
Succeeded by The Lord Patten of Barnes
Leader of the Social Democratic Party
In office
7 July 1982 13 June 1983
Deputy David Owen
President Shirley Williams
Preceded by The Gang of Four
Succeeded by David Owen
Home Secretary
In office
5 March 1974 10 September 1976
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
James Callaghan
Preceded by Robert Carr
Succeeded by Merlyn Rees
In office
23 December 1965 30 November 1967
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
Preceded by Frank Soskice
Succeeded by James Callaghan
Shadow Home Secretary
In office
25 November 1973 5 March 1974
Leader Harold Wilson
Shadowing Robert Carr
Preceded by Shirley Williams
Succeeded by Jim Prior
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
In office
8 July 1970 10 April 1972
Leader Harold Wilson
Preceded by George Brown
Succeeded by Edward Short
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
19 June 1970 10 April 1972
Leader Harold Wilson
Shadowing Iain Macleod
Anthony Barber
Preceded by Iain Macleod
Succeeded by Denis Healey
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
30 November 1967 19 June 1970
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
Chief Secretary Jack Diamond
Preceded by James Callaghan
Succeeded by Iain Macleod
Minister of Aviation
In office
18 October 1964 23 December 1965
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
Preceded by Julian Amery
Succeeded by Fred Mulley
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
1 December 1987 5 January 2003
Life Peerage
Member of Parliament
for Glasgow Hillhead
In office
25 March 1982 11 June 1987
Preceded by Tam Galbraith
Succeeded by George Galloway
Member of Parliament
for Birmingham Stechford
In office
23 February 1950 31 March 1977
Preceded by Constituency created
Succeeded by Andrew MacKay
Member of Parliament
for Southwark Central
In office
29 April 1948 23 February 1950
Preceded by John Martin
Succeeded by Constituency abolished
Personal details
Roy Harris Jenkins

(1920-11-11)11 November 1920
Abersychan, Monmouthshire, Wales
Died5 January 2003(2003-01-05) (aged 82)
East Hendred, Oxfordshire, England
Political party Labour (Before 1981)
Social Democrats (1981–1988)
Liberal Democrats (1988–2003)
Alma mater Cardiff University
Balliol College, Oxford
Military service
AllegianceFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Branch/service Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Rank Captain
Unit Royal Artillery
Battles/wars Second World War

Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, OM , PC (11 November 1920 – 5 January 2003), was a British Labour Party, SDP and Liberal Democrat politician, and biographer of British political leaders.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom that has been described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights.

Social Democratic Party (UK) political party in the United Kingdom (1981-88)

The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was a centrist political party in the United Kingdom. The party supported a mixed economy, electoral reform, European integration and a decentralized state while rejecting the possibility of trade unions being overly influential within the industrial sphere.


The son of a Welsh coal-miner and trade unionist (later a Labour MP and government minister), Roy Jenkins was educated at the University of Oxford and served as an intelligence officer in the Second World War. Elected to Parliament as a Labour MP in 1948, he went on to serve in two major posts in Harold Wilson's first government. As Home Secretary from 1965 to 1967, he sought to build what he described as "a civilised society", with measures such as the effective abolition in Britain of both capital punishment and theatre censorship, the decriminalisation of homosexuality, relaxing of divorce law, suspension of birching and the liberalisation of abortion law. As Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1967 and 1970, he pursued a tight fiscal policy. He was elected Deputy Leader of the Labour Party on 8 July 1970, [1] but resigned in 1972 because he supported entry to the European Communities, while the party opposed it.

Welsh people nation and ethnic group native to Wales

The Welsh are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history and the Welsh language. Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living in Wales are British citizens.

University of Oxford University in Oxford, United Kingdom

The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation after the University of Bologna. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently jointly called Oxbridge. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

When Wilson re-entered government in 1974, Jenkins returned to the Home Office. However, increasingly disenchanted by the leftward swing of the Labour Party,[ citation needed ] he chose to leave British politics in 1976; the following year he was appointed President of the European Commission, serving until 1981. He was the first British holder of this office, and is likely to be the only such (considering the United Kingdom's decision in June 2016 to leave the European Union). He returned to British politics in 1981; still dismayed with the Labour Party's leftward swing under Michael Foot, he was one of the "Gang of Four"—centrist Labour MPs who formed the Social Democratic Party (SDP). [2] In 1982, Jenkins won a famous by-election in a Conservative seat and returned to parliament; he was "Prime Minister Designate" of the SDP-Liberal Alliance in the 1983 general election. However, after disappointment with the performance of the SDP, he resigned as its leader.

