Royal Arms of England

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Royal Arms of England
(Arms of Plantagenet)
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
Armiger Monarchs of England
AdoptedLate 12th century
Blazon Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langued azure
Supporters Various
Motto Dieu et mon droit
Order(s) Order of the Garter
Use

The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form [1] at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154. [2] In the popular mind they have come to symbolise the nation of England, although according to heraldic usage nations do not bear arms, only persons and corporations do. [3] The blazon of the Arms of Plantagenet is: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langued azure, [4] [5] signifying three identical gold lions (also known as leopards) with blue tongues and claws, walking past but facing the observer, arranged in a column on a red background. Although the tincture azure of tongue and claws is not cited in many blazons, they are historically a distinguishing feature of the Arms of England. This coat, designed in the High Middle Ages, has been variously combined with those of the Kings of France, Scotland, a symbol of Ireland, the House of Nassau and the Kingdom of Hanover, according to dynastic and other political changes occurring in England, but has not altered since it took a fixed form in the reign of Richard I (1189–1199), the second Plantagenet king.

Coat of arms unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, family, state, organization or corporation.

Heraldry profession, study, or art of creating, granting, and blazoning arms and ruling on questions of rank or protocol

Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings, as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree. Armory, the best-known branch of heraldry, concerns the design and transmission of the heraldic achievement. The achievement, or armorial bearings usually includes a coat of arms on an shield, helmet, and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, badges, heraldic banners, and mottoes.

House of Plantagenet Royal dynasty in medieval England

The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The name Plantagenet is used by modern historians to identify four distinct royal houses: the Angevins, who were also counts of Anjou; the main body of the Plantagenets following the loss of Anjou; and the Plantagenets' two cadet branches, the houses of Lancaster and York. The family held the English throne from 1154, with the accession of Henry II, until 1485, when Richard III died in battle.

Contents

Although in England the official blazon refers to "lions", French heralds historically used the term "leopard" to represent the lion passant guardant, and hence the arms of England, no doubt, are more correctly blazoned, "leopards". Without doubt the same animal was intended, but different names were given according to the position; in later times the name lion was given to both. [6]

Royal emblems depicting lions were first used by Danish Vikings, [7] Saxons (Lions were adopted in Germanic tradition around the 5th century, [8] they were re-interpreted in a Christian context in the western kingdoms of Gaul and Northern Italy in the 6th and 7th centuries) and Normans. [9] [10] [11] Later, with Plantagenets a formal and consistent English heraldry system emerged at the end of the 12th century. The earliest surviving representation of an escutcheon, or shield, displaying three lions is that on the Great Seal of King Richard I (1189–1199), which initially displayed one or two lions rampant, but in 1198 was permanently altered to depict three lions passant, perhaps representing Richard I's principal three positions as King of the English, Duke of the Normans, and Duke of the Aquitanians. [5] [9] [10] [11] In 1340, Edward III laid claim to the throne of France, and thus adopted the Royal arms of France which he quartered with his paternal arms, the Royal Arms of England. [9] He placed the French arms in the 1st and 4th quarters. This quartering was adjusted, abandoned and restored intermittently throughout the Middle Ages as the relationship between England and France changed. When the French king altered his arms from semée of fleur-de-lys, to only three, the English quartering eventually followed suit. After the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland entered a personal union, the arms of England and Scotland were marshalled (combined) in what has now become the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. [12] It appears in a similar capacity to represent England in the Arms of Canada and on the Queen's Personal Canadian Flag. [13] The coat of three lions continues to represent England on several coins of the pound sterling, forms the basis of several emblems of English national sports teams [14] [15] (although with altered tinctures) and endures as one of the most recognisable national symbols of England. [3]

Francia territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks, or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom in Western Europe. It was ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. It is the predecessor of the modern states of France and Germany. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, West Francia became the predecessor of France, and East Francia became that of Germany. Francia was among the last surviving Germanic kingdoms from the Migration Period era before its partition in 843.

Kingdom of the Lombards former country

The Kingdom of the Lombards also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy, was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century. The king was traditionally elected by the highest-ranking aristocrats, the dukes, as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed. The kingdom was subdivided into a varying number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes, which were in turn subdivided into gastaldates at the municipal level. The capital of the kingdom and the center of its political life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy.

