Rudolf I of Germany

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Rudolf I
Kaiser Rudolf I. 1275.jpg
Seal (1275)
King of Germany
Reign29 September 1273 – 15 July 1291
Coronation 24 October 1273
Aachen Cathedral
Predecessor(Richard of Cornwall)
Interregnum
Successor Adolf of Nassau
Duke of Carinthia
Reign1276 – 1 February 1286
Predecessor Ottokar II of Bohemia
Successor Meinhard II of Gorizia-Tyrol
Duke of Austria and Styria
Reign26 August 1278 – 27 December 1282
Predecessor Ottokar II of Bohemia
Successor Albert I
Born1 May 1218
Limburgh Castle near Sasbach am Kaiserstuhl
Died15 July 1291(1291-07-15) (aged 73)
Speyer
Burial
Spouse
Issue
more...
House Habsburg
Father Albert IV, Count of Habsburg
MotherHedwig of Kyburg

Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (German : Rudolf von Habsburg, Czech : Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and King of Germany from 1273 until his death.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages that are most similar to the German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree, as well as Polish. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.

House of Habsburg Austrian dynastic family

The House of Habsburg and alternatively called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.

Contents

Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire after the death of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II in 1250. Originally a Swabian count, he was the first Habsburg to acquire the duchies of Austria and Styria in opposition to his mighty rival, the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia, whom he defeated in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. The territories remained under Habsburg rule for more than 600 years, forming the core of the Habsburg Monarchy and the present-day country of Austria.

Interregnum (Holy Roman Empire) period of the history of the Holy Roman Empire, between 1245, when Frederick II was deposed by Pope Innocent IV (or sometimes 1250, when Frederick II died, or 1254, when his son Conrad IV died) and the accession of Rudolf I

There were many imperial interregna in the history of the Holy Roman Empire, when there was no emperor. Interregna in which there was no emperor-elect were rarer. Among the longest periods without an emperor were between 924 and 962, between 1245 and 1312, and between 1378 and 1433. The crisis of government of the Holy Roman Empire and the German kingdom thus lasted throughout the late medieval period, and ended only with the rise of the House of Habsburg on the eve of the German Reformation and the Renaissance. The term Great Interregnum is occasionally used for the period between 1250 and 1273.

Holy Roman Empire Complex of territories in Europe from 962 to 1806

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added. Its size gradually diminished over time, particularly from 1648 onward, and by the time of its dissolution, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia which was bordered by the German lands on three sides.

Hohenstaufen German Dynasty

The Hohenstaufen, also known as Staufer, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages. Before ascending to the kingship, they were Dukes of Swabia from 1079. As kings of Germany, they had a claim to Italy, Burgundy and the Holy Roman Empire. Three members of the dynasty—Frederick I (1155), Henry VI (1191) and Frederick II (1220)—were crowned emperor. Besides Germany, they also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily (1194–1268) and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1225–1268). The Hohenstaufen portrayed themselves as the successors of ancient Romans and their traditions.

Rudolf was the first king of the Romans of the Habsburg dynasty, and he played a vital role in raising the comital house to the rank of Imperial princes. He was also the first of a number of late medieval count-kings, so called by the historian Bernd Schneidmüller, from the rival noble houses of Habsburg, Luxembourg, and Wittelsbach, all striving after the Roman-German royal dignity, which ultimately was taken over by the Habsburgs in 1438.

Princes of the Holy Roman Empire

Prince of the Holy Roman Empire was a title attributed to a hereditary ruler, nobleman or prelate recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor.

Count-kings was a description given by the historian Bernd Schneidmüller to the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire between the Great Interregnum and the final acquisition of the royal throne by the Habsburg dynasty in 1438. They were as follows:

House of Wittelsbach German noble family

The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.