President of the European Commission Head of the European Commission

The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union. The President of the Commission leads a cabinet of Commissioners, referred to as the college, collectively accountable to the European Parliament. The President is empowered to allocate portfolios amongst, reshuffle or dismiss Commissioners as necessary. The college directs the Commission's civil service, sets the policy agenda and determines the legislative proposals it produces.

Brexit The United Kingdoms withdrawal from the European Union

Brexit is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU). Following a referendum held on 23 June 2016 in which 51.9 percent of those voting supported leaving the EU, the Government invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, starting a two-year process which was due to conclude with the UK's exit on 29 March 2019. That deadline has since been extended to 31 October 2019.

Roy Jenkins robed as Chancellor of Oxford University Roy Jenkins, Chancellor of Oxford.jpg
Roy Jenkins robed as Chancellor of Oxford University

In 1987, he was elected to succeed Harold Macmillan as Chancellor of the University of Oxford following the latter's death; he held this position until his own death sixteen years later. A few months after becoming Chancellor, he was defeated in his Hillhead constituency by the Labour candidate, George Galloway. Jenkins accepted a life peerage and sat as a Liberal Democrat. In the late 1990s, he was an adviser to Tony Blair and chaired the Jenkins Commission on electoral reform. Jenkins died in 2003, aged 82.

Harold Macmillan former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, was a British Conservative Party statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. Dubbed "Supermac", he was known for his pragmatism, wit and unflappability.

Glasgow Hillhead was a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1918 until 1997. It elected one Member of Parliament (MP) using the first-past-the-post voting system.

George Galloway British politician, broadcaster, and writer

George Galloway is a British politician, broadcaster and writer. Between 1987 and 2015, except for 2010–12, he was a Member of Parliament for four constituencies, firstly for the Labour Party and later the Respect Party. After becoming the youngest ever chair of the Scottish Labour Party in 1981, he was general secretary of the London-based charity War on Want from 1983 until elected as MP for Glasgow Hillhead at the 1987 general election. In 2003, Galloway was expelled from the Labour Party for bringing the party into disrepute, including having called on Arabs to fight British troops.

In addition to his political career, he was also a noted historian, biographer and writer. His A Life at the Centre (1991) is regarded as one of the best autobiographies of the later 20th century, which "will be read with pleasure long after most examples of the genre have been forgotten". [3]

Early life

Born in Abersychan, Monmouthshire, in south-eastern Wales, as an only child, Roy Jenkins was the son of a National Union of Mineworkers official, Arthur Jenkins. His father was imprisoned during the 1926 General Strike for his alleged involvement in disturbances. Arthur Jenkins later became President of the South Wales Miners' Federation and Member of Parliament for Pontypool, Parliamentary Private Secretary to Clement Attlee, and briefly a minister in the 1945 Labour government. Roy Jenkins' mother, Hattie Harris, was the daughter of a steelworks manager.

Abersychan town and community in Torfaen County Borough in south east Wales

Abersychan is a settlement and community north of Pontypool in Torfaen, Wales, and lies within the boundaries of the historic county of Monmouthshire and the preserved county of Gwent.

Monmouthshire (historic) one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales

Monmouthshire, also known as the County of Monmouth, is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county. It corresponds approximately to the present principal areas of Monmouthshire, Blaenau Gwent, Newport and Torfaen, and those parts of Caerphilly and Cardiff east of the Rhymney River.

Wales Country in northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.

Jenkins was educated at Pentwyn Primary School, Abersychan County Grammar School, University College, Cardiff, and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was twice defeated for the Presidency of the Oxford Union but took First-Class Honours in Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE). His university colleagues included Tony Crosland, Denis Healey and Edward Heath, and he became friends with all three, although he was never particularly close to Healey. In John Campbell's book A Well-Rounded Life a romantic relationship between Jenkins and Crosland was detailed. [4]

During the Second World War, Jenkins served with the Royal Artillery and then as a Bletchley Park codebreaker, [5] reaching the rank of captain.