English heraldry

English heraldry is the form of coats of arms and other heraldic bearings and insignia used in England. It lies within the so-called Gallo-British tradition. Coats of arms in England are regulated and granted to individuals by the English kings of arms of the College of Arms. An individual's arms may also be borne ‘by courtesy' by members of the holder's nuclear family, subject to a system of cadency marks, to difference those displays from the arms of the original holder. The English heraldic style is exemplified in the arms of British royalty, and is reflected in the civic arms of cities and towns, as well as the noble arms of individuals in England. Royal orders in England, such as the Order of the Garter, also maintain notable heraldic bearings.

When the Royal Arms are in the format of an heraldic flag, it is variously known as the Royal Banner of England, [16] the Banner of the Royal Arms, [17] the Banner of the King (Queen) of England, [18] [19] or by the misnomer the Royal Standard of England. [note 1] This Royal Banner differs from England's national flag, the St George's Cross, in that it does not represent any particular area or land, but rather symbolises the sovereignty vested in the rulers thereof. [4]

Heraldic flag

In heraldry and vexillology, a heraldic flag is a flag containing coats of arms, heraldic badges, or other devices used for personal identification.

A misnomer is a name that is incorrectly applied to a thing. Misnomers often arise because something was named long before its correct nature was known, or because an earlier form of something has been replaced by something to which the name no longer applies. A misnomer may also be simply a word that someone uses incorrectly or misleadingly. The word "misnomer" does not mean "misunderstanding" or "popular misconception", and a number of misnomers remain in common usage — which is to say, the fact of a word being a misnomer does not necessarily make usage of the word incorrect.

National flag flag of a country or nation

A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a country. The national flag is flown by the government of a country, but can usually also be flown by citizens of the country. A national flag is designed with specific meanings for its colours and symbols. The colours of the national flag may be worn by the people of a nation to show their patriotism, or related paraphernalia that show the symbols or colours of the flag may be used for those purposes.

History

Origins

The second Great Seal of King Richard the Lionheart (1189-1199) was the first Royal emblem of England to feature three lions Richard I 2nd seal.png
The second Great Seal of King Richard the Lionheart (1189–1199) was the first Royal emblem of England to feature three lions
The three lions passants guardants or attributed to William I and his successors Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, John and Henry III by Matthew Paris in Historia Anglorum and Chronica Majora in the 1250s. Henry III, King of England, coat of arms (Royal MS 14 C VII, 100r).jpg
The three lions passants guardants or attributed to William I and his successors Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, John and Henry III by Matthew Paris in Historia Anglorum and Chronica Majora in the 1250s.

The first documented use of royal arms dates from the reign of Richard I (1189–1199). Much later antiquarians would retrospectively invented attributed arms for earlier kings, but their reigns pre-dated the systematisation of hereditary English heraldry that only occurred in the second half of the 12th century. [9] Lions may have been used as a badge by members of the Norman dynasty: a late-12th century chronicler reports that in 1128, Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, and gave him a gold lion badge. The memorial enamel created to decorate Geoffrey's tomb depicts a blue coat of arms bearing gold lions. His son, Henry II (1133–1189) used a lion as his emblem, and based on the arms used by his sons and other relatives, he may have used a coat of arms with a single lion or two lions, though no direct testimony of this has been found. [21] His children experimented with different combinations of lions on their arms. Richard I (1189–1199) used a single lion rampant, or perhaps two lions affrontés, on his first seal, [5] but later used three lions passant in his 1198 Great Seal of England, and thus established the lasting design of the Royal Arms of England. [5] [21] In 1177, his brother John had used a seal depicting a shield with two lions passant guardant, but when he succeeded his brother on the English throne he would adopt arms with three lions passant or on a field gules, and these were then used, unchanged, as the royal arms ('King's Arms') by him and his successors until 1340. [5]

Attributed arms

Attributed arms are Western European coats of arms given retrospectively to persons real or fictitious who died before the start of the age of heraldry in the latter half of the 12th century. Arms were assigned to the knights of the Round Table, and then to biblical figures, to Roman and Greek heroes, and to kings and popes who had not historically borne arms. Each author could attribute different arms for the same person, but the arms for major figures soon became fixed.

