Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom

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Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Versions
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland).svg
Armiger Elizabeth II in Right of the United Kingdom
Adopted1837
Crest A golden lion, royally crowned and standing on a royal crown; gold and ermine mantling
Blazon Quarterly: 1 and 4 England, 2 Scotland, 3 Ireland; quarters for England and Scotland are exchanged in Scotland.
Supporters A golden lion and a silver unicorn
Compartment Tudor rose, Shamrock, and Thistle
Motto French: Dieu et mon droit
Order(s) Order of the Garter
Earlier version(s) see below
UseOn all Acts of Parliament; the cover of all UK passports; various government departments; adapted for the reverse of coins of the pound sterling (2008)

The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, [1] [2] currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch of the United Kingdom. Variants of the Royal Arms are used by other members of the British royal family; and by the British Government in connection with the administration and government of the country. In Scotland, there exists a separate version of the Royal Arms, a variant of which is used by the Scotland Office. The arms in banner form serve as basis for the monarch's official flag, known as the Royal Standard .

Coat of arms unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, family, state, organization or corporation.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

British royal family Family consisting of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom

The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British royal family.

Contents

In the standard variant used outside of Scotland, the shield is quartered, depicting in the first and fourth quarters the three passant guardant lions of England; in the second, the rampant lion and double tressure flory-counterflory of Scotland; and in the third, a harp for Ireland. [3] The crest is a statant guardant lion wearing the St Edward's Crown, himself on another representation of that crown. The dexter supporter is a likewise crowned English lion; the sinister, a Scottish unicorn. According to legend a free unicorn was considered a very dangerous beast; therefore the heraldic unicorn is chained, [4] as were both supporting unicorns in the royal coat of arms of Scotland.

Crest (heraldry) top component of an heraldic display

A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm. Originating in the decorative sculptures worn by knights in tournaments and, to a lesser extent, battles, crests became solely pictorial after the 16th century.

Lion (heraldry) element in heraldry

The lion is a common charge in heraldry. It traditionally symbolises courage, nobility, royalty, strength, stateliness and valour, because historically it has been regarded as the "king of beasts". Lion refers also to a Judeo-Christian symbolism. The Lion of Judah stands in the coat of arms of Jerusalem. Similar looking lion can be found e.g. in the coat of arms of the Swedish royal House of Bjelbo, from there in turn derived into the coat of arms of Finland, formerly belonging to Sweden, and many others examples for similar historical reasons.

St Edwards Crown Part of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom

St Edward's Crown is the centrepiece of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. Named after Saint Edward the Confessor, it has been traditionally used to crown English and British monarchs at their coronations since the 13th century.

In the greenery below, a thistle, Tudor rose and shamrock are depicted, representing Scotland, England and Ireland respectively. This armorial achievement comprises the motto, in French, of English monarchs, Dieu et mon Droit (God and my Right), which has descended to the present royal family as well as the Garter circlet which surrounds the shield, inscribed with the Order's motto, in French, Honi soit qui mal y pense (Shame on him who thinks evil). The official blazon of the Royal Arms is:

Thistle common name of a group of flowering plants

Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae. Prickles occur all over the plant – on the stem and flat parts of leaves. They are an adaptation that protects the plant from being eaten by herbivores. Typically, an involucre with a clasping shape of a cup or urn subtends each of a thistle's flowerheads.

Tudor rose heraldic badge

The Tudor rose is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster. The Tudor rose consists of five white inner petals, representing the House of York, and five red outer petals to represent the House of Lancaster.

Shamrock clover symbol

A shamrock is a young sprig, used as a symbol of Ireland. Saint Patrick, Ireland's patron saint, is said to have used it as a metaphor for the Christian Holy Trinity. The name shamrock comes from Irish seamróg[ˈʃamˠɾˠoːɡ], which is the diminutive of the Irish word and means simply "young clover".