Member of Parliament (1948–1977)

Having failed to win Solihull in 1945, he was elected to the House of Commons in a 1948 by-election as the Member of Parliament for Southwark Central, becoming the "Baby of the House". His constituency was abolished in boundary changes for the 1950 general election, when he stood instead in the new Birmingham Stechford constituency. He won the seat, and represented the constituency until 1977.

Jenkins was principal sponsor, in 1959, of the bill which became the liberalising Obscene Publications Act, responsible for establishing the "liable to deprave and corrupt" criterion as a basis for a prosecution of suspect material and for specifying literary merit as a possible defence. Like Healey and Crosland, he had been a close friend of Hugh Gaitskell and for them Gaitskell's death and the elevation of Harold Wilson as Labour Party leader was a setback.

After the 1964 general election Jenkins was appointed Minister of Aviation and was sworn of the Privy Council. While at Aviation he oversaw the high-profile cancellations of the BAC TSR-2 and Concorde projects (although the latter was later reversed after strong opposition from the French Government). In January 1965 Patrick Gordon Walker resigned as Foreign Secretary and in the ensuing reshuffle Wilson offered Jenkins the Department for Education and Science; however. he declined it, preferring to stay at Aviation. [6]

Cabinet (1965–1970)

In the summer of 1965 Jenkins eagerly accepted an offer to replace Frank Soskice as Home Secretary. However Wilson, dismayed by a sudden bout of press speculation about the potential move, delayed Jenkins' appointment until December. Once Jenkins took office – the youngest Home Secretary since Churchill – he immediately set about reforming the operation and organisation of the Home Office. The Principal Private Secretary, Head of the Press and Publicity Department and Permanent Under-Secretary were all replaced. He also redesigned his office, famously replacing the board on which condemned prisoners were listed with a fridge. [7] After the 1966 general election, in which Labour won a comfortable majority, Jenkins pushed through a series of police reforms which reduced the number of separate forces from 117 to 49. [6]

Immigration was a divisive and provocative issue during the late 1960s and on 23 May 1966 Jenkins delivered a speech on race relations, which is widely considered to be one of his best. [8] Addressing a London meeting of the National Committee for Commonwealth Immigrants he notably defined Integration:

... not as a flattening process of assimilation but as equal opportunity, accompanied by cultural diversity, in an atmosphere of mutual tolerance.

Before going on to ask:

Where in the world is there a university which could preserve its fame, or a cultural centre which could keep its eminence, or a metropolis which could hold its drawing power, if it were to turn inwards and serve only its own hinterland and its own racial group?

And concluding that:

To live apart, for a person, a city, a country, is to lead a life of declining intellectual stimulation. [8]

Jenkins is often seen as responsible for the most wide-ranging social reforms of the late 1960s, with popular historian Andrew Marr claiming 'the greatest changes of the Labour years' were thanks to Jenkins. [9] He refused to authorise the birching of prisoners and was responsible for the relaxation of the laws relating to divorce and the abolition of theatre censorship and gave government support to David Steel's Private Member's Bill for the legalisation of abortion and Leo Abse's bill for the decriminalisation of homosexuality. Wilson, with his puritan background, was not especially sympathetic to these developments, however. Jenkins replied to public criticism by asserting that the so-called permissive society was in reality the civilised society. For some conservatives, such as Peter Hitchens, Jenkins' reforms remain objectionable. In his book The Abolition of Britain , Hitchens accuses him of being a "cultural revolutionary" who takes a large part of the responsibility for the decline of "traditional values" in Britain.

