|Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire|
The Rumelia Eyalet in 1609
|Capital||Edirne, Sofia, Monastir|
|124,630 km2 (48,120 sq mi)|
The Eyalet of Rumeli or Rumelia (Ottoman Turkish : ایالت روم ایلی, Eyālet-i Rūm-ėli), also known as the Beylerbeylik of Rumeli, was a first-level province ( beylerbeylik or eyalet ) of the Ottoman Empire encompassing most of the Balkans ("Rumelia"). For most of its history it was the largest and most important province of the Empire, containing key cities such as Edirne, Yanina (Ioannina), Sofia, Manastır/Monastir (Bitola), Üsküp (Skopje), and the major seaport of Selanik/Salonica (Thessaloniki).
The capital was in Adrianople (Edirne), Sofia, and finally Monastir (Bitola). Its reported area in the 19th century was 48,119 square miles (124,630 km2).
The first beylerbey of Rumelia was Lala Shahin Pasha, who was awarded the title by Sultan Murad I as a reward for his capture of Adrianople (Edirne) in the 1360s, and given military authority over the Ottoman territories in Europe, which he governed effectively as the Sultan's deputy while the Sultan returned to Anatolia.Also, Silistra Eyalet was formed in 1593.
From its foundation, the province of Rumelia—initially termed beylerbeylik or generically vilayet ("province"), only after 1591 was the term eyalet used—encompassed the entirety of the Ottoman Empire's European possessions, including the trans-Danubian conquests like Akkerman, until the creation of further eyalets in the 16th century, beginning with the Archipelago (1533), Budin (1541) and Bosnia (1580).
The first capital of Rumelia was probably Edirne (Adrianople), which was also, until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottomans' capital city. It was followed by Sofia for a while and again by Edirne until 1520, when Sofia once more became the seat of the beylerbey.At the time, the beylerbey of Rumelia was the commander of the most important military force in the state in the form of the timariot sipahi cavalry, and his presence in the capital during this period made him a regular member of the Imperial Council ( divan ). For the same reason, powerful Grand Viziers like Mahmud Pasha Angelovic or Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha held the beylerbeylik in tandem with the grand vizierate.
In the 18th century, Monastir emerged as an alternate residence of the governor, and in 1836, it officially became the capital of the eyalet. At about the same time, the Tanzimat reforms, aimed at modernizing the Empire, split off the new eyalets of Üsküb, Yanya and Selanik and reduced the Rumelia Eyalet to a few provinces around Monastir. The rump eyalet survived until 1867, when, as part of the transition to the more uniform vilayet system, it became part of the Salonica Vilayet.
The governor of the Rumelia Eyalet was titled "Beylerbey of Rumelia" (Rumeli beylerbeyi) or "Vali of Rumelia" (Rumeli vali).
|Lala Shahin Pasha||the first beylerbey of Rumelia, the lala (tutor) of Murad I. [ better source needed ]|
|Timurtaş Bey||fl. 1385|
|Süleyman Çelebi||before 1411||son of Bayezid I|
|Mihaloğlu Mehmed Bey||1411|
|Sinan Pasha ( son of Albanian noble Bogdan Muzaka||1430|
|Ömer Bey||fl. 1453|
|Turahan Bey||before 1456|
|Mahmud Pasha||before 1456|
|Ahmed||after 1456[ citation needed ]|
|Hass Murad Pasha||c. 1469–1473|
|Hadım Süleyman Pasha||c. 1475|
|Davud Pasha the Albanian||c. 1478|
|Sinan Pasha the Albanian||c. 1481|
|Mesih Pasha||after 1481|
|Hasan Pasha||fl. 1514|
|Ahmed Pasha the Albanian||fl. 1521|
|Güzelce Kasım Pasha||c. 1527|
|Khusrow Pasha||June 1538 –?|
|Ali Pasha||fl. 1546|
|Sokollu Mehmed Pasha||fl. 1551|
|Doğancı Mehmed Pasha|
|Osman Yeğen Pasha||1687|
|Sari Ahmed Pasha||1714 –1715|
|Topal Osman Pasha||1721–27, 1729–30, 1731|
|Hadji Mustafa Pasha||summer of 1797 –?|
|Ahmed Kamil Pasazade Hakki Pasha|
|Ali Pasha of Albanian descent||1793|
|Ali Pasha (2nd term)||1802 )|
|Veli Pasha (son of Ali Pasha) 1804|
|Hurshid Pasha||fl. 1808|
|Köse Ahmed Zekeriya Pasha||1836–March 1840|
|Mehmed Dilaver Pasha||May–July 1840|
|Yusuf Muhlis Pasha Serezli||July 1840–February 1842|
|Yakub Pasha Kara Osmanzade|
|Mustafa Nuri Paşa, Sırkatibi|
|Mehmed Said Paşa, Mirza/Tatar|
|Mehmed Ziyaeddin Paşa, Mezarcızade|
|Ömer Paşa, Kızılhisarlı|
