Rudolf Hilferding

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Rudolf Hilferding
Rudolf Hilferding and Gattin, cropped.jpg
Hilferding in 1928
Minister of Finance
(Weimar Republic)
In office
13 August 1923 October 1923
Preceded by Andreas Hermes
Succeeded by Hans Luther
In office
29 June 1928 21 December 1929
Preceded by Heinrich Köhler
Succeeded by Paul Moldenhauer
Personal details
Born(1877-08-10)10 August 1877
Died11 February 1941(1941-02-11) (aged 63)
Political party Social Democratic Party of Germany
Alma mater University of Vienna

Rudolf Hilferding (10 August 1877 – 11 February 1941) was an Austrian-born Marxist economist, leading socialist theorist, [1] politician and chief theoretician [2] for the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) during the Weimar Republic, [3] almost universally recognized as the SPD's foremost theoretician of his century, and a physician. [4]

Marxism economic and sociopolitical worldview based on the works of Karl Marx

Marxism is a theory and method of working-class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Social Democratic Party of Germany Social-democratic political party in Germany

The Social Democratic Party of Germany, is a social-democratic political party in Germany.

Weimar Republic Germany state in the years 1918/1919–1933

The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.


He was born in Vienna, where he received a doctorate having studied medicine. After becoming a leading journalist for the SPD, [3] he participated in the November Revolution in Germany and was Finance Minister of Germany in 1923 and from 1928 to 1929. In 1933 he fled into exile, living in Zurich and then Paris, where he died in custody of the Gestapo in 1941. [1] [5]

Vienna Capital city and state of Austria

Vienna is the federal capital, largest city and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of Czechia, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.

German Revolution of 1918–19 Revolution in 1918–1919 in Germany

The German Revolution or November Revolution was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the adoption in August 1919 of the Weimar Constitution.

Gestapo official secret police of Nazi Germany

The Geheime Staatspolizei, abbreviated Gestapo, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.

Hilferding was a proponent of the "economic" reading of Karl Marx identifying with the "Austro-Marxian" group. [6] He was the first to put forward the theory of organized capitalism . [7] He was the main defender of Marxism from critiques by Austrian School economist and fellow Vienna resident Eugen Boehm von Bawerk. Hilferding also participated in the "Crises Debate" – disputing Marx's theory of the instability and eventual breakdown of capitalism on the basis that the concentration of capital is actually stabilizing. He edited leading publications such as Vorwärts , Die Freiheit , and Die Gesellschaft . [3] His most famous work was Das Finanzkapital (Finance capital), one of the most influential and original contributions to Marxist economics [4] with substantial influence on Marxist writers such as Vladimir Lenin [7] and Nikolai Bukharin influencing his writings on imperialism. [2] [8]

Karl Marx Revolutionary socialist

Karl Marx was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.

Austromarxism Marxist theoretical current, led by the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria during the late decades of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the First Austrian Republic (1918–1934)

Austro-Marxism was a Marxist theoretical current, led by Victor Adler, Otto Bauer, Karl Renner and Max Adler, members of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria in Austria-Hungary and the First Austrian Republic (1918–1934). It is known for its theory of nationality and nationalism, and its attempt to conciliate it with socialism in the imperial context. Hence, Otto Bauer thought of the "personal principle" as a way of gathering the geographically divided members of the same nation. In Social Democracy and the Nationalities Question (1907), he wrote that "The personal principle wants to organize nations not in territorial bodies but in simple association of persons", thus radically disjoining the nation from the territory and making of the nation a non-territorial association.

Austrian School school of economic thought

The Austrian School is a heterodox school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result exclusively from the motivations and actions of individuals.


Life in Vienna

On 10 August 1877, Rudolf Hilferding was born in Vienna into a prosperous Jewish family, [2] [9] consisting of his parents, Emil Hilferding, a merchant (or private servant), and Anna Hilferding, and of Rudolf's younger sister, Maria. Rudolf attended a public gymnasium from which he graduated as an average student, allowing him access to the university. Directly afterwards, he enrolled at the University of Vienna to study medicine. [10]

Gymnasium (school) type of school providing advanced secondary education in Europe

A gymnasium, also known as middle school, is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern and southern Europe.