From 1967 to 1970 Jenkins served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, replacing James Callaghan following the devaluation crisis of November 1967. He quickly gained a reputation as a particularly tough Chancellor with his 1968 budget increasing taxes by £923 million, more than twice the increase of any previous budget to date. Despite Edward Heath claiming it was a 'hard, cold budget, without any glimmer of warmth' Jenkins' first budget broadly received a warm reception, with Harold Wilson remarking that 'it was widely acclaimed as a speech of surpassing quality and elegance' and Barbara Castle that it 'took everyone's breath away'. [6] However, following a further sterling crisis in November 1968 Jenkins was forced to raise taxes by a further £250 million. After this the currency markets slowly began to settle and his 1969 budget represented more of the same with a £340 million increase in taxation to further limit consumption.

By May 1969 Britain's current account position was in surplus, thanks to a growth in exports, a drop in overall consumption and, in part, the Inland Revenue correcting a previous underestimation in export figures. In July Jenkins was also able to announce that the size of Britain's foreign currency reserves had been increased by almost $1 billion since the beginning of the year. It was at this time that he presided over Britain's only excess of government revenue over expenditure in the period 1936-7 to 1987–8. [6] Thanks in part to these successes there was a high expectation that the 1970 budget would be a more generous one. Jenkins, however, was cautious about the stability of Britain's recovery and decided to present a more muted and fiscally neutral budget. It is often argued that this, combined with a series of bad trade figures, contributed to the Conservative victory at the 1970 general election. Historians and economists have often praised Jenkins for presiding over the transformation in Britain's fiscal and current account positions towards the end of the 1960s. Andrew Marr, for example, described him as one of the 20th century's 'most successful chancellors'. [9]

Shadow Cabinet (1970–1974)

After Labour unexpectedly lost power in 1970 Jenkins was appointed Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer by Harold Wilson. Jenkins was also subsequently elected to the deputy leadership of the Labour Party in July 1970, defeating future Labour Leader Michael Foot and former Leader of the Commons Fred Peart at the first ballot. At this time he appeared the natural successor to Harold Wilson, and it appeared to many only a matter of time before he inherited the leadership of the party, and the opportunity to become Prime Minister. [3]

This changed completely, however, as Jenkins refused to accept the tide of anti-European feeling that became prevalent in the Labour Party in the early 1970s. In 1972, he led 69 Labour MPs through the division lobby in support of the Heath government's motion to take Britain into the EEC. In so-doing they were defying a three-line whip and a five-to-one vote at the Labour Party annual conference. [3] Jenkins' action gave the European cause a legitimacy that would have otherwise been absent had the issue been considered solely as a party political matter. At this stage, however, Jenkins would not fully abandon his position as a political insider, and chose to stand again for deputy leader, an act his colleague David Marquand claimed he later came to regret. [3] Jenkins narrowly defeated Michael Foot on a second ballot.

Six months later, however, he resigned both the deputy leadership and his shadow cabinet position in April 1972, over the party's policy on favouring a referendum on British membership of the European Economic Community (EEC). This led to some former admirers, including Roy Hattersley, choosing to distance themselves from Jenkins. His lavish lifestyle — Wilson once described him as "more a socialite than a socialist" — had already alienated much of the Labour Party from him. Wilson accused him of having an affair with socialite Ann Fleming - and it was true. [10] Jenkins returned to the shadow cabinet in November 1973 as Shadow Home Secretary.

Return to Government (1974–1977)

When Labour returned to power in early 1974, Jenkins was appointed Home Secretary for the second time. Earlier, he had been promised the treasury; however, Wilson later decided to appoint Denis Healey as Chancellor instead. Upon hearing from Bernard Donoughue that Wilson had reneged on his promise, Jenkins reacted angrily. Despite being on a public staircase, he is reported to have shouted 'You tell Harold Wilson he must bloody well come to see me ... and if he doesn't watch out, I won't join his bloody government ... This is typical of the bloody awful way Harold Wilson does things!' [11]

Jenkins served from 1974 to 1976. In this period he undermined his previous liberal credentials to some extent by pushing through the controversial Prevention of Terrorism Act, which, among other things, extended the length of time suspects could be held in custody and instituted exclusion orders. Although becoming increasingly disillusioned during this time by what he considered the party's drift to the left, he was the leading Labour figure in the referendum in September 1975 which saw the 'yes' campaign win a two-to-one victory in the referendum on continued membership of the European Community.

