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|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
Runan County (simplified Chinese :汝南县; traditional Chinese :汝南縣; pinyin :Rǔnán Xiàn) is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhumadian, in the southeast of Henan province, China.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
In ancient times, this area was called "the middle of the world" (天中), since it was the center of government for Yu province and lay at the heart of the Nine Provinces. The Duke of Zhou (周公), the most influential statesman of the early Zhou dynasty, visited Runan many times and termed it as the center of the land. During the Han dynasty, it contributed the most officials to the central government of any commandery, and was ancestral home to the immensely influential Ru'nan Yuan clan. In former times Runan County was at various times called Ancheng County (安城县) and Ruyang County (汝阳县), and Caizhou (蔡州)., amongst others. During the Zhou Dynasty (1045-256 BC), the vassal State of Dao fell within the borders of the county.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD).
Yuan is a Chinese surname ranked 37th in China by population. In Standard Chinese, the surname is transliterated Yuán or Yüen2" (Wade-Giles). Other romanizations include Yeu (Shanghainese), Ion, Yuen (Cantonese), Oan, Wang (Teochew), Won (Korean), and Viên (Vietnamese). Pronunciation differs widely from region to region.
Dao was a Chinese vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty located in the southern part of Runan County, Henan. Dao existed in the shadow of the powerful neighbouring State of Chu which was held in check by the equally powerful State of Qi. Whilst Duke Huan of Qi remained alive as one of the Five Hegemons, Qi maintained friendly relations with Dao along with the other small states of Jiang (江国), Huang and Bai (柏国) amongst others. When the Duke died in 643 BCE, civil disorder broke out in Qi and the State of Chu seized the opportunity to expand their territory northwards. The inhabitants of Dao were resettled in a place called Jingdi (荊地) until King Ping of Chu ascended the throne and restored Dao to its former territory. At some point Dao was finally exterminated by Chu although the time at which this occurred is currently unknown.
The town was the site of a major battle, the siege of Caizhou, in the war between the Mongol Empire and Jurchen Jin dynasty. Emperor Aizong, the Jurchen ruler, had fled to Caizhou after the Jin capital of Kaifeng was captured by the Mongols. He committed suicide in Caizhou and his successor, Emperor Mo, was killed in the besieged town. The Jin dynasty ended in Runan in 1234.
The siege of Caizhou between 1233 and 1234 was fought between the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty and the allied forces of the Mongol Empire and Southern Song dynasty. It was the last major battle in the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty. They had fought for decades beginning in 1211, when the Mongols first invaded under the command of Genghis Khan. The Jin capital, Zhongdu, had been besieged in 1213, then captured by the Mongols in 1215. In the intervening years, the Jin dynasty moved its capital to Bianjing. Ögedei Khan, the successor to Genghis Khan, rose to power after his predecessor died in 1227. In 1230, the war effort against the Jin dynasty recommenced. Emperor Aizong, the Jin ruler, fled when the Mongols besieged Bianjing. On February 26, 1233, he reached Guide, and then moved on to Caizhou, on August 3. The Mongols arrived at Caizhou in December, 1233. The Southern Song dynasty had rebuffed Emperor Aizong's plea for assistance, and joined forces with the Mongols. The Southern Song dynasty ignored Emperor Aizong's warning that they would become the Mongol Empire's next target.
The Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, also known as the Mongol–Jin War, was fought between the Mongol Empire and the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in Manchuria and north China. The war, which started in 1211, lasted over 23 years and ended with the complete conquest of the Jin dynasty by the Mongols in 1234.
The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries; it became the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in Mongolia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia; eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina and the Iranian Plateau; and westwards as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.
Today Runan County falls under the jurisdiction of the prefecture level city of Zhumadian. With a land area of 1306 square kilometres, the county is home to some 770,000 people (2002 figure). The county government is based in the town of Runing (Juning) (汝宁镇). The county of Runan was far larger in Chinese history, but had to surrender a lot of its territories to the nearby city of Zhumadian and counties in the recent centuries. This means that today's Runan is much smaller than it was.
Since Runan was famous in Chinese history, many historical relics still could be found in the county seat and within its county boundary. Notably, the Nanhai Chan Temple is famous in the Buddhist world. The site where the Duke of Zhou visited became a historical site as well.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China. Its name is sometimes written as Kin, Jurchen Jin or Jinn in English to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China whose name is identical when transcribed without tone marker diacritics in the Hanyu Pinyin system for Standard Chinese. It is also sometimes called the "Jurchen dynasty" or the "Jurchen Jin", because its founding leader Aguda was of Wanyan Jurchen descent.
The Jurchen were a tribal confederation of Tungusic and affiliated peoples, subdivided into three major groups:
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, for being the capital seven times in history, and is most famous for being the capital of China in the Northern Song dynasty.
Zhumadian is a prefecture-level city in southern Henan province, China. It borders Xinyang to the south, Nanyang to the west, Pingdingshan to the northwest, Luohe to the north, Zhoukou to the northeast, and the province of Anhui to the east.