Quarterly, first and fourth Gules three Lions passant gardant in pale Or armed and langued Azure (for England), second quarter Or a Lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland), third quarter Azure a Harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland), the whole surrounded by the Garter; for a Crest, upon the Royal helm the Imperial Crown Proper, thereon a Lion statant gardant Or imperially crowned Proper; Mantling Or and Ermine; for Supporters, dexter a Lion rampant gardant Or crowned as the Crest, sinister a Unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with a Coronet Or composed of Crosses patées and Fleurs-de-lis a Chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or. Motto "Dieu et mon Droit" in the compartment below the shield, with the Union Rose, Shamrock and Thistle engrafted on the same stem. [3]

Uses

The Royal Arms as used by the House of Stuart (these being of William III and Mary II (1688-1694/1702)) St Andrew's church - royal arms - geograph.org.uk - 1708484.jpg
The Royal Arms as used by the House of Stuart (these being of William III and Mary II (1688-1694/1702))

The Royal Arms as shown above may only be used by the Queen herself. They also appear in courtrooms, since the monarch is deemed to be the fount of judicial authority in the United Kingdom and law courts comprise part of the ancient royal court (thus so named). [5] Judges are officially Crown representatives, demonstrated by the display of the Royal Arms behind the judge's bench in almost all UK courts; notable exceptions include the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, which displays its own badge and flag to symbolize its nationwide role, the magistrates' court in the City of London, where behind the Justices of the Peace stands a sword upright flanked by the arms of the City and the Crown. In addition, the Royal Arms cannot be displayed in courtrooms or on court-house exteriors in Northern Ireland, except for the courtrooms of the Royal Courts of Justice in Belfast and the courts in Armagh, Banbridge, Downpatrick, Magherafelt, or Omagh, and the exterior of court buildings that had them in place prior to the 2002 law. [6]

Supreme Court of the United Kingdom Highest court of appeal in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and for limited matters in Scotland

The Supreme Court is the final court of appeal in the UK for civil cases, and for criminal cases from England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It hears cases of the greatest public or constitutional importance affecting the whole population.

City of London City and county in United Kingdom

The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London; however, the City of London is not a London borough, a status reserved for the other 32 districts. It is also a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom.

Northern Ireland Part of the United Kingdom lying in the north-east of the island of Ireland, created 1921

Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, and the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments".

As the United Kingdom is governed in the monarch's name, the British Government also uses the Royal Arms as a national symbol of the United Kingdom, [7] and, in that capacity, the coat of arms can be seen on several government documents and forms, passports, in the entrance to embassies and consulates, etc. However, when used by the government and not by the monarch personally, the coat of arms is often represented without the helm. This is also the case with the sovereign's Scottish arms, a version of which is used by the Scotland Office.

The Royal Arms have regularly appeared on the coinage produced by the Royal Mint including, for example, from 1663, the Guinea and, from 1983, the British one pound coin. In 2008, a new series of designs for all seven coins of £1 and below was unveiled by the Royal Mint, every one of which is drawn from the Royal Arms. The full Royal Arms appear on the one pound coin, and sections appear on each of the other six, such that they can be put together like a puzzle to make another complete representation of the Royal Arms. [8]

The monarch grants Royal Warrants to select businesses and tradespeople which supply the Royal Household with goods or services. This entitles those businesses to display the Royal Arms on their packaging and stationery by way of advertising.

It is customary (but not mandatory) for churches throughout the United Kingdom whether in the Church of England or the Church of Scotland to display the Royal Arms to show loyalty to the Crown. [9] [10]

A banner of the Royal Arms, known as the Royal Standard, is flown from the royal palaces when the monarch is in residence, Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace being her principal abodes; and from public buildings only when the monarch is present. This protocol equally applies to the monarch's principal residences in Scotland (the Palace of Holyroodhouse and Balmoral Castle), where the Royal Standard (Scottish version) is flown. When the monarch is not in residence the Union Flag, or in Scotland the ancient Royal Standard of Scotland, is flown.

The widely sold British newspaper The Times uses the Hanoverian Royal Arms as a logo, whereas its sister publication, The Sunday Times , displays the current Royal Arms.

The Royal Arms are also displayed in all courts in British Columbia, as well as in other Canadian provinces such as Ontario, where the judges are appointed by Crown authority. [11]

The Royal Arms were also displayed by all Viceroys of Australia as representation of their Crown authority.

The Royal Arms are also used and displayed most state Supreme Courts across Australia.

The Royal Arms are also the coat of arms for the Western Australian Legislative Council.

