Rump state

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Kingdom of Soissons, a Roman rump state. Detailed Domain of Soissons.svg
Kingdom of Soissons, a Roman rump state.

A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory. [1] In the latter case, a government stops short of going into exile because it still controls part of its former territory.

State (polity) Organised community living under a system of government; either a sovereign state, constituent state, or federated state

The term state refers to a form of polity, that is typically characterised as a centralized organisation. There is no single, undisputed, definition of what constitutes a state. A widely-used definition is a state being a polity that, within a given territory, maintains a monopoly on the use of force, but many other widely used definitions exist.

Secession is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance. Threats of secession can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals. It is, therefore, a process, which commences once a group proclaims the act of secession. It could involve a violent or peaceful process but these do not change the nature of the outcome, which is the creation of a new state or entity independent from the group or territory it seceded from.

Annexation acquisition of a states territory by another state

Annexation is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state and is generally held to be an illegal act. It is distinct from conquest, which refers to the acquisition of control over a territory involving a change of sovereignty, and differs from cession, in which territory is given or sold through treaty, since annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state. It usually follows military occupation of a territory.

Contents

Examples

Ancient history

Xu (state) Ancient Chinese State

The State of Xu was an independent Huaiyi state of the Chinese Bronze Age that was ruled by the Ying family (嬴) and controlled much of the Huai River valley for at least two centuries. With its capital at Xizhou and its ritual center at Pizhou, Xu's heartland was northern Anhui, northwestern Jiangsu, and the Lower Huai River valley.

Huai River major river in China

The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China. It is located about midway between the Yellow River and Yangtze, the two largest rivers in China, and like them runs from west to east. Historically draining directly into the Yellow Sea, floods have changed the course of the river such that it is now a major tributary of the Yangtze. The Huai is notoriously vulnerable to flooding.

Kingdom of Soissons former country

In historiography, the Kingdom or Domain of Soissons refers to a rump state of the Western Roman Empire in northern Gaul, between the Somme and the Seine, that lasted for some twenty-five years during Late Antiquity. The rulers of the rump state, notably its final ruler Syagrius, were referred to as "Kings of the Romans" by the Germanic peoples surrounding Soissons, with the polity itself being identified as the Regnum Romanorum, "Kingdom of the Romans", by the Gallo-Roman historian Gregory of Tours. Whether this title was used by Syagrius himself, who claimed to be governing a Roman province and not a state independent from central imperial authority, or was applied to him by the barbarians surrounding his realm in a similar way to how they referred to their own leaders as kings is unknown.

Medieval history

Ming dynasty Former empire in Eastern Asia, last Han Chinese-led imperial regime

The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.

Southern Ming dynasty

The Southern Ming was a loyalist rump state that existed in southern China following the Ming dynasty's collapse in 1644. The Ming were overthrown when peasant rebels captured Beijing. Ming general Wu Sangui then opened the gates of the Great Wall to the multi-ethnic Qing banners, in hope of using them to annihilate the rebel force. Loyalists fled to Nanjing, where they enthroned Zhu Yousong, Prince of Fu. The Nanjing regime lasted until 1645, when the Qing captured Nanjing. Later, a series of pretenders held court in various southern Chinese cities.

Modern history

Hungarian Soviet Republic communist republic established in Hungary in the aftermath of World War I

The Hungarian Soviet Republic or literally Republic of Councils in Hungary was a short-lived communist rump state. When the Republic of Councils in Hungary was established in 1919, it controlled only approximately 23% of the territory of Hungary's classic borders.

First Hungarian Republic former country (1918–1919)

The First Hungarian Republic, also contemporarily known as the Hungarian People's Republic, was a short-lived people's republic that existed – apart from a 133-day interruption in the form of the Hungarian Soviet Republic – from 16 November 1918 until 8 August 1919. The republic was established in the wake of the dissolution of Austria-Hungary following World War I. The First Hungarian Republic replaced the Kingdom of Hungary, and was in turn replaced by the Hungarian Republic, another short-lived state from 1919 to 1920.

Republic of German-Austria republic in Central Europe between 1918-1919

The Republic of German-Austria was a country created following World War I as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Disputed cases

Communist Party of China Political party of the Peoples Republic of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly, and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) government from mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It also controls the world's largest armed forces, the People's Liberation Army.

Mainland China geopolitical area under the jurisdiction of the Peoples Republic of China excluding Special Administrative Regions

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland.

