|Individual at the San Diego Zoo|
Capra pygmaeaLinnaeus, 1758
The royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus) is a West African antelope recognized as the world's smallest antelope. It was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It stands up to merely 25 cm (10 in) at the shoulder and weighs 2.5–3 kg (5.5–6.6 lb). A characteristic feature is the long and slender legs, with the hindlegs twice as long as the forelegs. Horns are possessed only by males; the short, smooth, spiky horns measure 2.5–3 cm (0.98–1.18 in) and bend backward. The soft coat is reddish to golden brown, in sharp contrast with the white ventral parts. In comparison to Bates's pygmy antelope, the royal antelope has a longer muzzle, broader lips, a smaller mouth and smaller cheek muscles.
Typically nocturnal (active at night), the royal antelope exhibits remarkable alertness. Territories are marked with dung. A herbivore, the royal antelope prefers small quantities of fresh foliage and shoots; fruits and fungi may be taken occasionally. Like other neotragines, the royal antelope is monogamous. Both sexes can become sexually mature by as early as six months. Births have been reported in November and December. A single, delicate young is born after an unknown gestational period.
The royal antelope prefers areas with fresh and dense growth of shrubs and other plants. It inhabits the warm, moist lowland forests prevalent in western African countries such as Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The royal antelope has been categorized as Least Concern by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The populations are feared to be declining due to habitat deterioration and expanding human settlement. A significant threat to the survival of this antelope is hunting for bushmeat.
The vernacular name "royal antelope" is based on a statement made by Willem Bosman, a merchant associated with the Dutch West India Company, that the antelope was called "the king of the harts" (i.e., the king of the antelope) by locals. 
The scientific name is Neotragus pygmaeus /niːˈɒtrəɡəspɪɡˈmiːəs/ . It is placed in the genus Neotragus and the family Bovidae. It was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in the tenth edition of Systema Naturae (1758). German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas recognised two species – Tragulus pygmaeus and Antilope pygmaea. However, both of them were found to have the same type, the royal antelope. Hence these are treated as synonyms for N. pygmaeus. 
The generic name Neotragus consists of two Greek roots: νέος (néos), "new", and τράγος (trágos), "he-goat",  while the specific name pygmaeus comes from the Greek πυγμαῖος (pugmaîos), "pygmy, fist-sized".
The tribe Neotragini comprises a variety of dwarf antelopes apart from Neotragus – these include Dorcatragus (beira), Ourebia (oribi), Madoqua (dik dik), Oreotragus (klipspringer) and Raphicerus .  The tribe has been shown to be paraphyletic.   A 2014 phylogenetic analysis based on cytochrome b sequences and linear skull measurements showed polyphyly in Neotragus. The royal antelope is likely to have had an ancestor in common with the klipspringer and duikers (subfamily Cephalophinae). The genus Neotragus was formerly confused with the distantly related pygmy antelope genus Nesotragus (von Düben, 1846), from Greek νῆσος (nêsos), "island". 
The royal antelope is the smallest antelope and ruminant in the world.     It is also the smallest African ungulate, followed by Bates's pygmy antelope (Nesotragus batesi).    The royal antelope reaches merely 25 cm (9.8 in) at the shoulder and weighs 2.5–3 kg (5.5–6.6 lb).  The head and body length is typically 40 cm (16 in). A characteristic feature is the long and slender legs, with the hindlegs twice as long as the forelegs – a remarkable similarity to a hare.  The thin tail, 5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) long, is white on the underside, ending in a white tuft. The species is sexually dimorphic, with females being larger than males. Only males possess horns, these being short, smooth, ventrally reflexed spikes measuring 2.5–3 cm (1.0–1.2 in) long.   
The soft coat is reddish to golden brown, in sharp contrast with the white ventral parts. A brown band runs across the chest, and a distinct rufous collar can be observed on the neck. The chin and the medial surfaces of the legs are also white. The face is characterised by large, round dark brown eyes, small translucent ears, a slim muzzle, and a large grayish pink rhinarium.   In comparison to Bates's pygmy antelope, the royal antelope has a longer muzzle, broader lips, a smaller mouth and smaller cheek muscles.