Early life

Rudolf was born on 1 May 1218 at Limburgh Castle near Sasbach am Kaiserstuhl in the Breisgau region of present-day southwestern Germany. [1] He was the son of Count Albert IV of Habsburg and of Hedwig, daughter of Count Ulrich of Kyburg. [2] Around 1232, he was given as a squire to his uncle, Rudolf I, Count of Laufenburg, to train in knightly pursuits.

Sasbach am Kaiserstuhl Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Sasbach is a town in the district of Emmendingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. Sasbach is adjacent to the river Rhine and the Kaiserstuhl mountain range. It is the location of two medieval castle ruins, Limburg and Sponeck.

Breisgau region in the southwest of Baden-Württemberg with the center of Freiburg im Breisgau

Breisgau is an area in southwest Germany between the Rhine River and the foothills of the Black Forest. Part of the state of Baden-Württemberg, it centers on the city of Freiburg im Breisgau. The district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, which partly consists of the Breisgau, is named after the Black Forest area. Parts of the Breisgau are also situated in the political districts of Freiburg im Breisgau and Emmendingen.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Count of Habsburg

At his father's death in 1239, Rudolf inherited from him large estates around the ancestral seat of Habsburg Castle in the Aargau region of present-day Switzerland as well as in Alsace. Thus, in 1240 [3] in order to quell the rising power of Rudolf and in an attempt to place the important "Devil’s Bridge" (Teufelsbrücke) across the Schöllenenschlucht under his direct control, Emperor Frederick II, granted Schwyz Reichsfreiheit in the Freibrief von Faenza.

Habsburg Castle castle in Habsburg (Switzerland)

Habsburg Castle is a medieval fortress located in Habsburg, Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, near the Aar River. At the time of its construction, the location was part of the Duchy of Swabia. Habsburg Castle is the originating seat of the House of Habsburg, which became one of the leading imperial and royal dynasties in Europe. It is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance.

Switzerland federal republic in Central Europe

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern Europe. It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in Bern. Switzerland is a landlocked country bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. It is geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are located, among them the two global cities and economic centres of Zürich and Geneva.

Alsace Place in Grand Est, France

Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.

In 1242, Hugh of Tuffenstein provoked Count Rudolf through contumelious expressions.[ clarification needed ] In turn, the Count of Habsburg had invaded his domains, yet failed to take his seat of power. As the day passed on,[ clarification needed ] Count Rudolf bribed the sentinels of the city and gained entry, killing Hugh in the process. Then in 1244, to help control Lake Lucerne and restrict the neighboring forest communities of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden, Rudolf built near its shores Neuhabsburg Castle. [3] In 1245 Rudolf married Gertrude, daughter of Count Burkhard III of Hohenberg. He received as her dowry the castles of Oettingen, the valley of Weile, and other places in Alsace, and he became an important vassal in Swabia, the former Alemannic German stem duchy. That same year, Emperor Frederick II was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV at the Council of Lyon. Rudolf sided against the Emperor, while the forest communities sided with Frederick. This gave them a pretext to attack and damage Neuhabsburg. Rudolf successfully defended it and drove them off. As a result, Rudolf, by siding with the Pope, gained more power and influence. [3]

Lake Lucerne Lake in Central Switzerland

Lake Lucerne is a lake in central Switzerland and the fourth largest in the country.

Canton of Uri Canton of Switzerland

The canton of Uri is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and a founding member of the Swiss Confederation. It is located in Central Switzerland. The canton's territory covers the valley of the Reuss between the St. Gotthard Pass and Lake Lucerne.

Rudolf paid frequent visits to the court of his godfather, the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, and his loyalty to Frederick and his son, King Conrad IV of Germany, was richly rewarded by grants of land. In 1254, he engaged with other nobles of the Staufen party against Bertold II, Bishop of Basle. When night fell, he penetrated the suburbs of Basle and burnt down the local nunnery, an act for which Pope Innocent IV excommunicated him and all parties involved. As a penance, he took up the cross and joined Ottokar II, King of Bohemia in the Prussian Crusade of 1254. Whilst there, he oversaw the founding of the city of Königsberg, which was named in memory of King Ottokar.