University of Vienna public university located in Vienna, Austria

The University of Vienna is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. It was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365 and is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna has developed into one of the largest universities in Europe, and also one of the most renowned, especially in the Humanities. It is associated with 20 Nobel prize winners and has been the academic home to a large number of scholars of historical as well as of academic importance.

Even before his school leaving examinations, in 1893 he joined a group of Vienna students that weekly discussed socialist literature and later formed with young university teachers the student-organization Freie Vereinigung Sozialistischer Studenten, whose chairman was Max Adler. [10] This is where Hilferding first intensely came in contact with socialist theories and first became active in the labour movement. The organization also participated in social-democratic demonstrations, which came in conflict with the police, drawing the attention of the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ). [11]

Max Adler was an Austrian jurist, politician and social philosopher; his theories were of central importance to Austromarxism. He was a brother of Oskar Adler.

The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement or labor union movement, also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.

Social Democratic Party of Austria one of the oldest political parties in Austria

The Social Democratic Party of Austria is a social-democratic political party in Austria that is, along with the People's Party, one of the country's two traditional major parties.

As a university student, he became acquainted with many talented socialist intellectuals. [4] Aside from his studies of medicine, he studied history, economy, and philosophy. He and his fellow socialist students and friends [12] Karl Renner, Otto Bauer and Max Adler also studied political economy, taught by the marxist Carl Grünberg, and attended the lectures of the philosopher Ernst Mach, who both influenced Hilferding significantly. [13] He became one of the staunchest supporters of Victor Adler, founder of the SPÖ. [8]

Karl Renner First Chancellor of Austria, Fourth President of Austria

Karl Renner was an Austrian politician of the Socialist Party. He is often referred to as the "Father of the Republic" because he led the first government of German-Austria and the First Austrian Republic in 1919 and 1920, and was once again decisive in establishing the present Second Republic after the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945, becoming its first President after World War II.

Otto Bauer Austrian Social Democrat

Otto Bauer was an Austrian Social Democrat who is considered one of the leading thinkers of the left-socialist Austro-Marxist grouping. He was also an early inspiration for both the New Left movement and Eurocommunism in their attempt to find a "Third way" to democratic socialism.

Carl Grünberg was a German Marxist philosopher of law and history.

Having graduated with a doctorate in 1901, he began working in Vienna as a pediatrist, [14] however not with much enthusiasm. He spent much of his leisure time studying political economy, where his real interest lay, [4] but he would not give up his profession until his first publications gave him success. [12] He also joined the social-democratic party in Austria. In 1902 he contributed to the social-democratic newspaper Die Neue Zeit on economic subjects [1] as requested by Karl Kautsky, [9] at that time the most important marxist theoretician worldwide and who developed a long-lasting personal and political friendship with Hilferding. [15] His collaboration with Kautsky and his regular contributions to the Neue Zeit, the leading theory organ of the socialist movement, made him become a mediator between Kautsky and Victor Adler, trying to reduce their ideological differences. [16]

In April 1902, he wrote a review of Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk's Karl Marx and the Close of His System (1896) defending Marx's economic theory against Böhm-Bawerk's criticism. [17] He also wrote two significant essays concerning the use of the general strike as a political weapon. [18] Already in 1905, his numerous publications have made him one of the leading social-democratic theoreticians and brought him into close contact with the party leadership of the SPÖ and of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). [19] Together with Max Adler, he founded and edited the Marx-Studien , theoretical and political studies spreading Austromarxism until 1923. [20] Karl Renner, Adler and Hilferding founded an association to improve the worker's education, which established Vienna's first school for workers in 1903. [21]

Hilferding married the doctor Margarete Hönigsberg, whom he had met in the socialist movement and who was eight years his senior. She also had a Jewish background, had made her exams at the University of Vienna, and was a regular contributor to Die Neue Zeit. Margarete gave birth to their 1st child, Karl Emil. Kautsky worried that Hilferding, who now complained about his lack of time, would neglect his theoretical work in favor of his good social situation as a doctor in Vienna. Kautsky used his connections to August Bebel, who was looking for teachers for the SPD's training center in Berlin, to suggest Hilferding for this position. In July 1906, Bebel recommended Hilferding for this job to the party executive, which agreed to give it to him for six months. [22]