Henry I of England 12th-century King of England and Duke of Normandy

Henry I, also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. Henry was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England, respectively, but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry gradually rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, and he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. Henry married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a large number of mistresses by whom he had many illegitimate children.

Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou Duke of Normandy

Geoffrey V —called the Handsome or the Fair and Plantagenet—was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage to the Empress Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England, Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle, who succeeded to the English throne as King Henry II (1154–1189) and was the first of the Plantagenet dynasty to rule England; the name "Plantagenet" was taken from Geoffrey's epithet. His ancestral domain of Anjou gave rise to the name Angevin for three kings of England, and what became known as the Angevin Empire in the 12th century.

Development

In 1340, following the extinction of the House of Capet, Edward III claimed the French throne. In addition to initiating the Hundred Years' War, Edward III expressed his claim in heraldic form by quartering the royal arms of England with the Arms of France. This quartering continued until 1801, with intervals in 1360–1369 and 1420–1422. [5]

House of Capet rulers of the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328, was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians and, also called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian". The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings". The name "Capet" derives from the nickname given to Hugh, the first Capetian King, who became known as Hugh Capet.

English claims to the French throne Wikimedia list article

From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England also claimed the throne of France. The claim dates from Edward III, who claimed the French throne in 1340 as the sororal nephew of the last direct Capetian, Charles IV. Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, and were briefly successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was ultimately victorious and retained control of France. Despite this, English and British monarchs continued to prominently call themselves kings of France, and the French fleur-de-lys was included in the royal arms. This continued until 1801, by which time France no longer had any monarch, having become a republic. The Jacobite claimants, however, did not explicitly relinquish the claim.

Hundred Years War Series of conflicts and wars between England and France during the 14th and 15th-century

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.

Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the throne of England was inherited by the Scottish House of Stuart, resulting in the Union of the Crowns: the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland were united in a personal union under James VI and I. [22] As a consequence, the Royal Arms of England and Scotland were combined in the king's new personal arms. Nevertheless, although referencing the personal union with Scotland and Ireland, the Royal Arms of England remained distinct from the Royal Arms of Scotland, until the two realms were joined in a political union in 1707, leading to a unified Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. [12]

Kingdom of England
(Under personal union with the Kingdom of Scotland from 1603–1707)
EscutcheonPeriodDescription
Richard I 1st seal.png
1189–1198The arms of Richard I are only known from two armorial seals, and hence the tinctures can not be determined. His First Great Seal showed one lion on half of the shield. It is debated whether this was meant to represent two lions combatant or a single lion, and if the latter, whether the direction in which the lion is facing is relevant or simply an artistic liberty. A simple lion rampant is most likely. [23]
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
1198–1340
1360–1369
The arms on the second Great Seal of Richard I, used by his successors until 1340: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or (Three golden lions on a red field, representing the ruler of the Kingdom of England, Duchy of Normandy and the Duchy of Aquitaine). [5] [9]
Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg
1340–1360
1369–1395
1399–1406
Edward III adopted the Royal Arms of France Azure semé of fleurs de lys or (powdering of fleurs-de-lis on a blue field) – representing his claim to the French throne - and quartered the Royal Arms of England.
Royal Arms of England (1395-1399).svg
1395–1399 Richard II adopted the attributed arms of King Edward the Confessor which he impaled with the Royal Arms of England, denoting a mystical union.
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
1406–1422 Henry IV abandoned the attributed arms of King Edward the Confessor, and reduced the fleurs-de-lis to three, in imitation of Charles VI of France. [9] [24]
Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg
1422–1461
1470–1471
Henry VI impaled the arms of France with those of England, symbolising the dual monarchy.
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
1461–1470
1471–1554
Edward IV restored the arms of Henry IV. [24]
Royal Arms of England (1554-1558).svg
1554–1558 Mary I and Philip impaled their arms. Philip's arms were: A. Arms quarterly Castile and Leon, B. per pale Aragon and Aragon-Sicily, the whole enté en point Granada; in base quarterly Austria, Burgundy ancient, Burgundy modern and Brabant, with an escutcheon (in the nombril point ) per pale Flanders and Tyrol. [9] [24] Although Queen Mary I's father, King Henry VIII, assumed the title of King of Ireland and this was further conferred upon King Philip, the arms were not altered to feature the Kingdom of Ireland.
Arms of Philip II of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1554-1558).svg As sovereigns of Milan, Mary and Philip added an escutcheon of the Duchy of Milan used since the time of the Sforza: It presented the Biscione, an azure serpent in the act of consuming a human, showing in argent and quartering with the Imperial eagle (the earlier single-headed) on a shield or. The order in what are shown the English and French arms on English quarters is altered respect the usual due to French Claims to the Duchy. [25]
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
1558–1603 Elizabeth I restored the arms of Henry IV. [9]
Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg
1603–1649
1660–1689
James I inherited the English throne in 1603, establishing a union with Scotland, and quartered the Royal Arms of England with those of Scotland. The Royal Arms of Ireland was added to represent the Kingdom of Ireland. Last used by Anne, this was the final version of the Royal Arms of England before being subsumed into the Royal Arms of Great Britain. [9] [24]
Royal Arms of England (1689-1694).svg
1689–1694 James II was deposed and replaced with his daughter Mary II and son-in-law and nephew William III. As co-monarchs, they impaled their arms: William bore the Royal Arms with the addition of an escutcheon of Nassau (the royal house to which William belonged): Azure billetty or, a lion rampant of the last armed and langued gules, while Mary bore the Royal Arms undifferenced. [26]
Royal Arms of England (1694-1702).svg
1694–1702After the death of Mary II, William III reigned alone, and used his arms only. [9]
Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg
1702–1707 Anne inherited the throne upon the death of William III, and the Royal Arms returned to the 1603 version. [9]