Rise to power

The disorder in Germany during the interregnum after the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty afforded an opportunity for Count Rudolf to increase his possessions. His wife was a Hohenberg heiress; and on the death of his childless maternal uncle Count Hartmann IV of Kyburg in 1264, Rudolf seized Hartmann's valuable estates. Successful feuds with the Bishops of Strasbourg and Basel further augmented his wealth and reputation, including rights over various tracts of land that he purchased from abbots and others.

These various sources of wealth and influence rendered Rudolf the most powerful prince and noble in southwestern Germany (where the tribal Duchy of Swabia had disintegrated, enabling its vassals to become completely independent). In the autumn of 1273, the prince-electors met to choose a king after Richard of Cornwall had died in England in April 1272. Rudolf's election in Frankfurt on 1 October 1273, [4] when he was 55 years old, was largely due to the efforts of his brother-in-law, the Hohenzollern burgrave Frederick III of Nuremberg. The support of Duke Albert II of Saxony and Elector Palatine Louis II had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolf's daughters.

As a result, within the electoral college, King Ottokar II of Bohemia (1230–1278), himself a candidate for the throne and related to the late Hohenstaufen king Philip of Swabia (being the son of the eldest surviving daughter), was almost alone in opposing Rudolf. Other candidates were Prince Siegfried I of Anhalt and Margrave Frederick I of Meissen (1257–1323), a young grandson of the excommunicated Emperor Frederick II, who did not yet even have a principality of his own as his father was still alive. By the admission of Duke Henry XIII of Lower Bavaria instead of the King of Bohemia as the seventh Elector, [5] Rudolf gained all seven votes.

King of the Germans

Rudolf of the House of Habsburg, Speyer Cathedral, Germany. Rudolf of Hapsburg Speyer.jpg
Rudolf of the House of Habsburg, Speyer Cathedral, Germany.

Rudolf was crowned in Aachen Cathedral on 24 October 1273. To win the approbation of the Pope, Rudolf renounced all imperial rights in Rome, the papal territory, and Sicily, and promised to lead a new crusade. Pope Gregory X, despite the protests of Ottokar II of Bohemia, not only recognised Rudolf himself, but persuaded King Alfonso X of Castile (another grandson of Philip of Swabia), who had been chosen German (anti-)king in 1257 as the successor to Count William II of Holland, to do the same. Thus, Rudolf surpassed the two heirs of the Hohenstaufen dynasty whom he had earlier served so loyally.

In November 1274, the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg decided that all Crown estates seized since the death of the Emperor Frederick II must be restored, and that King Ottokar II must answer to the Diet for not recognising the new king. Ottokar refused to appear or to restore the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia together with the March of Carniola, which he had claimed through his first wife, a Babenberg heiress, and which he had seized while disputing them with another Babenberg heir, Margrave Hermann VI of Baden. Rudolf refuted Ottokar's succession to the Babenberg patrimony, declaring that the provinces reverted to the Imperial crown due to the lack of male-line heirs. King Ottokar was placed under the imperial ban; and in June 1276 war was declared against him.

Having persuaded Ottokar's former ally Duke Henry XIII of Lower Bavaria to switch sides, Rudolf compelled the Bohemian king to cede the four provinces to the control of the royal administration in November 1276. Rudolf then re-invested Ottokar with the Kingdom of Bohemia, betrothed one of his daughters to Ottokar's son Wenceslaus II, and made a triumphal entry into Vienna. Ottokar, however, raised questions about the execution of the treaty, and procured the support of several German princes, again including Henry XIII of Lower Bavaria. To meet this coalition, Rudolf formed an alliance with King Ladislaus IV of Hungary and gave additional privileges to the Viennese citizens. On 26 August 1278, the rival armies met at the Battle on the Marchfeld, where Ottokar was defeated and killed. The Margraviate of Moravia was subdued and its government entrusted to Rudolf's representatives, leaving Ottokar's widow Kunigunda of Slavonia in control of only the province surrounding Prague, while the young Wenceslaus II was again betrothed to Rudolf's youngest daughter Judith.