Manchuria is a region in East Asia. Depending on the definition of its extent, Manchuria can either refer to a region falling entirely within China, or a larger region today divided between Northeast China and the Russian Far East. To differentiate between the two parts following the latter definition, the Russian part is also known as Outer Manchuria, while the Chinese part is known as Inner Manchuria. It is the homeland of the Manchu people, known as the "land of dragon rising" by the Aisin Gioro, the term introduced in 1636 for the Jurchen people, a Tungusic people which took power in 17th century China, establishing the Qing dynasty that lasted until 1912. The population grew from about 1 million in 1750 to 5 million in 1850 and 14 million in 1900, largely because of the immigration of Chinese farmers.
The history of the administrative divisions of the Imperial China is quite complex. Across history, what is called 'China' has taken many shapes, and many political organizations. For various reasons, both the borders and names of political divisions have changed—sometimes to follow topography, sometimes to weaken former states by dividing them, and sometimes to realize a philosophical or historical ideal. For recent times, the number of recorded tiny changes is quite large; by contrast, the lack of clear, trustworthy data for ancient times forces historians and geographers to draw approximate borders for respective divisions. But thanks to imperial records and geographic descriptions, political divisions may often be redrawn with some precision. Natural changes, such as changes in a river's course, or loss of data, still make this issue difficult for ancient times.
Emperor Qinzong of Song, personal name Zhao Huan, was the ninth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the last emperor of The Northern Song Dynasty.
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin, personal name Madage, sinicised name Wanyan Jing, was the sixth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He reigned from 20 January 1189 to 29 December 1208.
Yuzhou or Yu Province was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China, later to become an administrative division around the reign of Emperor Wu of the Western Han dynasty.
Emperor Mo of Jin, personal name Hudun, sinicised name Wanyan Chenglin, was the last emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. Originally a military general, he inherited the throne from his predecessor, Emperor Aizong, during the siege of Caizhou. He was killed in action on the same day he was crowned emperor, when Caizhou fell to the allied forces of the Mongol Empire and Southern Song dynasty. Having ruled as emperor for less than a day, or maybe even just a few hours, he holds the record for being the shortest-reigning monarch in Chinese history.
Nianhan (1080–1136), also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Zonghan, was a Jurchen noble and military general who lived in the founding and early years of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115-1234), which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Zhou family of Runan was a notable Chinese family which descended from Ji Lie (姬烈), the youngest son of King Ping of the Zhou dynasty in 8th century BCE China. Ji Lie's fief was at Runan County, which became the ancestral home of his descendants. Zhou Yong (周邕), an 18th-generation descendant of Ji Lie, is considered the founding father of the Zhou family of Runan. During the Eastern Jin dynasty, the Zhou family of Runan had their home located in the north of the Huai River region. The Zhou family of Runan continued to maintain its influence after the Tang dynasty.
Tianzhong Mountain has another name of Tiantai, and the original Tianzhong mountain is a circle little hill, covering an area of about 540 square meters, being 3.6 meters tall. It is located in the place, which is two kilometers far away of the northern Runan 汝南县, Zhumadian, Henan province. And the unique geographical position forms the ecological resources of Tianzhong mountain.
The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279). In 1115, Jurchen tribes rebelled against their overlords, the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125), and declared the formation of the Jin. Allying with the Song against their common enemy the Liao dynasty, the Jin promised to return to the Song the Sixteen Prefectures that had fallen under Liao control since 938. The Chinese agreed but the Jurchens' quick defeat of the Liao dynasty combined with Song dynasty military failures made the Jin reluctant to cede these territories. After a series of negotiations that embittered both sides, the Jurchens attacked the Song dynasty in 1125, dispatching one army to Taiyuan and the other to Bianjing, the Song capital.
The Jin–Song Wars were a series of armed conflicts conducted by the Jurchen Jin dynasty and the Song dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Jurchens were a Tungusic–speaking tribal confederation native to Manchuria. They overthrew the Khitan Liao dynasty in 1122 and declared the establishment of a new dynasty, the Jin. Diplomatic relations between the Jin and Song deteriorated, and the Jurchens first declared war on the Song dynasty in November 1125.
In the Mongol siege of Kaifeng from 1232 to 1233, the Mongol Empire captured Kaifeng, the capital of the Jurchen Jin dynasty. The Mongols and Jurchens had been at war for nearly two decades, beginning in 1211 after the Jurchens refused the Mongol offer to submit as a vassal. Ögedei Khan sent two armies to besiege Kaifeng, one led by himself, and the other by his brother Tolui. Command of the forces, once they converged into a single army, was given to Subutai who led the siege. The Mongols arrived at the walls of Kaifeng on April 8, 1232.
The Jurchen Jin dynasty was an empire that ruled over Northern China and what would later become Manchuria from 1115 until 1234. After the Jurchens defeated the Khitans, and the Chinese they would continue to use their coins for day to day usage in the conquered territories. In 1234 they were conquered by the Mongol Empire.
Zhang Bangchang, was a puppet ruler of Da Chu and a prime minister of the Song dynasty. He was executed by Emperor Gaozong of Song after he surrendered.
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