Union with Scotland and Ireland

The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom as used by Queen Elizabeth II from 1953 contains that of England in the first and fourth quarters Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom as used by Queen Elizabeth II from 1953 contains that of England in the first and fourth quarters

On 1 May 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to form that of Great Britain; this was reflected by impaling their arms in a single quarter. The claim to the French throne continued, albeit passively, until it was mooted by the French Revolution and the formation of the French First Republic in 1792. [5] During the peace negotiations at the Conference of Lille, from July to November 1797, the French delegates demanded that the King of Great Britain abandon the title of King of France as a condition of peace. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Under King George III of the United Kingdom, a proclamation of 1 January 1801 set the royal style and titles and modified the Royal Arms, removing the French quarter and putting the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland on the same structural level, with the dynastic arms of Hanover moved to an inescutcheon. [5]

Kingdom of Great Britain (and later, of Great Britain and Ireland)
EscutcheonPeriodDescription
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg
1707–1714The impaled arms of England and Scotland reflecting their merging into one kingdom of "Great Britain".
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
1714–1801The English and Scottish lions in the 4th quarter were replaced with a set of arms showing the origins of the House of Hanover as a result of the Act of Settlement.
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg
1801–1816The arms showing the status of the constituent realms of the United Kingdom: England, Scotland and Ireland. The Hanoverian dynastic arms have been moved to an inescutcheon with an electoral bonnet.
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
1816–1837The arms showing Hanover raised to the status of a kingdom after the Napoleonic wars.
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
1837–presentThe Hanoverian dynastic arms have been dropped on the accession of Queen Victoria. As Hanover followed the salic law, she could not accede to the throne of Hanover.

Contemporary

English heraldry flourished as a working art up to around the 17th century, when it assumed a mainly ceremonial role. [5] The Royal Arms of England continued to embody information relating to English history. [5] Although the Acts of Union 1707 placed England within the Kingdom of Great Britain, prompting new, British Royal Arms, the Royal Arms of England are still used occasionally in an official capacity, [27] and has continued to endure as one of the national symbols of England, [3] and has a variety of active uses. For instance, the coats of arms of both The Football Association [14] [28] and the England and Wales Cricket Board [29] have a design featuring three lions passant, based on the historic Royal Arms of England. In 1997 (and again in 2002), the Royal Mint issued a British one pound (£1) coin featuring three lions passant to represent England. [30] To celebrate St George's Day, in 2001, Royal Mail issued first– and second-class postage stamps with the Royal Crest of England (a crowned lion), and the Royal Arms of England (three lions passant) respectively. [31]