Hoftag Augsburg 1282. Austrian medal commemorating the 600th anniversary the Habsburg Monarchy. Augsburg, Silver Medal 600th Anniversary of 1282 Hoftag.jpg
Hoftag Augsburg 1282. Austrian medal commemorating the 600th anniversary the Habsburg Monarchy.

Rudolf's attention next turned to the possessions in Austria and the adjacent provinces, which were taken into the royal domain. He spent several years establishing his authority there but found some difficulty in establishing his family as successors to the rule of those provinces. At length the hostility of the princes was overcome. In December 1282, at the Hoftag (imperial diet) in Augsburg, Rudolf invested his sons, Albert and Rudolf II, with the duchies of Austria and Styria and so laid the foundation of the House of Habsburg. Additionally, he made the twelve-year-old Rudolf Duke of Swabia, a merely titular dignity, as the duchy had been without an actual ruler since Conradin's execution.[ citation needed ] The 27-year-old Duke Albert, married since 1274 to a daughter of Count Meinhard II of Gorizia-Tyrol (1238–95), was capable enough to hold some sway in the new patrimony.

In 1286, King Rudolf fully invested Albert's father-in-law Count Meinhard with the Duchy of Carinthia, one of the conquered provinces taken from Ottokar. The Princes of the Empire did not allow Rudolf to give everything that was recovered to the royal domain to his own sons, and his allies needed their rewards too. Turning to the west, in 1281 he compelled Count Philip I of Savoy to cede some territory to him, then forced the citizens of Bern to pay the tribute that they had been refusing. In 1289 he marched against Count Philip's successor, Otto IV, compelling him to do homage.

In 1281, Rudolf's first wife died. On 5 February 1284, he married Isabella, daughter of Duke Hugh IV of Burgundy, the Empire's western neighbor in the Kingdom of France.

Rudolf was not very successful in restoring internal peace. Orders were indeed issued for the establishment of landpeaces[ clarification needed ] in Bavaria, Franconia and Swabia, and afterwards for the whole Empire. But the king lacked the power, resources, and determination to enforce them, although in December 1289 he led an expedition into Thuringia, where he destroyed a number of robber castles. In 1291, he attempted to secure the election of his son Albert as German king. The electors refused, however, claiming inability to support two kings, but in reality, perhaps, wary of the increasing power of the House of Habsburg. Upon Rudolf's death they elected Count Adolf of Nassau.

Death

Rudolf died in Speyer on 15 July 1291 and was buried in Speyer Cathedral. Although he had a large family, he was survived by only one son, Albert, afterwards the German king Albert I. Most of his daughters outlived him, apart from Katharina who had died in 1282 during childbirth and Hedwig who had died in 1285/6.

Rudolf's reign is most memorable for his establishment of the House of Habsburg as a powerful dynasty in the southeastern part of the realm. In the other territories, the centuries-long decline of Imperial authority since the days of the Investiture Controversy continued, and the princes were largely left to their own devices.

In the Divine Comedy, Dante finds Rudolf sitting outside the gates of purgatory with his contemporaries and berates him as "he who neglected that which he ought to have done". [6]

Family and children

Rudolf's cenotaph in Speyer Cathedral Rudolf von Habsburg Speyer.jpg
Rudolf's cenotaph in Speyer Cathedral

Rudolf was married twice. First, in 1251, to Gertrude of Hohenberg [7] and second, in 1284, to Isabelle of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy. [7] All children were from the first marriage.