Life in Berlin and World War I

In 1906, he gave up his job as a doctor and, following August Bebel's call, [8] started teaching Economics and Economic history at the training center of the SPD in Berlin. [2] Having arrived in Berlin in November 1906, he taught there for one term, but a law forbade the employment of teachers without German citizenship. He had to give up this job and was replaced by Rosa Luxemburg [23] after being threatened with eviction by the Prussian police in 1907. [14]

Until 1915, he was the foreign editor of the leading SPD newspaper Vorwärts , [1] [9] in the immediate proximity of the most important party leaders. [24] Bebel had recommended Hilferding for this job, after there was a conflict between the editors of Vorwärts and the party executive. His appointment was also meant to raise the share of marxism in the editing. In a short time, Hilferding took a leading role in the paper and was soon appointed editor-in-chief. [25] Together with his work for Die Neue Zeit and Der Kampf, it provided him an adequate income. [23] He was also supported by his fellow Austrian, Karl Kautsky, [4] who was his mentor and whom he succeeded in the 1920s as the chief theoretician of the SPD. [26] Hilferding's theoretical abilities and his personal relationships to leading socialists allowed him to make his career in the party. [24]

He published his most famous work, Das Finanzkapital (Finance Capital), in 1910, [14] which was an important theoretical milestone that has kept its importance until today. [27] It built Hilferding's reputation as a significant economist, a leading economist theoretician of the Socialist International, and, together with his leading position in Vorwärts, helped him raise into the national decision level of the SPD. It also confirmed his position in the marxist center of the SPD, of which he was now one of the most important figures. [27] Since 1912 he represented Vorwärts at the meetings of the party commission, which allowed him to decisively take part in the decision-making of the socialist politics in the years before World War I. [28]

When World War I broke out in 1914, Hilferding was one of the few social democrats who from the very start opposed the SPD's Burgfriedenspolitik [4] and the party's support for the German war effort, [1] including its vote for war loans. [4] [9] In an internal party vote, he was only one of a small minority, led by Hugo Haase, a close friend of his, and thus they had to yield to the party's decision to support the Reichstag motion on the war loans. Hilferding, together with the majority of the editors of Vorwärts, signed a declaration to oppose these policies. [29] In October 1915, the SPD leadership fired all these opposing editors, but Hilferding had already been drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army as a medic long before. [30]

At first, Hilferding was stationed in Vienna, where he led the field hospital for epidemics. He lived together with his wife and his two sons, Karl and Peter, who was born in 1908. Thanks to his correspondence with Kautsky, he got news about the party. Then, in 1916, he was sent to Steinach am Brenner, near the Italian border, as a combat medic. During the whole war, Hilferding remained active in writing and was politically involved. He published numerous articles in Die Neue Zeit and Kampf. [31] One of these articles, published in October 1915, summarized the situation of the SPD and revised his theories of Finance Capital containing his first formulation of the concept of organized capitalism. [32]

Weimar Republic

Hilferding joined the anti-war Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) in 1918. [3] During the November Revolution in 1918, he returned to Berlin, shortly after the Republic was proclaimed and the emperor had fled. [33] For the following three years, he was editor-in-chief of the USPD's daily newspaper, Die Freiheit , and thus member of the party executive. [33] The Freiheit quickly became one of Berlin's most widely read dailies with a circulation of 200,000. [34] Later, Kurt Tucholsky bashed him for his work for the newspaper in Die Weltbühne in 1925.