Crest, supporters and other parts of the achievement

Various accessories to the escutcheon (shield) were added and modified by successive English monarchs. These included a crest (with mantling, helm and crown); supporters (with a compartment); a motto; and the insignia of an order of knighthood. These various components made up the full achievement of arms. [24]

Royal crest

The original royal crest as introduced by Edward III, borne upon a chapeau and with a red mantling lined in ermine. The steel helm has gold embellishments. Coat of Arms of England (-1340).svg
The original royal crest as introduced by Edward III, borne upon a chapeau and with a red mantling lined in ermine. The steel helm has gold embellishments.

The first addition to the shield was in the form of a crest borne above the shield. It was during the reign of Edward III that the crest began to be widely used in English heraldry. The first representation of a royal crest was in Edward's third Great Seal, which showed a helm above the arms, and thereon a gold lion passant guardant standing upon a chapeau, and bearing a royal crown on its head. [33] The design underwent minor variations until it took on its present form in the reign of Henry VIII: "The Royal Crown proper, thereon a lion statant guardant Or, royally crowned also proper". [33]

The exact form of crown used in the crest varied over time. Until the reign of Henry VI it was usually shown as an open circlet adorned with fleurs-de-lys or stylised leaves. On Henry's first seal for foreign affairs the design was altered with the circlet decorated by alternating crosses formy and fleurs-de-lys. From the reign of Edward IV the crown bore a single arch, altered to a double arch by Henry VII. The design varied in details until the late 17th century, but since that time has consisted of a jewelled circlet, above which are alternating crosses formy and fleurs-de-lys. From this spring two arches decorated with pearls, and at their intersection an orb surmounted by a cross formy. [33] A cap of crimson velvet is shown within the crown, with the cap's ermine lining appearing at the base of the crown in lieu of a torse. [33] The shape of the arches of the crown has been represented differently at different times, and can help to date a depiction of the crest. [33]

The helm on which the crest was borne was originally a simple steel design, sometimes with gold embellishments. In the reign of Elizabeth I a pattern of helm unique to the Royal Arms was introduced. This is a gold helm with a barred visor, facing the viewer. [34] The decorative mantling (a stylised cloth cloak that hangs from the helm) was originally of red cloth lined with ermine, but was altered to cloth of gold lined ermine by Elizabeth. [34]

Supporters

The supporters of the Royal Arms of England, such as the dragon and greyhound seen here at King's College, Cambridge, can identify specific monarchs and assist with dating ancient buildings. Royal Arms of England at King's College, Cambridge (cropped).jpg
The supporters of the Royal Arms of England, such as the dragon and greyhound seen here at King's College, Cambridge, can identify specific monarchs and assist with dating ancient buildings.

Animal supporters, standing on either side of the shield to hold and guard it, first appeared in English heraldry in the 15th century. Originally, they were not regarded as an integral part of arms, and were subject to frequent change. Various animals were sporadically shown supporting the Royal Arms of England, but it was only with the reign of Edward IV that their use became consistent. Supporters fell under the regulation of the Kings of Arms in the Tudor period. The heralds of that time also prochronistically created supporters for earlier monarchs, and although these attributed supporters were never used by the monarchs concerned, they were later used to signify them on public buildings or monuments completed after their deaths, for instance at St. George's Chapel, in Windsor Castle. [35] [36]

The boar adopted by Richard III prompted William Collingbourne's quip "The Rat, the Cat, and Lovell the Dog, Rule all England under the Hog", [note 2] [24] and William Shakespeare's derision in Richard III . [note 3] [37] The red dragon, a symbol of the Tudor dynasty, was added upon the accession of Henry VII, and used by Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. [24] After the Union of the Crowns, the supporters of the arms of the British monarch became—and have remained—the Lion and the Unicorn, representing England and Scotland respectively. [24]

Garter and motto

Edward III founded the Order of the Garter in about 1348. Since then, the full achievement of the Royal Arms has included a representation of the Garter, encircling the shield. This is a blue circlet with gold buckle and edging, bearing the order's Old French motto Honi soit qui mal y pense ("Shame be to him who thinks evil of it") in gold capital letters. [34]