The Royal Arms were controversially used by former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher as her official letterhead from c. 1997. [12]

Scotland

At St Michael's Parish Church, Linlithgow, Scotland: a Scottish version of the royal arms of the Hanoverians as used from 1801 to 1816. Lion and Unicorn - geograph.org.uk - 902236.jpg
At St Michael's Parish Church, Linlithgow, Scotland: a Scottish version of the royal arms of the Hanoverians as used from 1801 to 1816.

Since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, a separate version of the Royal Arms has been used in Scotland, giving the Scottish elements pride of place.

The shield is quartered, depicting in the first and fourth quarters the lion rampant of Scotland; in the second, the three lions passant guardant of England; and in the third, the harp of Ireland.

The crest atop the Crown of Scotland is a red lion, seated and forward facing, itself wearing the Crown of Scotland and holding the two remaining elements of the Honours of Scotland, namely the Sword of State and the Sceptre of Scotland. This was also the crest used in the Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland. The motto, in Scots, appears above the crest, in the tradition of Scottish heraldry, and is an abbreviated form of the full motto: In My Defens God Me Defend .

The supporters change sides and both appear wearing the crowns of their respective Kingdom. The dexter supporter is a crowned and chained unicorn, symbolising Scotland. The sinister supporter is a crowned lion, symbolising England. Between each supporter and the shield is a lance displaying the flag of their respective Kingdom.

The coat also features both the motto Nemo me impune lacessit (No one wounds (touches) me with impunity) and, surrounding the shield, the collar of the Order of the Thistle. On the compartment are a number of thistles, Scotland's national flower.

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

The current version of the Royal Arms, displayed in the parish church of Stone, Kent. St Mary, Stone, Kent - Royal Arms - geograph.org.uk - 1490059.jpg
The current version of the Royal Arms, displayed in the parish church of Stone, Kent.

Unlike the Acts of Union 1707 with Scotland, the Acts of Union 1800 with Ireland did not provide for a separate Irish version of the royal arms.[ dubious ] The crest of the Kingdom of Ireland (on a wreath Or and Azure, a tower triple-towered of the First, from the portal a hart springing Argent attired and unguled Or) has had little or no official use since the union.

The harp quarter of the Royal Arms represents Ireland on both the English and Scottish versions. Likewise, one English quarter is retained in the Scottish version, and one Scottish quarter is retained in the English version. Thus, England, Scotland and Ireland are represented in all versions of the Royal Arms since they came under one monarch. When the Irish Free State established its own diplomatic seals in the 1930s, the royal arms appearing on them varied from those on their UK equivalents by having the Irish arms in two quarters and the English arms in one. [13] By contrast, there is no representation at all for Wales in the Royal Arms, as at the Act of Union 1707 Wales was an integral part of the Kingdom of England pursuant to the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542; thus, it has been argued Wales is represented in the English coat of arms. However the argument is somewhat disengenuous as in 1535 the Welsh Dragon was already part of the Tudor Coat of Arms. Upon the accession of the Tudor monarchs, who were themselves of Welsh descent, a Welsh Dragon was used as a supporter on the Royal Arms. This was dropped by their successors, the Scottish House of Stuart, who replaced the Tudors' dragon supporter with the Scottish unicorn. In the 20th century, the arms of the principality of Wales were added as an inescutcheon to the coat of arms of the Prince of Wales, and a banner of those arms with a green inescutcheon bearing the prince's crown is flown as his personal standard in Wales. The so-called Prince of Wales's feathers are a heraldic badge rather than a coat of arms upon a shield, but they are not Welsh in any case. They derive, in fact, from the English Princes of Wales (who may owe them to an exploit of Edward, the Black Prince at the Battle of Crécy) and carry the motto Ich dien (German, "I Serve"). In any event, they do not form part of the Royal Arms, as opposed to the heraldic achievement of the Prince of Wales, who drops them upon his accession as King.

History

Kingdoms of England and Scotland

The current royal arms are a combination of the arms of the former kingdoms that make up the United Kingdom, and can be traced back to the first arms of the kings of England and kings of Scotland. Various alterations occurred over the years as the arms of other realms acquired or claimed by the kings were added to the royal arms. The table below tracks the changes in the royal arms from the original arms of King Richard I of England, and William I, King of Scots.