The Council of the People's Deputies, the provisional government of the November Revolution, consisting of members of the SPD and USPD, which had signed the cease-fire, [33] delegated Hilferding to the Sozialisierungskommission (Socialization Committee). [14] Its official task was to socialize suitable industries. He spent months with this project, which was, in spite of support among the workers, not a priority for the government. In fact, the SPD leadership opposed socialization at this point since the armistice, demobilisation of the army and feeding the German people seemed more pressing issues at the time. Hilferding gave a speech before the Reichsrätekongress (worker's councils' congress) and presented a plan to socialize industry. It went down well with the congress and a resolution was passed, but the government largely ignored it. The government's lack of support was the reason why this committee was disbanded in April 1919. [35] After the Kapp-Lüttwitz-Putsch, the government, under pressure, appointed a new Socialization Committee, of which Hilferding was again a member, but the government was still not keen to pursue a course of socialization. [36]

Tensions between the SPD and USPD escalated when Friedrich Ebert used troops to suppress riots in Berlin on 23 December 1918 without consulting the USPD. To protest the policies of the Council, the USPD withdrew its three representatives from the government. Hilferding, who had accused the SPD of trying to oust the USPD from government, supported this decision. After a poor performance of the USPD in the elections for the Weimar National Assembly, leading USPD politicians, including Hilferding, started to support workers' councils. Hilferding wrote articles in the Freiheit and made suggestions how they should be implemented, [37] which were sharply criticized by Lenin. [38]

Hilferding disagreed with the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, and opposed the October Revolution. He later described the USSR as "the first totalitarian state" and a "totalitarian state economy". [39]

In 1919, he acquired German citizenship [14] and in 1920, he was appointed to the Reich Economic Council. [9] [20] In 1922, he strongly opposed a merger of the USPD with the Communist Party of Germany, which he attacked throughout the 1920s, [3] and instead supported the merger with the SPD, [14] where he emerged as its most prominent and visible spokesperson. [4] At the peak of the inflation in the Weimar Republic, he served as the German Minister of Finance [14] from August to October 1923. [20] He contributed to stabilizing the mark, but was unable to stop the inflation. [2] During his term of office, the introduction of the Rentenmark was decided, but he resigned from office shortly before the monetary reform took place. [14]

From 1924 to 1933, he was publisher of the theoretical journal Die Gesellschaft . On 4 May 1924, he was elected to the Reichstag for the SPD [14] where he served as the SPD's chief spokesman on financial matters until 1933. Together with Karl Kautsky he formulated the Heidelberg Program in 1925. [14] Between 1928 and 1929, he again served as finance minister, [3] on the eve of the Great Depression. [2] He had to relinquish this position because of pressure from the President of the Reichsbank, Hjalmar Schacht, [40] causing his fall in December 1929 by imposing to the government his conditions for the obtainment of a loan.

Life in exile

After Hitler's coming to power, Hilferding as a prominent socialist and Jew had to flee into exile in 1933, [2] together with his close associate Rudolf Breitscheid and other important party leaders, first to Denmark, then Saarbrücken, Paris, and finally Zurich, Switzerland. [4] [1] He lived in Zurich until 1938 [3] and from 1939 on in Paris, France. [1] However, he remained influential, having been appointed to important posts in SPD's Sopade. Between 1933 and 1936, he was editor-in-chief of Die Zeitschrift für Sozialismus and contributor to Neuer Vorwärts . Until 1939 he was also the party's representative for the Socialist International and his advice was sought by the SPD leadership in exile. [3]

After the attack on France he and Breitscheid fled to unoccupied Marseille. [14] Efforts were undertaken by the Refugee Committee, under Varian Fry, to get him out of Vichy France, along with Rudolf Breitscheid. However, they both refused to leave illegally, because they didn't have identification papers. [41] They were arrested by the police of the Vichy government in southern France and, despite their emergency visa to enter the United States of America, handed over to the Gestapo on 9 February 1941. [42] Hilferding was brought to Paris and was severely maltreated on the way. [5] After being tortured, he died of unknown causes [43] in a prison in Paris, [2] [9] the Gestapo dungeon of La Santé. [44] His death was not officially announced until the fall of 1941. [5] Fry, among others, believed that Hilferding was murdered by the Gestapo on the orders of Adolf Hitler or another senior Nazi Party official. Hilferding's wife, Margarete, died in the Theresienstadt concentration camp in 1942. [45]

Finance Capital

Finanzkapital, 1923 Hilferding - Finanzkapital, 1923 - 5171455.tif
Finanzkapital, 1923