Chinese Civil War 1927–1950 civil war in China

The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC) lasting intermittently between 1927 and 1949. Although particular attention is paid to the four years of fighting from 1945 to 1949, the war actually started in August 1927, after the KMT-CPC Alliance collapsed during the Northern Expedition. The conflict took place in two stages, the first between 1927 and 1937, and the second from 1946 to 1950; the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945 was an interlude in which the two sides were united against the forces of Japan. The Civil War resulted in a major revolution in China, with the Communists gaining control of mainland China and establishing the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, forcing the Republic of China (ROC) to retreat to Taiwan. A lasting political and military standoff between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait ensued, with the ROC in Taiwan and the PRC in mainland China both officially claiming to be the legitimate government of all China.

See also

A puppet state, puppet regime, or puppet government is a state that is de jure independent but is de facto completely dependent upon an outside power. It is nominally sovereign but effectively controlled by a foreign or otherwise alien power, for reasons such as financial interests, economic or military support.

A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country. Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory. For example, during World War I, nearly all of Belgium was occupied by Germany, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, in contrast, has lost all its territory.

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Colony territory under the political control of an overseas state, generally with its own subordinate colonial government

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Irredentism political idea of reclaiming areas

Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to claim or reclaim and occupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" territory from their nation's past.

Yugoslavia 1918–1992 country in Southeastern and Central Europe

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China proper Geopolitical term

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China proper, as many administrative, cultural, and linguistic shifts have occurred in Chinese history. One definition refers to the original area of Chinese civilization, the Central Plain ; another to the "Eighteen Provinces" system of the Qing dynasty. There is no direct translation for "China proper" in the Chinese language due to differences in terminology used by the Qing to refer to the regions and the expression is controversial among scholars, particularly in China, due to national territorial claims.

Chinese unification potential political unification of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC)/Taiwan into a single sovereign state

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Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states. A successor state is a sovereign state over a territory and populace that was previously under the sovereignty of another state. The theory has its root in 19th-century diplomacy. A successor state often acquires a new international legal personality, which is distinct from a continuing state, also known as a continuator, which despite change to its borders retains the same legal personality and possess all its existing rights and obligations.

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Two Chinas refers to the situation where two political entities each name themselves "China"

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Secessionism in China is a term used to refer to several secessionist movements in the People's Republic of China (China/PRC) and the Republic of China (Taiwan/ROC). Note that Taiwan (ROC) has limited diplomatic recognition as is not a member state or even observer state of the United Nations.

References

Citations

  1. Tir, Jaroslav (Feb 22, 2005). Keeping the Peace After Secessions: Territorial Conflicts Between Rump and Secessionist States. Annual meeting of the International Studies Association. Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu: Hawaii Online. Retrieved Oct 26, 2014.
  2. Shaughnessy (1999), p. 324.
  3. State, Paul F. A brief history of France. Facts On File. p. 35. ISBN   9781438133461.
  4. Fattah, Hala Mundhir; Caso, Frank (2009). A Brief History of Iraq. p. 277.
  5. Des Forges, Roger V. (2003). Cultural centrality and political change in Chinese history : northeast Henan in the fall of the Ming. Stanford University Press. p. 6. ISBN   9780804740449.
  6. Seth, Michael J. (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 115.
  7. Struve, Lynn A. (1998). "The Ming-Qing Conflict, 1619-1683: A Historiography and Source Guide": 110-111.
  8. John C. Swanson (2017). Tangible Belonging: Negotiating Germanness in Twentieth-Century Hungary. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 80. ISBN   9780822981992.
  9. Magocsi, Paul Robert (2018). Historical atlas of Central Europe: Third Revised and Expanded Edition. University of Toronto Press. p. 128. ISBN   9781487523312.
  10. James Hartfield, Unpatriotic History of the Second World War, ISBN   178099379X, 2012, p. 424
  11. Eric Morris, Circles of Hell: The War in Italy 1943-1945, ISBN   0091744741, 1993, p. 140
  12. Neville, Peter (2014). Mussolini (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 199. ISBN   9781317613046.
  13. Tir, Jaroslav (2005). "Keeping the Peace after Secession: Territorial Conflicts between Rump and Secessionist States". The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 49 (5): 714.
  14. 1 2 Sudetic, Chuck (1991-10-24), "Top Serb Leaders Back Proposal To Form Separate Yugoslav State", New York Times, retrieved 2018-03-07.
  15. Beber, Bernd; Roessler, Philip; Scacco, Alexandra (2014). "Intergroup Violence and Political Attitudes: Evidence from a Dividing Sudan". The Journal of Politics. 76 (3): 652.
  16. Krasner, Stephen D. (2001). Problematic Sovereignty: Contested Rules and Political Possibilities. Columbia University Press. p. 148. For some time the Truman administration had been hoping to distance itself from the rump state on Taiwan and to establish at least a minimal relationship with the newly founded PRC.
  17. "TIMELINE: Milestones in China-Taiwan relations since 1949". Reuters . Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2015. 1949: Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists lose civil war to Mao Zedong's Communist forces, sets up government-in-exile on Taiwan.

Sources