President of the European Commission (1977–1981)

When Harold Wilson suddenly resigned as Prime Minister, Jenkins was one of six candidates for the leadership of the Labour Party in March 1976, but came third out of the six candidates in the first ballot, behind Callaghan and Michael Foot. Realising that his vote was lower than expected, and sensing that the parliamentary party was in no mood to overlook his actions five years before, he immediately withdrew from the contest. [3] Jenkins had wanted to become Foreign Secretary, [12] but accepted an appointment as President of the European Commission (succeeding François-Xavier Ortoli) after Callaghan appointed Anthony Crosland to the Foreign Office.

The main development overseen by the Jenkins Commission was the development of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union from 1977, which began in 1979 as the European Monetary System, a forerunner of the Single Currency or Euro. [13] President Jenkins was the first President to attend a G8 summit on behalf of the Community. [14] Jenkins remained in Brussels until 1981, contemplating the political changes in the UK from there.

He received an Honorary Degree (Doctor of Laws) from the University of Bath in 1978. [15]

Return to Parliament (1982–1987)

Leadership of the Social Democratic Party

As one of the so-called "Gang of Four", Roy Jenkins was a founder of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) in January 1981 with David Owen, Bill Rodgers and Shirley Williams.

He attempted to re-enter Parliament at the Warrington by-election in 1981 but Labour retained the seat with a small majority. He was more successful in 1982, being elected in the Glasgow Hillhead by-election as the Member of Parliament for a previously Conservative-held seat.

During the 1983 election campaign his position as the prime minister-designate for the SDP-Liberal Alliance was questioned by his close colleagues, as his campaign style was now regarded as ineffective; the Liberal leader David Steel was considered to have a greater rapport with the electorate.

He led the new party from March 1982 until after the 1983 general election, when Owen succeeded him unopposed. Jenkins was disappointed with Owen's move to the right, and his acceptance and backing of some of Thatcher's policies. At heart, Jenkins remained a Keynesian.

He continued to serve as SDP Member of Parliament for Glasgow Hillhead until his defeat at the 1987 general election by the Labour candidate George Galloway, after boundary changes in 1983 had changed the character of the constituency.

Peerage, achievements, books and death

From 1987, Jenkins remained in politics as a member of the House of Lords as a life peer with the title Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, of Pontypool in the County of Gwent. [16] Also in 1987, Jenkins was elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

In 1988 he fought and won an amendment to the Education Reform Act 1988, guaranteeing academic freedom of speech in further and higher education establishments. This affords and protects the right of students and academics to "question and test received wisdom" and has been incorporated into the statutes or articles and instruments of governance of all universities and colleges in Britain. [17]

In 1993, he was appointed to the Order of Merit. [18] He was leader of the Liberal Democrats in the Lords until 1997.

Jenkins' grave Roy Jenkins Grave.jpg
Jenkins' grave

In December 1997, he was appointed chair of a Government-appointed Independent Commission on the Voting System, which became known as the "Jenkins Commission", to consider alternative voting systems for the UK. The Jenkins Commission reported in favour of a new uniquely British mixed-member proportional system called "Alternative vote top-up" or "limited AMS" in October 1998, although no action was taken on this recommendation.

Jenkins wrote 19 books, including a biography of Gladstone (1995), which won the 1995 Whitbread Award for Biography, and a much-acclaimed biography of Winston Churchill (2001). His then-designated official biographer, Andrew Adonis, Baron Adonis, was to have finished the Churchill biography had Jenkins not survived the heart surgery he underwent towards the end of its writing. The popular historian Paul Johnson called it the best one-volume biography on its subject. [19]

Jenkins underwent heart surgery in November 2000, and postponed his 80th birthday celebrations, by having a celebratory party on 7 March 2001. He died on 5 January 2003, aged 82, after suffering a heart attack at his home at East Hendred, in Oxfordshire. [20] His last words, to his wife, were, "Two eggs, please, lightly poached". [21] At the time of his death Jenkins was apparently starting work on a biography of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Jenkins was a key influence on "New Labour", as the Labour Party marketed itself after the election of Tony Blair (who served as prime minister from winning the first of three successive general elections in 1997) in 1994, when the party abandoned many of its long-established policies including nationalisation, nuclear disarmament and unconditional support for the trade unions. He was well regarded by other Labour statesmen including Tony Benn, but was strongly criticised by others including Denis Healey, who condemned the SDP split as a "disaster" for the Labour Party which prolonged their time in opposition and allowed the Tories to have an unbroken run of 18 years in government. [22]

His alma mater, Cardiff University honoured the memory of Roy Jenkins by naming one of its halls of residence Roy Jenkins Hall.