Hilferding's Finance Capital (Das Finanzkapital, Vienna: 1910) was "the seminal Marxist analysis of the transformation of competitive and pluralistic 'liberal capitalism' into monopolistic 'finance capital'", [46] and anticipated Lenin's and Bukharin's "largely derivative" writings on the subject. [47] Writing in the context of the highly cartelized economy of late Austria-Hungary, [48] Hilferding contrasted monopolistic finance capitalism to the earlier, "competitive" and "buccaneering" capitalism of the earlier liberal era. The unification of industrial, mercantile and banking interests had defused the earlier liberal capitalist demands for the reduction of the economic role of a mercantilist state; instead, finance capital sought a "centralized and privilege-dispensing state". [49] Hilferding saw this as part of the inevitable concentration of capital called for by Marxian economics, rather than a deviation from the free market.

Whereas, until the 1860s, the demands of capital and of the bourgeoisie had been, in Hilferding's view, constitutional demands that had "affected all citizens alike," finance capital increasingly sought state intervention on behalf of the wealth-owning classes; capitalists, rather than the nobility, now dominated the state. [50]

In this, Hilferding saw an opportunity for a path to socialism that was distinct from the one foreseen by Marx: "The socializing function of finance capital facilitates enormously the task of overcoming capitalism. Once finance capital has brought the most importance ( sic ) branches of production under its control, it is enough for society, through its conscious executive organ – the state conquered by the working class – to seize finance capital in order to gain immediate control of these branches of production." [51] This would make it unnecessary to expropriate "peasant farms and small businesses" because they would be indirectly socialized, through the socialization of institutions upon which finance capital had already made them dependent. Thus, because a narrow class dominated the economy, socialist revolution could gain wider support by directly expropriating only from that narrow class. In particular, according to Hilferding, societies that had not reached the level of economic maturity anticipated by Marx as making them "ripe" for socialism could be opened to socialist possibilities. [52] Furthermore, "the policy of finance capital is bound to lead towards war, and hence to the unleashing of revolutionary storms." [53]


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 International Institute of Social History, Rodolf Hilferding Papers.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Wistrich, Robert Solomon (2002). Who's who in Nazi Germany. Psychology Press. pp. 110–11. ISBN   978-0-415-26038-1.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Smaldone, William, Rudolf Hilferding and the total state., 1994.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 David E. Barclay, Eric D. Weitz, Michael Kreile. Between Reform and Revolution: German Socialism and Communism from 1840 to 1990
  5. 1 2 3 German Resistance Memorial Center.
  6. The New School.
  7. 1 2 Lane, A. T. (1 December 1995). Biographical Dictionary of European Labor Leaders. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN   9780313264566.
  8. 1 2 3 Ruth Fischer, Stalin And German Communism: A Study in the Origins of the State Party.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Malcolm Charles Sawyer, Philip Arestis, A Biographical Dictionary of Dissenting Economists.
  10. 1 2 William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding, Dietz, 2000. ISBN   3-8012-4113-0. p. 14.
  11. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 15.
  12. 1 2 William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 22.
  13. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 19.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ‹See Tfd› (in German) Deutsches Historisches Museum, Biographie: Rudolf Hilferding.
  15. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 30.
  16. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 41.
  17. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 27.
  18. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 33.
  19. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 40.
  20. 1 2 3 Robert Benewick, Philip Green, The Routledge Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Political Thinkers.
  21. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 43.
  22. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 41, 42.
  23. 1 2 William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 50.
  24. 1 2 William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 47.
  25. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 51.
  26. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 46.
  27. 1 2 William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 52.
  28. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 70, 71.
  29. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 77, 78.
  30. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 85.
  31. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 85, 86.
  32. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 87.
  33. 1 2 3 William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 96.
  34. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 114.
  35. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 107, 108.
  36. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 112, 114.
  37. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 101.
  38. William Smaldone, Rudolf Hilferding. p. 104.
  39. Liebich, Andre (18 February 1986). "MARXISM AND TOTALITARIANISM: RUDOLF HILFERDING AND THE MENSHEVIKS" (PDF). p. 52. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  40. Steinberg, Julien (1 January 1950). Verdict of Three Decades: From the Literature of Individual Revolt Against Soviet Communism: 1917-1950. Books for Libraries Press. ISBN   9780836920772.
  41. Ryan, Donna F. (1 January 1996). The Holocaust & the Jews of Marseille: The Enforcement of Anti-Semitic Policies in Vichy France. University of Illinois Press. ISBN   9780252065309.
  42. "Social democrats turned over to Germany (February 1941) - Biografie Willy Brandt". 1 October 2011. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2016.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  43. "Social democrats turned over to Germany (February 1941) - Biografie Willy Brandt". 1 October 2011. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2016.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  44. ‹See Tfd› (in German)
  45. Geissmann-Chambon, Claudine; Geissmann, Pierre (1998). A history of child psychoanalysis. Psychology Press. p. 36. ISBN   978-0-415-11296-3.
  46. Robert Bideleux and Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998. ISBN   0-415-16111-8 hardback, ISBN   0-415-16112-6 paper. p. 356.
  47. Bideleux and Jeffries, p. 361.
  48. Bideleux and Jeffries, p. 357–359.
  49. Bideleux and Jeffries, p. 359.
  50. Bideleux and Jeffries, p. 359–360.
  51. "Rudolph Hilferding. Finance Capital: A Study of the Latest Phase of Capitalist Development. Chapter 25, The proletariat and imperialism."
  52. Bideleux and Jeffries, p. 360.
  53. Quoted in Bideleux and Jeffries, p. 360.