The royal antelope exhibits remarkable alertness, and consequently little is known about its behaviour. The animal will immediately seek cover if alarmed and flees as soon as the danger is very close. It can move swiftly, either by sprinting fast with the body low to the ground, or through strong leaps powered by the large, well-muscled hindlegs. It can cover 2.8 m (9.2 ft) in a single leap, and rise as high as 55 centimetres (22 in) above the ground.  It is typically nocturnal (active at night), though activity may also be observed during the day.  It generally rests or ruminates during the day.  Territories are marked with dung. The reduced size of the preorbital glands, which are used for scent-marking, could indicate that marking behavior is not very prominent in this antelope. 
A herbivore, the royal antelope prefers small quantities of fresh foliage and shoots; fruits and fungi may be taken occasionally. Though the antelope is considered to be nocturnal, zoologist Jonathan Kingdon holds that feeding occurs throughout the day, though some foraging may also be observed at night.  In comparison to Bates's pygmy antelope, the royal antelope has a longer muzzle, broader lips, a smaller mouth and smaller cheek muscles. These features do not allow complete digestion of lignified growth. Individuals may often move into new locations foraging for fresh growth. 
Like other neotragines, the royal antelope is monogamous, though polygamy has been occasionally observed.  Individuals of both sexes have been known to reach sexual maturity by six months of age.  Births have been reported in November and December. Typically a single, delicate offspring is born after an unknown gestational period, weighing 0.8–1 kg (1.8–2.2 lb) – nearly a third of an adult's weight. Young appear similar to adults in coloration.   The maximum lifespan of a captive royal antelope was estimated at six years and eight months by a 1993 study. 
The royal antelope prefers areas with fresh and dense growth of shrubs and other plants. It inhabits the warm, moist lowland forests prevalent in western African countries such as Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The animal's habitat also includes forest fringes and secondary forests. Its geographic range extends eastward from the Kounounkan Massif in southwestern Guinea through Sierra Leone, Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire to the Volta River in Ghana. The royal antelope may also be found in the region north to the forested areas of western Africa, which is marked by the interface of forest and savannah habitats.  
The royal antelope has been categorized as Least Concern by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). In 1999, the IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group estimated the total population to be about 62,000; however, this is likely to be an underestimate.  The populations are thought to be declining due to habitat deterioration and expanding human settlement. A significant threat to the survival of this antelope is hunting for bushmeat; it is seldom hunted in Sierra Leone and Liberia, whereas it is a major source of bushmeat in Côte d'Ivoire. Protected areas where the royal antelope occurs include the Tai National Park, Haut Bandama Fauna and Flora Reserve and Mabi-Yaya Classified Forest (Côte d'Ivoire); Kakum National Park and Assin-Attandanso Game Production Reserve (Ghana); Ziama and Diecke Forest Reserves (Guinea); Tiwai Island and Gola Rainforest National Park (Sierra Leone). 
A duiker is a small to medium-sized brown antelope native to sub-Saharan Africa, found in heavily wooded areas. The 22 extant species, including three sometimes considered to be subspecies of the other species, form the subfamily Cephalophinae or the tribe Cephalophini.
The African golden cat is a wild cat endemic to the rainforests of West and Central Africa. It is threatened due to deforestation and bushmeat hunting and listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. It is a close relative of both the caracal and the serval. Previously, it was placed in the genus Profelis. Its body size ranges from 61 to 101 cm with a 16 to 46 cm long tail.
The klipspringer is a small antelope found in eastern and southern Africa. The sole member of its genus and subfamily/tribe, the klipspringer was first described by German zoologist Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann in 1783. The klipspringer is a small, sturdy antelope; it reaches 43–60 centimetres at the shoulder and weighs from 8 to 18 kilograms. The coat of the klipspringer, yellowish gray to reddish brown, acts as an efficient camouflage in its rocky habitat. Unlike most other antelopes, the klipspringer has a thick and coarse coat with hollow, brittle hairs. The horns, short and spiky, typically measure 7.5–9 cm.
