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The Royal Academy (Chinese :教坊) is the official school for music, dance, and theater in China between the Tang Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, lasting more than 1000 years.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
In the 7th Century, the Chinese Royal Academy was set up by Emperor Gaozu of Tang in the purpose to teach music, theater, and dance for court entertainment. The name of the Royal Academy at first was Private Academy (Chinese: 內教坊), coordinated by the Tai-Chang Temple (Chinese: 太常寺, the central religion administration for the royal family). In the years of Empress Wu Zetian, the Private Academy was once called Yun-Shao Palace (Chinese: 雲韶府, which means the place of cloud and sunlight). Finally, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang renamed the academy to the Royal Academy. In the mean time, he made the school independent with a new governmental official similar to the western Kapellmeister to guide.
Emperor Gaozu of Tang, born Li Yuan, courtesy name Shude, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626. Under the Sui dynasty, Li Yuan was the governor in the area of modern-day Shanxi, and was based in Taiyuan.
Wu Zetian, alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty, which interrupted the Tang dynasty. Wu was the sole officially recognized empress regnant of China in more than two millennia.
Emperor Zhongzong of Tang, personal name Li Xian, and at other times Li Zhe or Wu Xian, was the fourth Emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling briefly in 684 and again from 705 to 710.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Historians generally regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day.
The Sui dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities within its territory. It was succeeded by the Tang dynasty, which largely inherited its foundation.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago. The area in which the culture is dominant covers a large geographical region in East Asia with customs and traditions varying greatly between provinces, cities, and even towns as well. With China being one of the earliest ancient civilizations, Chinese culture is extremely diverse and varying, and it has a profound effect in the philosophy, virtue, etiquette and traditions of Asia to date.
Xuanzang was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
The Japanese missions to Imperial China were diplomatic embassies which were intermittently sent to the Chinese court. Any distinction amongst diplomatic envoys sent from the Imperial Japanese court or from any of the Japanese shogunates was lost or rendered moot when the ambassador was received in the Chinese capital.
The Guanghua Temple, also known as the South Mountain Guanghua Temple (南山广寺), is a Buddhist temple located at the foot of Mount Phoenix (凤凰山), about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) south of Putian City, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China. It is a composite performance art that is an amalgamation of various art forms that existed in ancient China, and evolved gradually over more than a thousand years, reaching its mature form in the 13th century during the Song dynasty (960–1279). Early forms of Chinese theater are simple, but over time they incorporated various art forms, such as music, song and dance, martial arts, acrobatics, costume and make-up art, as well as literary art forms to become traditional Chinese opera.
The Pear Garden or Liyuan was the first known royal acting and musical academy in China. Founded during the Tang dynasty by Emperor Xuanzong (712–755), it is an example of an early institutional academy of music.
The Shūyuàn, usually known in English as Academies or Academies of Classical Learning, were a type of school in ancient China. Unlike national academy and district schools, shuyuan were usually private establishments built away from cities or towns, providing a quiet environment where scholars could engage in studies and contemplation without restrictions and worldly distractions.
The New Book of Tang, generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters. The work was compiled by a team of scholars of the Song dynasty, led by Ouyang Xiu and Song Qi.
The four occupations or "four categories of the people" was an occupation classification used in ancient China by either Confucian or Legalist scholars as far back as the late Zhou dynasty and is considered a central part of the fengjian social structure. These were the shi, the nong, the gong, and the shang . The four occupations were not always arranged in this order. The four categories were not socioeconomic classes; wealth and standing did not correspond to these categories, nor were they hereditary.
The following is a family tree of Chinese emperors (420-1279), from the Northern and Southern dynasties period, of first half of the fifth century AD, until the conquest of China by the Mongols under Kublai Khan, and the end of the Southern Song dynasty in 1279.
Dance in China is a highly varied art form, consisting of many modern and traditional dance genres. The dances cover a wide range, from folk dances to performances in opera and ballet, and may be used in public celebrations, rituals and ceremonies. There are also 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China, and each ethnic minority group in China also has its own folk dances. The best known Chinese dances today are the Dragon dance and the Lion dance.
Quan Tangshi, commissioned in 1705 at the direction and published under the name of the Qing dynasty Kangxi Emperor, is the largest collection of Tang poetry, containing some 49,000 lyric poems by more than twenty-two hundred poets. The Quantangshi is the major reservoir of surviving Tang Dynasty poems, from which the pre-eminent shorter anthology, Three Hundred Tang Poems, is largely drawn.
Gao Changgong, formal name was Gao Su or Gao Xiaoguan (高孝瓘), was a high-ranking general of the Northern Qi dynasty given a fiefdom in Lanling County, so he was also known as the Prince of Lanling (蘭陵王). Gao Changgong was the grandson of Gao Huan and the fourth son of Gao Cheng. According to the Book of Northern Qi and the Record of the Court Entertainment Bureau, Gao Changgong had a beautiful face and feminine physical appearance thus he always wore a terrible mask when he fought in battles.
Tang Gao (唐皋，1469–1526) was born in Yansi town (巖寺鎮), She county (歙縣), Huizhou (徽州府), South Zhili (南直隸), in Ming China. Tang Gao became the Zhuangyuan, or Number One Scholar (狀元) in the ninth year (1514) of the Zhengde Emperor's (正德皇帝) reign during the Ming Dynasty. He styled himself as Shouzhi (守之), Xin’an (心庵), and Ziyang hermit (紫陽山人). Due to his premature death, the loss of his biography and epitaph, and the fact that much of his early life was not documented, scholars have been unable put together a detailed summary of his life.
Dance in China has a long recorded history. Some Chinese dances today, such as dancing with long sleeves, have been recorded at least as early as the Zhou dynasty. The most important of the early dances served important ritual and ceremonial roles and are known as yayue which continued to be performed in the imperial court until the Qing dynasty. A profusion of dances in popular and court entertainment as well as folk dances have been recorded in ancient texts. The art of dance in China reached a peak during the Tang dynasty but declined later. In more recent times dance has enjoyed a resurgence and modern developments in Chinese dances are continuing apace.
Dugu Xin, known as Dugu Ruyuan before 540, was a Xianbei military general and official during the chaotic Northern and Southern Dynasties period. In 534, Dugu Xin followed Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei to the west to join the warlord Yuwen Tai, and in the ensuing years led Western Wei forces against their archnemesis, the Eastern Wei. Despite an early debacle, he captured the former Northern Wei capital Luoyang from Eastern Wei in 537. He rose to high ranks under Yuwen Tai, and his eldest daughter married Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Yu. When the Northern Zhou dynasty replaced Western Wei, Dugu Xin was created Duke of Wei (衛國公), but was soon forced by the powerful regent Yuwen Hu to commit suicide for challenging him.
Daci'en Temple is a Buddhist temple located in Yanta District of Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. The temple is the cradle of East Asian Yogācāra in China. It is notable for the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda. The pagoda was originally built by an accomplished monk Xuanzang, whose story was widespread in civil socity in many dynasties and the famous legendary story Journey to the West was inspired by his experience. Alongside Daxingshan Temple and Jianfu Temple, it was one of the three sutras translation sites (三大译经场) in the Tang dynasty.
Mingjiao Temple, formerly known as Iron Buddha Temple, is a Buddhist temple located in Luyang District of Hefei, Anhui, China. Mingjiao Temple was originally built in the early 6th century, but because of war and natural disasters has been rebuilt numerous times since then. The present version was renovated and redecorated in 2015.