|Mehmed Ziyaeddin Paşa, Mezarcızade|
|Mehmed Emin Pasha|
|Mehmed Reşid Paşa, Boşnakzade|
|Ömer Paşa, Kızılhisarlı (2nd term)|
|Mehmed Hurshid Pasha Arnavud|
|Ahmed Nazır Paşa|
|İsmail Paşa, Çerkes|
|Abdülkerim Nadir Paşa, Çırpanlı|
|Ali Paşa, Hacı, Kütahyalı/Germiyanoğlu|
|Hüseyin Hüsnü Paşa|
|Mehmed Tevfik Paşa, Taşcızade|
A list dated to 1475 lists seventeen subordinate sanjakbeys , who controlled sub-provinces or sanjaks , which also functioned as military commands:
Another list, dating to the early reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566), lists the sanjakbeys of that period, in approximate order of importance.:
The Çingene, Müselleman-i Kirk Kilise and Voynuks were not territorial circumscriptions, but rather represented merely a sanjakbey appointed to control these scattered and often nomadic groups, and who acted as the commander of the military forces recruited among them.The Pasha-sanjak in this period comprised a wide area in western Macedonia, including the towns of Üskub (Skopje), Pirlipe (Prilep), Manastir (Bitola) and Kesriye (Kastoria).
A similar list compiled c. 1534 gives the same sanjaks, except for the absence of Sofia, Florina and Inebahti (among the provinces transferred to the new Archipelago Eyalet in 1533), and the addition of Selanik (Salonica).
In 1538 there are listed 29 liva (sanjaks) during the reign of Sultan Suleiman I.
Further sanjaks were removed with the progressive creation of new eyalets, and an official register c. 1644 records only fifteen sanjaks for the Rumelia Eyalet:
The administrative division of the beylerbeylik of Rumelia between 1700-1730 was as follows:
Sanjaks in the early 19th century:
According to the state yearbook ( salname ) of the year 1847, the reduced Rumelia Eyalet, centred at Manastir, encompassed also the sanjaks of Iskenderiyye (Scutari), Ohri (Ohrid) and Kesrye (Kastoria).In 1855, according to the French traveller A. Viquesnel, it comprised the sanjaks of Iskenderiyye, with 7 kazas or sub-provinces, Ohri with 8 kazas, Kesrye with 8 kazas and the pasha-sanjak of Manastir with 11 kazas.
The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire. Outside this system were various types of vassal and tributary states.
The Eyalet of Anatolia was one of the two core provinces in the early years of the Ottoman Empire. It was established in 1393. Its capital was first Ankara in central Anatolia, but then moved to Kütahya in western Anatolia. Its reported area in the 19th century was 65,804 square miles (170,430 km2).
Eyalets, also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.
Sanjak-bey, sanjaq-bey or -beg, meaning "Lord of the Standard" was the title given in the Ottoman Empire to a Bey appointed to the military and administrative command of a district, answerable to a superior wāli or other provincial governor. In a few cases the sanjak-bey was himself directly answerable to Istanbul.
The Eyalet of Silistra or Silistria, later known as Özü Eyalet meaning Province of Ochakiv was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire along the Black Sea littoral and south bank of the Danube River in southeastern Europe. The fortress of Akkerman was under the eyalet's jurisdiction. Its reported area in the 19th century was 71,140 square kilometres (27,469 sq mi).
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire. Initially designating a commander-in-chief, it eventually came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage, where the rank survived the longest, it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces, although in later centuries it became devalued into a mere honorific title. Its equivalents in Arabic were amir al-umara, and in Persian, mir-i miran.
The Pashalik of Iskodra, or Pashalik of Shkodra (1757–1831), was an autonomous and de facto independent pashalik created by the Albanian Bushati family from the previous Sanjak of Scutari, which was situated around the city of Shkodër in modern-day Albania and large majority of modern-day Montenegro. At its peak during the reign of Kara Mahmud Bushati the pashalik encompassed much of Albania, most of Kosovo, western Macedonia, southeastern Serbia and most of Montenegro. Up to 1830 the Pashalik of Shkodra controlled most of the above lands including Southern Montenegro.