Kingdom of England Kingdom of Scotland
ArmsDatesDetails
Royal Arms of England (1189-1198).svg c.1189Possible interpretation of the arms shown on King Richard I's first Great Seal. These are the arms of Plantagenet, of which family Richard was a member. The tinctures and the number of charges shown in this illustration are speculative.
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg 1198–1340The arms on the second Great Seal of King Richard the Lionheart, used by his successors until 1340: three golden lions passant gardant , on a red field. [3]
Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg 1340–1377
King Edward III quartered the Royal Arms of England with the ancient arms of France, the fleurs-de-lis on a blue field, to signal his claim to the French throne. [3]
Royal Arms of England (1395-1399).svg 1377–1399 King Richard II impaled the Royal Arms of England with the arms attributed to King Edward the Confessor. [3]
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 1399–1422 King Henry IV updated the French arms to the modern version, three fleurs-de-lis on a blue field. [3]
Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg 1422–1461
1470–1471
King Henry VI impaled the French and English arms, using the same arms after his "readeption".
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 1461–1470
1471–1554
King Edward IV restored the arms of King Henry IV.
Royal Arms of England (1554-1558).svg 1554–1558 Queen Mary I impaled her arms with those of her husband, King Philip of Spain. [3] Although Queen Mary I's father, King Henry VIII, assumed the title "King of Ireland" and this was further conferred upon King Philip, the arms were not altered to feature the Kingdom of Ireland.
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 1558–1603 Queen Elizabeth I restored the arms of King Henry IV. [3]
ArmsDatesDetails
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg 12th century – 1558A red lion, rampant , on a yellow field within a double royal tressure, flory counter-flory, first used by King William I, and later by his successors, and becoming the heraldic representation of Scotland.
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland (1558-1559).svg 1558–1559 Mary, Queen of Scots, Dauphine of France, impaled with the arms of Francis, Dauphin of France, King consort of Scots. [14]
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland (1559-1560).svg 1559–1560Mary, Queen of Scots and Queen consort of France. She also for a short time quartered the English arms in France. See Mary, Queen of Scots#Claim to the English throne.
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland (1560-1565).svg 1560–1567Mary, Queen of Scots and Queen dowager of France.
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg 1567–1603Upon her (second) marriage to Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, in 1565, Mary discontinued the arms of Scotland and France impaled, reverting to those of the Kingdom of Scotland. [15] King James VI was the last monarch of Scotland to use these arms before the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

Union of the Crowns and the Commonwealth

The Union of the Crowns places England, Ireland and Scotland under one monarch
ArmsDatesDetails
Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland (1603-1707).svg
1603–1689 James VI, King of Scots inherited the English and Irish thrones in 1603 (Union of the Crowns), and quartered the Royal Arms of England with those of Scotland. For the first time, the Royal Coat of Arms of Ireland was added to represent the Kingdom of Ireland. [3] (The Scottish version differs in giving the Scottish elements more precedence.)
Arms of the Commonwealth of England.svg
1649–1654

These novel arms, already in use by parliamentarians in 1648, were adopted by the Commonwealth of England established in 1649. [16]

Arms of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.svg
1654–1655

The Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (the Protectorate) was created in 1653. St Andrew's Cross was added to the arms in 1654. [17]

Arms of the Protectorate (1653-1659).svg
1655–1659The arms of the Commonwealth from 1655 to 1659. Struck in 1655, the Great Seal included the personal arms of Oliver Cromwell on a shield in the centre. [3]

Blazon: Quarterly 1 and 4 Argent a Cross Gules (England) 2 Azure a Saltire Argent (Scotland) and 3 Azure a Harp Or Stringed Argent (Ireland) on an Inescutcheon Sable a Lion Rampant Argent (Cromwell's arms). The supporters were a crowned lion of England and a red dragon of Wales. The Scottish unicorn was removed, as it was associated with the Stuart Monarchy. The motto read PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO ("peace is obtained through war"). [18]

Arms of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.svg
1659–1660

Following the Protectorate, the 1654 arms were restored.

Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland (1603-1707).svg
1603–1689 Charles II restored the Royal Arms following the restoration after the civil wars.
Royal Arms of England (1689-1694).svg Arms of Scotland (1689-1694).svg
1689–1694 King James II & VII is deposed and replaced with his daughter Mary II and her husband, William III. As King and Queen they impaled their arms: William bore the Royal Arms with an escutcheon of Nassau (the royal house to which William belonged) added (a golden lion rampant on a blue field), while Mary bore the Royal Arms undifferenced. [19] [20]
Royal Arms of England (1694-1702).svg Arms of Scotland (1694-1702).svg
1694–1702After the death of Mary II, William III reigned alone, and used his arms only. [3] [19]
Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland (1603-1707).svg
1702–1707 Queen Anne inherited the throne upon the death of King William III & II, and the Royal Arms returned to the 1603 version. [3]

After the Acts of Union 1707

At the Union creating Great Britain in 1707, arms were adopted for the new kingdom, and again in 1801 at the Union creating the United Kingdom
ArmsDatesDetails
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg Arms of Great Britain in Scotland (1707-1714).svg
1707–1714The Acts of Union 1707 created the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800). The Royal Arms of England and Scotland are impaled (as for a married couple) and moved to the first and fourth quarters, France second quarter and Ireland third quarter. [3]
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg Arms of Great Britain in Scotland (1714-1801).svg
1714–1800 The Elector of Hanover inherited the throne following the death of Queen Anne under the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701, becoming King George I. The fourth quarter of the arms was changed to reflect the new King's domains in Hanover (Brunswick Lüneburg, surmounted by the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire for the Holy Roman office of Archbannerbearer/Archtreasurer). [3]
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg Arms of the United Kingdom in Scotland (1801-1816).svg
1801–1816The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. At the same time, King George III abandoned his ancestors' ancient claim to the French throne (France had become a republic). The Royal Arms changed, with England now occupying the first and fourth quarters, Scotland the second, Ireland the third. The Royal Arms used in Scotland has Scotland occupying the first and fourth quarters, England the second, Ireland the third. For the Electorate of Hanover, there is an inescutcheon surmounted by the electoral bonnet. [3] The Arms of Hanover were similar, but lacked the electoral bonnet.
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg Arms of the United Kingdom in Scotland (1816-1837).svg
1816–1837The electoral bonnet was replaced by a crown in 1816, as Hanover had been declared a kingdom two years previous. [3]
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg Royal Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland) (Variant 1).svg
1837–1952The accession of Queen Victoria ended the personal union between the United Kingdom and Hanover, as Salic law prevented a woman from ascending the Hanoverian throne. The escutcheon of Hanover was removed and the Royal Arms remained the same. [3] There was no attempt to alter the Royal Arms to reflect later titles acquired by the British monarch such as Emperor of India. The harp of the Kingdom of Ireland remained despite partition in 1921, to represent Northern Ireland.
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland).svg
1952–presentThe Irish harp was modified to a plain Gaelic harp, rather than a winged female [as above], in 1952 in accordance with the personal preference of Queen Elizabeth. [21] The Royal Arms do not incorporate any specific element for Wales, a principality, incorporated into the Kingdom of England under Henry VIII. However, the Prince of Wales places arms for Wales at the centre of his personal arms.

Other variants

Royal family

Members of the British royal family are granted their own personal arms which are based on the Royal Arms. Only children and grandchildren in the male line of the monarch are entitled to arms in this fashion: the arms of children of the monarch are differenced with a three-point label; grandchildren of the monarch are differenced with a five-point label. An exception is made for the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, who bears a three-point label. Since 1911, the arms of the Prince of Wales also displays an inescutcheon of the ancient arms of the Principality of Wales. Queens consort and the wives of sons of the monarch also have their own personal coat of arms. Typically this will be the arms of their husband impaled with their own personal arms or those of their father, if armigerous. However, the consorts of a Queen regnant are not entitled to use the Royal Arms. Thus Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh has been granted his own personal arms.