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Vorwärts is a newspaper published by the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Founded in 1876, it was the central organ of the SPD for many decades. Following the party's Halle Congress (1891), it was published daily as the successor of Berliner Volksblatt, founded in 1884. Today it is published monthly, mailed to all SPD members.

First Müller cabinet cabinet

Cabinet Müller I or the first Cabinet Müller was the third democratically elected government of Germany and the second in office after the Weimar Constitution came into force in August 1919. It was named after the new Chancellor (Reichskanzler) Hermann Müller of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The cabinet was based on the same three centre-left parties as the previous one: the SPD, the German Center Party (Zentrum) and the German Democratic Party (DDP). It was formed in March 1920 after the resignation of the Cabinet Bauer. The Cabinet Müller resigned in reaction to the outcome of the Reichstag elections of 6 June 1920.

Social ownership is any of various forms of ownership for the means of production in socialist economic systems, encompassing public ownership, employee ownership, cooperative ownership, citizen ownership of equity, common ownership and collective ownership. Historically social ownership implied that capital and factor markets would cease to exist under the assumption that market exchanges within the production process would be made redundant if capital goods were owned by a single entity or network of entities representing society, but the articulation of models of market socialism where factor markets are utilized for allocating capital goods between socially owned enterprises broadened the definition to include autonomous entities within a market economy. Social ownership of the means of production is the common defining characteristic of all the various forms of socialism.

Orthodox Marxism body of Marxist thought that emerged following the death of Karl Marx which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement

Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxism thought that emerged after the death of Karl Marx (1818–1883) and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until the First World War in 1914. Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism.

Karl Kautsky Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician

Karl Johann Kautsky was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician. Kautsky was recognized as among the most authoritative promulgators of Orthodox Marxism after the death of Friedrich Engels in 1895 until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

Georg Ledebour German politician and journalist

Georg Ledebour was a German socialist journalist and politician.

Crisis of Marxism was a term first employed in the 1890s after the unexpected revival of global capitalist expansion became evident after the Great Depression of Europe from 1873-1896, which eventually precipitated a crisis in Marxist theory. The crisis resulted in a series of theoretical debates over the significance of economic recovery for the strategy of the socialist movement, leading to ideological fragmentation and increasingly sectarian debates. By the 1890s, orthodox Marxists came to believe that capitalism was on the “verge of breakdown,” while the socialist movement was on the “verge of revolutionary triumph,” but due to a renewed burst of capitalist and industrial activity such interpretations could no longer be maintained in Western Europe.