Marriage and personal life

On 20 January 1945, Jenkins married Mary Jennifer (Jennifer) Morris (18 January 1921 – 2 February 2017) [23] They were married for almost 58 years until his death, although he had "several affairs", [24] including one with Jackie Kennedy's sister Lee Radziwill. [25]

She was made a DBE for services to ancient and historical buildings. They had two sons, Charles and Edward, and a daughter, Cynthia.

Early in his life Jenkins had a romantic and sexual relationship with Anthony Crosland. [26] [27] [28]

Styles of address


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  1. "Jenkins Labour deputy leader". The Glasgow Herald . 9 July 1970. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  2. Cawood, Ian J. (21 August 2013). Britain in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. p. 437. ISBN   978-1-136-40681-2.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Marquand, David (8 January 2003). "Lord Jenkins of Hillhead". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  4. Perry, Keith (10 March 2014). "Roy Jenkins' male lover Tony Crosland tried to halt his marriage". ISSN   0307-1235 . Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  5. PBS Nova, "Decoding Nazi Secrets", 27 November 2015 (interview of Jenkins); BBC Obituary: Roy Jenkins, Sunday, 5 January 2003
  6. 1 2 3 4 Jenkins, Roy. A Life at the Centre. Politico's. ISBN   978-1-84275-177-0.
  7. John Campbell, Roy Jenkins: A Well-Rounded Life (London: Jonathan Cape, 2014), p. 261.
  8. 1 2 MacArthur, Brian (ed.). The Penguin Book of Twentieth-Century Speeches. ISBN   978-0-14-028500-0.
  9. 1 2 Marr, Andrew. A History of Modern Britain. ISBN   978-1-4050-0538-8.
  10. Andrew Marr (3 July 2009). A History of Modern Britain. Pan Macmillan. pp. 272–. ISBN   978-0-330-51329-6.
  11. Sandbrook, Dominic. State of Emergency – The Way We Were: Britain 1970–1974. Allen Lane. ISBN   978-1-84614-031-0.
  12. Leonard, Dick (2001). Rosen, Greg (ed.). Roy Jenkins (Lord Jenkins of Hillhead). Dictionary of Labour Biography. London: Politicos. pp. 314–8, 318.
  13. "A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union -J". Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  14. "EU and the G8". European Commission. Archived from the original on 26 February 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
  15. "Honorary Graduates 1989 to present". University of Bath. Archived from the original on 17 July 2010.
  16. "No. 51132". The London Gazette . 25 November 1987. p. 14513.
  17. Hayes, Dennis. "Tongues truly tied". Times Higher Education. The Times. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  18. "No. 53510". The London Gazette . 10 December 1993. p. 19644.
  19. Johnson, Paul (2003). Churchill, Simon & Schuster, p. 167.
  20. "Roy Jenkins dies". BBC News Online. BBC. 5 January 2003. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  21. Campbell, John (2014). Roy Jenkins: A Well-Rounded Life.
  22. White, Michael (6 January 2003). "Roy Jenkins: Gang leader who paved way for Blair". The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010.
  23. Dame Jennifer Jenkins obituary
  24. Cockerell, Michael (1996). Cahn, Alison; Tyerman, Anne (eds.). A Very Social Democrat: A Portrait of Roy Jenkins. BBC Two (Documentary). United Kingdom.
  25. "BBC NEWS UK Politics Obituary: Roy Jenkins".
  26. Perry, Keith (10 March 2014). "Roy Jenkins' male lover Tony Crosland tried to halt his marriage". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  27. "Double lives – a history of sex and secrecy at Westminster". The Guardian.
  28. James McCarthy (6 April 2014). "A string of affairs and a 'gay relationship': the secret life of Roy Jenkins, the best PM Britain never had". walesonline.

Further reading

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