Currently the following members of the royal family have their own arms based on the Royal Arms:

Children and grandchildren of the monarch in the male line
Armorial achievementShieldBearerDifference(s)
Coat of Arms of Charles, Prince of Wales.svg Arms of Charles, Prince of Wales.svg Charles, Prince of Wales, outside ScotlandThe coat of arms of the Prince of Wales is based on the Royal arms with the plain three-point label, augmented by an inescutcheon in honour of the traditional arms of the Principality of Wales. [3] The Prince of Wales's feathers, the Red Dragon of Wales, Sable fifteen Bezants Or (the arms of the Duke of Cornwall, his subsidiary title in England) and his motto Ich dien are also added below the shield and the supporters. In Scotland, his arms as the Duke of Rothesay are displayed rather than those of the Prince of Wales.
Coat of Arms of the Duke of Rothesay.svg Shield of Arms of the Duke of Rothesay.svg Charles, Duke of Rothesay (Prince of Wales), in ScotlandUsed in Scotland, the arms of the Duke of Rothesay are those of Clan Stewart of Appin adapted, namely the quartered arms of the Prince and Great Steward of Scotland and Lord of the Isles (secondary titles of the Duke) with an inescutcheon as Scottish heir apparent (the Royal Arms of Scotland with a blue three-point label).
Coat of Arms of William, Duke of Cambridge.svg Arms of William, Duke of Cambridge.svg Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Three-point label with a red escallop, alluding to the patrilineal arms of his mother, Diana, Princess of Wales. [22]
Coat of Arms of Henry of Wales.svg Arms of Henry of Wales.svg Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex Five-point label with three red escallops in alternate points, alluding to the patrilineal arms of his mother, Diana, Princess of Wales. [22]
Coat of Arms of Anne, the Princess Royal.svg Arms of Anne, the Princess Royal.svg Anne, Princess Royal Three-point label, the points bearing a red cross, a red heart and a red cross. [3]
Coat of Arms of Andrew, Duke of York.svg Arms of Andrew, Duke of York.svg Prince Andrew, Duke of York Three-point label, the centre point bearing a blue anchor. [3]
Coat of Arms of Beatrice of York.svg Arms of Beatrice of York.svg Princess Beatrice of York Five-point label with three bees in alternate points.
Coat of Arms of Eugenie of York.svg Arms of Eugenie of York.svg Princess Eugenie of York Five-point label with three thistles in alternate points.
Coat of Arms of Edward, Earl of Wessex.svg Arms of Edward, Earl of Wessex.svg Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Three-point label, the centre point bearing a Tudor rose.
Coat of Arms of Richard, Duke of Gloucester.svg Arms of Richard, Duke of Gloucester.svg Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Five-point label, the first, third and fifth points bearing a red cross, the second and fourth points bearing a red lion. [3]
Coat of Arms of Edward, Duke of Kent.svg Arms of Edward, Duke of Kent.svg Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Five-point label, the first, third and fifth points bearing a blue anchor, the second and fourth points bearing a red cross. [3]
Coat of Arms of Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy.svg Arms of Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy.svg Princess Alexandra, The Hon. Lady Ogilvy Five-point label, the first and fifth points bearing a red heart, the second and fourth points bearing a blue anchor, and the third bearing a red cross. [3]
Coat of Arms of Michael of Kent.svg Arms of Michael of Kent.svg Prince Michael of Kent Five-point label, the first, third and fifth points bearing a red cross, the second and fourth points bearing a blue anchor. [3]
Consorts
Coat of Arms of Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.svg Arms of Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.svg Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip's arms post-1949 comprise four quarters, Denmark, Greece, and Mountbatten, representing his ancestry, and Edinburgh, representing the territorial designation of his dukedom. [3]
Coat of Arms of Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall.svg Arms of Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall.svg Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall The arms of the Prince of Wales impaled with those of her father, Major Bruce Shand, crowned with the single-arched Coronet of Prince of Wales. [23]
Coat of Arms of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.svg Arms of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.svg Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge The arms of the Duke of Cambridge impaled with those of her father, Michael Middleton, crowned with the coronet of a child of the heir-apparent. [24]
Coat of arms of Meghan, Duchess of Sussex.svg Shield of arms of Meghan, Duchess of Sussex.svg Meghan, Duchess of Sussex The arms of the Duke of Sussex impaled with those of her own design, crowned with the coronet of a child of the heir-apparent. [25]
Coat of Arms of Sophie, Countess of Wessex.svg Arms of Sophie, Countess of Wessex.svg Sophie, Countess of Wessex The arms of the Earl of Wessex impaled with those granted in 1999 to her father, Christopher Rhys-Jones, with remainder to his elder brother Theo. The new grant was based on an unregistered 200-year-old design. The lion alludes to one of the Countess' ancestors the Welsh knight Elystan Glodrydd, prince of Ferrig. [26]
Coat of Arms of Birgitte, Duchess of Gloucester.svg Arms of Birgitte, Duchess of Gloucester.svg Birgitte, Duchess of Gloucester The arms of the Duke of Gloucester with an escutcheon of pretence granted to her by Royal Warrant on 18 July 1973. [27]
Coat of Arms of Katharine, Duchess of Kent.svg Arms of Katharine, Duchess of Kent.svg Katharine, Duchess of Kent The arms of the Duke of Kent impaled with those of her father, Sir William Arthington Worsley, 4th Baronet.
Coat of Arms of Marie Christine von Reibnitz, Princess Michael of Kent.svg Arms of Marie Christine von Reibnitz, Princess Michael of Kent.svg Princess Michael of Kent The arms of Prince Michael of Kent impaled with those of her father, Baron Günther Hubertus von Reibnitz.

