Royal S. Copeland

Last updated
Royal S. Copeland
Royal Samuel Copeland in 1920.jpg
Copeland in 1920
United States Senator
from New York
In office
March 4, 1923 June 17, 1938
Preceded by William M. Calder
Succeeded by James M. Mead
Personal details
Born
Royal Samuel Copeland

(1868-11-07)November 7, 1868
Dexter, Michigan
DiedJune 17, 1938(1938-06-17) (aged 69)
Washington, D.C.
Political party Republican (before 1922)
Democratic (1922–1938)
Alma mater University of Michigan

Royal Samuel Copeland (November 7, 1868 June 17, 1938), a United States Senator from New York from 1923 until 1938, was an academic, homeopathic physician, and politician. He held elected offices in both Michigan (as a Republican) and New York (as a Democrat). [1]

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

Homeopathy Pseudoscientific system of alternative medicine based on the doctrine of "like cures like"

Homeopathy or homœopathy is a pseudoscientific system of alternative medicine. It was created in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann. Its practitioners, called homeopaths, believe that a substance that causes symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people; this doctrine is called similia similibus curentur, or "like cures like". Homeopathic preparations are termed remedies and are made using a process of homeopathic dilution, in which a chosen substance is repeatedly diluted in alcohol or water, typically until nothing of the original substance remains in the product. Practitioners select remedies by consulting reference books known as repertories, and claim that these remedies, upon oral intake, can treat or cure disease.

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.

Contents

Early life and medical career

Born in Dexter, Michigan, to parents Roscoe P. Copeland and Frances J. Holmes, Royal Copeland graduated from the Michigan State Normal College (now Eastern Michigan University) with a bachelor's degree. In 1888, he taught school in Sylvan Township, Michigan. He graduated in 1889 from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor with a degree in medicine. After graduate studies in Europe, Copeland practiced medicine in Bay City, Michigan, from 1890 to 1895. Copeland was admitted to the Homeopathy Society of Michigan on May 21, 1890, and was made secretary of the society in October 1893. He was a professor of Ophthalmology and Otology in the University of Michigan Medical School's Homeopathic Department from 1895 until 1908.

Dexter, Michigan City in Michigan, United States

Dexter is a city in Washtenaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan. Originally a village, Dexter residents voted to adopt a city charter in November 2014. The population was 4,067 at the 2010 census. Between 2000 and 2010, Dexter's population grew 73.9%, making it one of the fastest growing communities in the state.

Eastern Michigan University comprehensive, co-educational public university in Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States

Eastern Michigan University (EMU) is a public research university in Ypsilanti, Michigan. The university was founded in 1849 as Michigan State Normal School. Today, the university is governed by an eight-member Board of Regents whose members are appointed by the governor of Michigan for eight-year terms. The school belongs to the Mid-American Conference and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Since 1991 EMU athletes have been known as "Eagles" and the school mascot, Swoop, was officially adopted by the university three years later.

Sylvan Township, Washtenaw County, Michigan Civil township in Michigan, United States

Sylvan Township is a civil township of Washtenaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 2,833 at the 2010 census, down from 6,425 in 2000. The large drop is due to Chelsea incorporating into a city in 2004.

Political career in Michigan

During his time as a medical professor in Ann Arbor, Copeland was active in municipal politics. He served as Republican mayor of Ann Arbor from 1901 to 1903, as president of the Ann Arbor Board of Education from 1907 to 1908, and as president of the Ann Arbor Board of Park Commissioners.[ citation needed ]

Ann Arbor, Michigan City in Michigan, United States

Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934.

Republican Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Political career in New York

On July 15, 1908, Copeland married Frances Spalding. The same year, Copeland moved to New York City to take a position as dean at the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Flower Hospital, [2] a position he left in 1918 to serve as President of the New York City Board of Health. He gained much positive public attention for keeping New York City residents calm during the influenza outbreak of 1918. [3]

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually referred to as either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

New York Medical College

New York Medical College is a private biomedical health sciences university based in Valhalla, New York. Founded in 1860, it is a member of the Touro College and University System.

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) is the department of the government of New York City responsible for public health along with issuing birth certificates, dog licenses, and conducting restaurant inspection and enforcement. The New York City Board of Health is part of the department. Its regulations are compiled in title 24 of the New York City Rules. Since September 1, 2018, the commissioner has been Dr. Oxiris Barbot.

In 1922, Copeland ran as a Democrat for the U.S. Senate, defeating first-term Republican Senator William M. Calder. Franklin D. Roosevelt served as his honorary campaign manager for this election. [3] [4] Copeland was re-elected in 1928 over Republican challenger Alanson B. Houghton, the U.S. Ambassador to Britain and a former U.S. Representative. Copeland was again re-elected in 1934, this time defeating future U.S. Congressman E. Harold Cluett. [5]

1922 New York state election

The 1922 New York state election was held on November 7, 1922, to elect the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, the Secretary of State, the State Comptroller, the Attorney General, the State Treasurer, the State Engineer and a U.S. Senator, as well as all members of the New York State Assembly and the New York State Senate. Besides, two amendments to the State Constitution were proposed.

Democratic Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main rival, the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.

William M. Calder American politician

William Musgrave Calder I was an American politician from New York.