Rudolph I of Germany at stained glass in Saint Jerome's chapel in town hall in Olomouc (Czech Republic). Rudolph I of Germany - stained glass window.jpg
Rudolph I of Germany at stained glass in Saint Jerome's chapel in town hall in Olomouc (Czech Republic).
  1. Matilda (c. 1253, Rheinfelden – 23 December 1304, Munich), married 1273 in Aachen to Louis II, Duke of Bavaria [8] and became mother of Rudolf I, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor.
  2. Albert I of Germany (July 1255 – 1 May 1308), Duke of Austria and also of Styria.
  3. Catherine (1256 – 4 April 1282, Landshut), married 1279 in Vienna to Otto III, Duke of Bavaria [8] who later (after her death) became the disputed King Bela V of Hungary and left no surviving issue.
  4. Agnes [Gertrude] (ca. 1257 – 11 October 1322, Wittenberg), married 1273 to Albert II, Duke of Saxony [8] and became the mother of Rudolf I, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg.
  5. Hedwig (c. 1259 – 26 January 1285/27 October 1286), married 1270 in Vienna to Otto VI, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel and left no issue. [8]
  6. Clementia (c. 1262 – after 7 February 1293), married 1281 in Vienna to Charles Martel of Anjou, the Papal claimant to the throne of Hungary [8]
  7. Hartmann (1263, Rheinfelden – 21 December 1281), drowned in Rheinau.
  8. Rudolf II, Duke of Austria and Styria (1270 – 10 May 1290, Prague), titular Duke of Swabia, father of John the Parricide of Austria.
  9. Judith of Habsburg (Jutte/Bona) (13 March 1271 – 18 June 1297, Prague), married 24 January 1285 to King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and became the mother of king Wenceslaus III of Bohemia, Poland and Hungary, of queen Anne of Bohemia (1290–1313), duchess of Carinthia, and of queen Elisabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330), countess of Luxembourg.
  10. Samson (before 19 Oct 1275 – died young).
  11. Charles (14 February 1276 – 16 August 1276).

Rudolf's last legitimate agnatic descendant was Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress (1717–1780), by Albert I of Germany's fourth son Albert II, Duke of Austria.

Ancestry

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

Citations

  1. Coxe 1847, p. 5.
  2. Emerton 1917, p. 76.
  3. 1 2 3 Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. 1911, pp. 247
  4. Die Habsburger. Eine Europäische Familiengeschichte, Brigitte Vacha, Sonderausgabe 1996, Zeittafel p. 16
  5. Vacha, "1273 wurde Rudolf von Habsburg von den sieben Kurfürsten zum König gewählt" - "statt dem Böhmenkönig dem bayerischen Herzogtum die siebente Kurstimme übertragen wurde", pp. 32-33
  6. Dante. The Divine Comedy; Purgatorio: Canto VII. He who sits highest, and the semblance bears Of having what he should have done neglected, And to the others’ song moves not his lips, Rudolph the Emperor was, who had the power To heal the wounds that Italy have slain, So that through others slowly she revives.
  7. 1 2 Duggan 1997, p. 108.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Earenfight 2013, p. 173.

Bibliography

  • Abbott, John S. C. (1877). Austria: It's Rise and Present Power. World's Best Histories. New York: The Cooperative Publication Society.
  • Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Rudolf I King of Germany. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Coxe, William (1847). History of the House of Austria. 1. London: Henry G. Bohn.
  • Duggan, Anne J., ed. (1997). Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe. The Boydell Press.
  • Earenfight, Theresa (2013). Queenship in Medieval Europe. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Emerton, Ephraim (1917). The Beginnings of Modern Europe (1250-1450). Ginn and Company.
  • Kohlrausch, Frederick (1847). History of Germany. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
Rudolf I of Germany
Born: 1218 Died: 1291
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Richard and Alfonso
as rival kings
King of Germany
1273 – 1291
with Alfonso as contender (1273–1275)
Succeeded by
Adolf
Preceded by
Ottokar II of Bohemia
Duke of Carinthia and Carniola
1276–1286
Succeeded by
Meinhard
Duke of Austria and Styria
1278–1282
Succeeded by
Albert I
Rudolf II
Preceded by
Albert IV
Count of Habsburg
1239-1291
With: Rudolph V (1282-1283)
Succeeded by
Albert V
Rudolph VI