A motto, placed on a scroll below the Royal Arms of England, seems to have first been adopted by Henry IV in the early 15th century. His motto was Souverayne ("sovereign"). [34] His son, Henry V adopted the motto Dieu et mon droit ("God and my right"). While this motto has been exclusively used since the accession of George I in 1714, and continues to form part of the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom, other mottoes were used by certain monarchs in the intervening period. [34] Veritas temporis filia ("truth is the daughter of time") was the motto of Mary I (1553–1558), Semper Eadem ("always the same") was used by Elizabeth I (1558–1603) and Anne (1702–1714), James I (1603–1625) sometimes used Beati pacifici ("blessed are the peacemakers"), while William III (1689–1702) used the motto of the House of Orange: Je maintiendrai ("I will maintain"). [34]

As a banner

At her funeral, the bier of Elizabeth I is accompanied by the banners of her royal ancestors, each banner being impaled: Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, John and Isabella of Angouleme, Henry III and Eleanor of Provence, Edward I and Eleanor of Castile, Edward II and Isabella of France, Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, Edmund of Langley and Isabella of Castile, Richard of Conisburgh and Anne de Mortimer, Richard duke of York and Cicely Neville, Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Funeral Elisabeth (cropped).jpg
At her funeral, the bier of Elizabeth I is accompanied by the banners of her royal ancestors, each banner being impaled: Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry III and Eleanor of Provence, Edward I and Eleanor of Castile, Edward II and Isabella of France, Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, Edmund of Langley and Isabella of Castile, Richard of Conisburgh and Anne de Mortimer, Richard duke of York and Cicely Neville, Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.

The Royal Banner of England is the English banner of arms and so has always borne the Royal Arms of England—the personal arms of England's reigning monarch. When displayed in war or battle, this banner signalled that the sovereign was present in person. [20] Because the Royal Banner depicted the Royal Arms of England, its design and composition changed throughout the Middle Ages. [20] It is variously known as the Royal Banner of England, the Banner of the Royal Arms, [17] the Banner of the King of England, or by the misnomer of the Royal Standard of England; Arthur Charles Fox-Davies explains that it is "a misnomer to term the banner of the Royal Arms the Royal Standard", because "the term standard properly refers to the long tapering flag used in battle, by which an overlord mustered his retainers in battle". [17] The archaeologist and antiquarian Charles Boutell also makes this distinction. [20] This Royal Banner differs from England's national flag, St George's Cross, in that it does not represent any particular area or land, but rather symbolises the sovereignty vested in the rulers thereof. [4]

In other banners

Other roles and manifestations

The Arms of Faversham Town Council is an example of the Royal Arms of England modified into a distinct civic emblem. Arms of Faversham Town Council.png
The Arms of Faversham Town Council is an example of the Royal Arms of England modified into a distinct civic emblem.

Several ancient English towns displayed the Royal Arms of England upon their seals and, when it occurred to them to adopt insignia of their own, used the Royal Arms, albeit with modification, as their inspiration. [40] For instance, in the arms of New Romney, the field is changed from red to blue. [40] Hereford changes the lions from gold to silver, and in the 17th century was granted a blue border charged with silver saltires in allusion to its siege by a Scottish army during the English Civil War. [40] The town council of Faversham changes only the hindquarters of the three lions to silver. [39] Berkshire County Council bore arms with two golden lions in reference to its royal patronage and the Norman kings' influence upon the early history of Berkshire. [40]

The Royal Arms of England features on the tabard, the distinctive traditional garment of English officers of arms. [41] These garments were worn by heralds when performing their original duties—making royal or state proclamations and announcing tournaments. Since 1484 they have been part of the Royal Household. [42] Tabards featuring the Royal Arms continue to be worn at several traditional ceremonies, such as the annual procession and service of the Order of the Garter at Windsor Castle, the State Opening of Parliament at the Palace of Westminster, the coronation of the British monarch at Westminster Abbey, and state funerals in the United Kingdom. [41]

See also

Notes

  1. In A Complete Guide to Heraldry (1909), Arthur Charles Fox-Davies explains: The archaeologist and antiquarian Charles Boutell also makes this distinction. [20]
  2. This was a pun on Richard III (the Hog) and three of his staunchest supporters, Richard Ratcliffe (the Rat), William Catesby (the Cat) and Francis Lovell (the Dog).
  3. For instance, in Act 1, Scene III of Richard III , Margaret, Queen consort of England describes Richard as "Thou elvish-mark'd, abortive, rooting hog!"