During his three terms in the Senate, Copeland served as chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration from 1933 to 1936 and chairman of the Committee on Commerce from 1935 to 1938. In 1935-1936 Copeland served as Chairman of the highly controversial Copeland Committee, which gave a scathing review of air traffic safety and the operation of the Bureau of Air Commerce. Copeland served as primary author and sponsor of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 which entrenched special protections for pseudoscientific homeopaths. He was the primary sponsor of the Copeland "Anti-kickback" Act, which targeted kickbacks to federal contractors, subcontractors and officials from construction employees. [6]

The Copeland Committee was organized to investigate air traffic safety and the operations of the Bureau of Air Commerce by Congress. There were a number of factors that prompted Congress to commission this report including the TWA airline crash outside of Kansas City on May 6, 1935 that killed five people including Senator Bronson M. Cutting of New Mexico. The Senate appointed Royal S. Copeland to head the committee. The preliminary report gave a scathing account of the Bureau of Air Commerce for providing insufficient funding and maintenance of airway navigation aids.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Acts of the United States Congress that authorized the Food and Drug Administration to oversee the safety of food, drugs, medical devices, and cosmetics

The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, medical devices, and cosmetics. A principal author of this law was Royal S. Copeland, a three-term U.S. Senator from New York. In 1968, the Electronic Product Radiation Control provisions were added to the FD&C. Also in that year the FDA formed the Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) to incorporate into FD&C regulations the recommendations from a National Academy of Sciences investigation of effectiveness of previously marketed drugs. The act has been amended many times, most recently to add requirements about bioterrorism preparations.

Copeland "Anti-kickback" Act

The Copeland "Anti-kickback" Act is a U.S. labor law and act of Congress that supplemented the Davis–Bacon Act of 1931. It prohibits a federal building contractor or subcontractor from inducing an employee into giving up any part of the compensation that he or she is entitled to under the terms of his or her employment contract. The Copeland Act also incorporated provisions of President Hoover's executive order no. 5778, requiring employers to file weekly compliance reports.

Copeland was close to the regular Democratic organization in New York, the boss-led Tammany Hall. He was a conservative Democrat and not especially supportive of the New Deal policies of his fellow New Yorker, Franklin Roosevelt. He was also a friend of Harry S. Truman when they both served in the U.S. Senate. Copeland was known for his successful efforts to bring air conditioning to the Senate.

In 1937 he lost the Democratic nomination for Mayor of New York City to Judge Jeremiah T. Mahoney, and the Republican nomination to incumbent Republican Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia. [7]

Death

Senator Copeland died in office on June 17, 1938. [1] His funeral was at his home in Suffern, New York and he was buried in Mahwah, New Jersey. [8]

OfficeTypeLocationPartyElectedTook OfficeLeft Office
Mayor of Ann Arbor, Michigan Executive Ann Arbor, Michigan Republican 1900March 4, 1901March 4, 1903
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from New York Legislature Washington, DC Democrat 1922March 4, 1923March 4, 1929
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from New York Legislature Washington, DC Democrat 1928March 4, 1929March 4, 1935
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from New York Legislature Washington, DC Democrat 1934March 4, 1935June 17, 1938

Election results

YearOfficeSubjectPartyVotesPortionOpponentPartyVotesPortion
1922 U.S. Senator (Class 1) from New York Royal S. Copeland Democratic 1,276,66749.5% William M. Calder Republican 995,42138.6%
1928 U.S. Senator (Class 1) from New York Royal S. Copeland Democratic 2,084,27346.7% Alanson B. Houghton Republican 2,034,01445.6%
1934 U.S. Senator (Class 1) from New York Royal S. Copeland Democratic 2,046,37752.0% E. Harold Cluett Republican 1,363,44034.7%
1937Democratic nomination for Mayor of New York City Royal S. Copeland Democratic c. 200,0002/5Jeremiah T. Mahoney Democratic c. 400,0003/5
Republican nomination for Mayor of New York City Royal S. Copeland1/3 Fiorello H. LaGuardia Republican 2/3

Honors and society memberships

Copeland was a member of several honor societies and fraternal organizations, including the Pi Gamma Mu, international honor society in social sciences, which he served in various positions, Delta Kappa Epsilon, the New York Athletic Club, the National Democratic Club, the Elks, the Freemasons, the Knights Templar, the Shriners, the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, and the Sons of the American Revolution.[ citation needed ]

At various times Copeland served as President, Vice President, and Secretary of the Michigan Homeopathic Society; President of the American Ophthalmological, Otological, and Laryngological Society; President American Institute of Homeopathy; Vice President of the American Public Health Association; Member of the National Board of Control of Epworth League; President of the Michigan Epworth League; member of the Tuberculosis Commission of Michigan; trustee of Michigan State Tuberculosis Sanitarium; and he was elected three times to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church.[ citation needed ]

Publications

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "Senator Copeland Dies In Washington. Overwork Factor. Suffered Circulatory Collapse After Leaving Floor Just Before Adjournment". New York Times . June 18, 1938.
  2. "New York Homeopathic Medical College and Flower Hospital". The Independent. Jul 6, 1914. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  3. 1 2 Robins, Natalie (2005). Copeland's Cure: Homeopathy and the War Between Conventional and Alternative Medicine . New York: Knopf. pp.  154–166. New York did come out better than any other city in the nation
  4. Robert Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 14.
  5. Congressional Biography of E. Harold Cluett.
  6. Whittaker, William G. (November 30, 2007). "The Davis-Bacon Act: Institutional Evolution and Public Policy" (PDF). CRS report no. 94-408. United States Congressional Research Service. pp. 14–15, 41. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  7. "Perplexing Primary", TIME Magazine, Monday, September 27, 1937 (free access on May 28, 2008.)
  8. "Funeral to Be Held in Flower Garden on Suffern Estate. Burial in Mahwah, N. J." New York Times . June 19, 1938.
Political offices
Preceded by
Gottlob Luick
Mayor of Ann Arbor, Michigan
1901–1903
Succeeded by
Arthur Brown
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
William M. Calder
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from New York
1923–1938
Served alongside: James W. Wadsworth, Jr., Robert F. Wagner
Succeeded by
James M. Mead