Government

The version used by the British Government. Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
The version used by the British Government.
The version used by the Scotland Office. Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Government in Scotland).svg
The version used by the Scotland Office.
A version used by the British Government on official websites and departmental insignia. Coat of Arms of the British Government.jpg
A version used by the British Government on official websites and departmental insignia.

Various versions of the Royal Arms are used by Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, the Parliament of the United Kingdom and courts in some parts of the Commonwealth.

HM Government generally uses a simplified version of the Royal Arms with a crown replacing the helm and crest, and with no compartment. [28] In relation to Scotland, the Scotland Office and the Advocate General for Scotland use the Scottish version, again without the helm or crest, and the same was used as the day-to-day logo of the Scottish Executive until September 2007, when a rebranding exercise introduced the name Scottish Government , together with a revised logo incorporating the flag of Scotland. [29]

The Scottish Government continues to use the Arms on some official documents.

The simplified Royal Arms also feature:

Various courts in the Commonwealth also continue to use the Royal Arms:

Furthermore:

Blazon

This table breaks down the official blazons to enable comparison of the differences between the general coat and the coat used in Scotland.

Everywhere except ScotlandScotland
Quarterly I & IVGules three lions passant gardant in pale Or armed and langued AzureOr a lion rampant Gules armed and langued Azure within a double tressure flory-counter-flory of the second
IIOr a lion rampant Gules armed and langued Azure within a double tressure flory-counter-flory of the secondGules three lions passant gardant in pale Or armed and langued Azure
III
Azure a harp Or stringed Argent
Surrounded byThe Garter circlet The collar of the Order of the Thistle
Crest Upon the Royal helm the imperial crown Proper, thereon a lion statant gardant Or imperially crowned ProperUpon the Royal helm the crown of Scotland Proper, thereon a lion sejant affronté Gules armed and langued Azure, Royally crowned Proper holding in his dexter paw a sword and in his sinister a sceptre, both Proper
Supporters
Lion of England, seen in the Kew Gardens, London Lion of England 2003.jpg
Lion of England, seen in the Kew Gardens, London
Dexter a lion rampant gardant Or imperially crowned Proper, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or
a statue of a Unicorn, seen in St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Palace, London Westminsterhallint.jpg
a statue of a Unicorn, seen in St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Palace, London
Dexter a unicorn Argent Royally crowned Proper, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or holding the standard of Saint Andrew, sinister a lion rampant gardant Or imperially crowned Proper holding the standard of Saint George
Motto Dieu et mon Droit (French) In My Defens God Me Defend , abbr. In Defens (Scots)
Order Motto Garter: Honi soit qui mal y pense (Old French) Thistle: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin)
Plants on the compartment Roses, thistles and shamrocks (on the same stem)Thistles only

See also

Of all the former Dominions only three retain elements from the British Coat of Arms:

Ireland uses the medieval arms of Ireland that are incorporated into the British Coat of Arms:

All other former Dominions have changed their coat of arms with little or no British influence:

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