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References

Citations

  1. King Henry II (1154-1189) used proto-heraldic arms, showing one or two lions
  2. Jamieson 1998 , pp. 14–15.
  3. 1 2 3 Boutell 1859 , p. 373: "The three golden lions upon a ground of red have certainly continued to be the royal and national arms of England."
  4. 1 2 3 Fox-Davies 2008 , p. 607.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 The First Foot Guards. "Coat of Arms of King George III". footguards.tripod.com. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
  6. Parker, James. "A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry". A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  7. "significant pre-figuration of medieval heraldry" John Onians, Atlas of World Art (2004), p. 58.
  8. Danuta Shanzer, Ralph W Mathisen, Romans, Barbarians, and the Transformation of the Roman World: Cultural Interaction and the Creation of Identity in Late Antiquity, (2013) p. 322.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Brooke-Little 1950 , pp. 205–222
  10. 1 2 Brooke-Little 1981 , pp. 3–6
  11. 1 2 Paston-Bedingfield & Gwynn-Jones 1993 , pp. 114–115.
  12. 1 2 The Royal Household. "Union Jack". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  13. The Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges of Canada. "The Flag of Her Majesty the Queen for personal use in Canada". gg.ca. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  14. 1 2 3 Briggs 1971, pp. 166–167.
  15. 1 2 Ingle, Sean (18 July 2002). "Why do England have three lions on their shirts?". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  16. Thompson 2001 , p. 91.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Fox-Davies 1909, p. 474.
  18. Keightley 1834 , p. 310.
  19. James 2009 , p. 247.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Boutell 1859 , pp. 373–377.
  21. 1 2 Ailes, Adrian (1982). The Origins of The Royal Arms of England. Reading: Graduate Center for Medieval Studies, University of Reading. pp. 52–63.
  22. Ross 2002 , p. 56.
  23. Ailes. pp. 52–3, 64–74.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Knight 1835 , pp. 148–150.
  25. (in Spanish) Francisco Olmos, José María de. «Las primeras acuñaciones del príncipe Felipe de España (1554–1556): Soberano de Milán Nápoles e Inglaterra». «The First Coins of Prince Philip of Spain (1554–1556): Sovereign of Milan, Naples and England», pp. 165–166. Documenta & Instrumenta, 3 (2005). Madrid, Universidad Complutense. PP. 155–186.
  26. Arnaud Bunel's Héraldique européenne site [ permanent dead link ]
  27. "The Grand Procession", When the Queen was Crowned (1976), Brian Barker O.B.E.
  28. "England Football Online – The Three Lions". englandfootballonline.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  29. England Wales Cricket Board
  30. 1 2 Royal Mint (2010). "The United Kingdom £1 Coin". royalmint.com. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  31. "Three lions replace The Queen on stamps". telegraph.co.uk. 6 March 2001. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  32. Why Do England’s Cricketers Wear the Iconic Crest on Their Chest? Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 10 September 2012. The Cricket Blog.
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 Brooke-Little 1981 , pp. 4–8.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Brooke-Little 1981 , p. 16.
  35. Brooke-Little 1981 , p. 9.
  36. Paston-Bedingfield & Gwynn-Jones 1993 , p. 117.
  37. Hall 1853 , p. 74.
  38. Woodward 1997 , pp. 50–54.
  39. 1 2 Faversham Town Council (2010). "Faversham Coat of Arms". The Faversham Website. faversham.org. Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  40. 1 2 3 4 5 Scott-Giles 1953 , p. 11.
  41. 1 2 College of Arms. "The history of the Royal heralds and the College of Arms". college-of-arms.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  42. Elston, Laura (8 September 2009). "Herald's tabard". The Independent . independent.co.uk. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  43. Sumner 2001 , p. 9.
  44. "The name and arms of the College". oriel.ox.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2010.

Sources