The Diana monkey is an Old World monkey found in the high canopy forests in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and western Côte d’Ivoire. Named for its white brow which is said to resemble the bow of the Roman goddess Diana, this black-grey guenon has a white throat, crescent-shaped browband, ruff and beard.
The gerenuk, also known as the giraffe gazelle, is a long-necked, medium-sized antelope found in parts of East Africa. The sole member of the genus Litocranius, the gerenuk was first described by the naturalist Victor Brooke in 1879. It is characterised by its long, slender neck and limbs. The antelope is 80–105 centimetres tall, and weighs between 18 and 52 kilograms. Two types of colouration are clearly visible on the smooth coat: the reddish brown back or the "saddle", and the lighter flanks, fawn to buff. The horns, present only on males, are lyre-shaped. Curving backward then slightly forward, these measure 25–44 cm.
In West Africa, the forest zone refers to the southern part of the region once covered by tropical rainforest. Sometimes this region is referred to as Guinea to distinguish it from the grassland-covered Sudan, drier Sahel and per-arid Sahara. it's is made-up of vegetation having mainly trees and consist of the following local biotic communities: -mangrove swamp forest -tropical rain forest.
The bay duiker, also known as the black-striped duiker and the black-backed duiker, is a forest-dwelling duiker native to western and southern Africa. It was first described by British zoologist John Edward Gray in 1846. Two subspecies are identified. The bay duiker is reddish-brown and has a moderate size. Both sexes reach 44–49 cm (17–19 in) at the shoulder. The sexes do not vary considerably in their weights, either; the typical weight range for this duiker is 18–23 kg (40–51 lb). Both sexes have a pair of spiky horns, measuring 5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in). A notable feature of this duiker is the well-pronounced solid stripe of black extending from the back of the head to the tail.
The black duiker, also known as tuba in Dyula, is a forest-dwelling duiker found in the southern parts of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria.
Jentink's duiker, also known as gidi-gidi in Krio and kaikulowulei in Mende, is a forest-dwelling duiker found in the southern parts of Liberia, southwestern Côte d'Ivoire, and scattered enclaves in Sierra Leone. It is named in honor of Fredericus Anna Jentink.
The water chevrotain, also known as the fanged deer, is a small ruminant found in tropical Africa. This is the only species in the genus Hyemoschus. It is the largest of the 10 species of chevrotains, basal even-toed ungulates which are similar to deer, but are barely larger than small dogs.
The oribi is a small antelope found in eastern, southern and western Africa. The sole member of its genus, it was described by the German zoologist Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann in 1783. While this is the only member in the genus Ourebia, eight subspecies are identified. The oribi reaches nearly 50–67 centimetres (20–26 in) at the shoulder and weighs 12–22 kilograms (26–49 lb). It possesses a slightly raised back, and long neck and limbs. The glossy, yellowish to rufous brown coat contrasts with the white chin, throat, underparts and rump. Only males possess horns; the thin, straight horns, 8–18 centimetres (3.1–7.1 in) long, are smooth at the tips and ringed at the base.
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The Hausa genet is a genet species native to West African savannas. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.
Bates's pygmy antelope, also known as the dwarf antelope, pygmy antelope or Bates' dwarf antelope, is a very small antelope living in the moist forest and brush of Central and West Africa. It is in the same genus as the suni.
The wildlife of Liberia consists of the flora and fauna of the Republic of Liberia. This West African nation has a long Atlantic coastline and a range of habitat types, with a corresponding diversity of plants and animals. Liberia is considered a biodiversity hotspot and has more intact forests characteristic of the Upper Guinea Massif than do neighbouring countries. There are 2000 species of vascular plants, approximately 140 species of mammals, and over 600 species of birds.
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