Vardar Macedonia, the area that now makes up North Macedonia, was part of the Ottoman Empire for over five hundred years, from the mid-14th century to 1912. However, the Ottomans themselves did not keep any "Macedonia" as an administrative unit. Instead Vardar Macedonia was part of the Ottoman province or Eyalet of Rumelia. The name Rumelia means "Land of the Romans" in Turkish, referring to the lands conquered by the Ottoman Turks from the Byzantine Empire.
A vilayet was a first-order administrative division, or province of the later Ottoman Empire, introduced with the promulgation of the Vilayet Law of 21 January 1867. The reform was part of the ongoing administrative reforms that were being enacted throughout the empire, and enshrined in the Imperial Edict of 1856. The reform was at first implemented experimentally in the Danube Vilayet, specially formed in 1864 and headed by the leading reformist Midhat Pasha. The reform was gradually implemented, and not until 1884 was it applied to the entirety of the Empire's provinces.
Sanjak of Bosnia was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire established in 1463 when the lands conquered from the Bosnian Kingdom were transformed into a sanjak and Isa-Beg Isaković was appointed its first sanjakbey. In the period between 1463 and 1580 it was part of the Rumelia Eyalet. After the Bosnia Eyalet was established in 1580 the Bosnian Sanjak became its central province. Between 1864 and the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia in 1878 it was part of the Bosnia Vilayet that succeeded the Eyalet of Bosnia following administrative reforms in 1864 known as the "Vilayet Law". Although Bosnia Vilayet was officially still part of the Ottoman Empire until 1908 the Bosnian Sanjak ceased to exist in 1878.
The Sanjak of Üsküp was one of the sanjaks in the Ottoman Empire, with Üsküb as its administrative centre.
The Sanjak of İpek or Sanjak of Dukakin was a sanjak with its capital in İpek (Peja), now in Kosovo.
The Sanjak of Delvina was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire which county town was Delvinë but during the 18th century became Gjirokastër, Albania. It was created in the middle of 16th century and disestablished after the Balkan Wars in 1913. Its territory was divided among newly established short lived states: the Principality of Albania and Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus.
The Sanjak of Ioannina was a sanjak of the Ottoman Empire whose capital was Ioannina in Epirus.
The Sanjak of Ohri was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire established in 1395. Part of it was located on the territory of the Lordship of Prilep, a realm in Macedonia ruled by the Ottoman vassal Prince Marko until his death in the Battle of Rovine.
The Sanjak of Sofia was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire which county town was Sofia. It was founded in 1393 and disestablished after the creation of the Principality of Bulgaria in 1878.
Karli-Eli, also Karli-Ili or Karlo-Ili, was the Ottoman name for the region of Aetolia-Acarnania in western Greece, which formed a distinct administrative unit from the late 15th century until the Greek War of Independence.
The Sanjak of Tirhala or Trikala was second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region of Thessaly. Its name derives from the Turkish version of the name of the town of Trikala. It was established after the conquest of Thessaly by the Ottomans led by Turahan Bey, a process which began at the end of the 14th century and ended in the mid-15th century.
Hadım Şehabeddin Paşa, also called Kula Şahin Paşa, was an Ottoman general and governor that served Sultan Mehmed II. Brought to the Ottoman court at a young age, Şehabeddin started as a court eunuch (hadım), then advanced to become Kapi Agha, a close advisor to the Sultan, before being appointed governor (sanjakbey) in Albania, and then at the height of his career, provincial governor (beylerbey) of Rumelia (1439–42). Şehabeddin was known as ardent supporter of the expansionist policy of Ottoman Empire. He commanded the Ottoman forces that captured Novo Brdo in 1441. After his forces were heavily defeated in a battle with forces of Janos Hunyadi in September 1442, he was dismissed from the position of beylerbey. After 1444 he was again briefly appointed to the position of beylerbey of Rumelia. Şehabeddin died in 1453 in Bursa.
Yeğen Osman Pasha or Yeğen Osman Aga was 17th-century Ottoman military officer of Armenian origin. After being commander of sekban units in Anatolia, he was appointed first to position of sanjakbey and serçeşme of the Sanjak of Karahisar-i Sahib. In 1687 for a couple of months he was also the beylerbey of Rumelia Eyalet, which was the highest position he held.
Sjedište beglerbega Rumelije ...prvi namjesnik, Lala Šahin-paša,...