Rungsung Suisa

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Rungsung Suisa (4 March 1907 – 17 April 1971) was an Indian politician. [1] [2] Suisa was one of the key figures in the movement to unite Naga-populated areas in Manipur with the Naga Hills (Nagaland). [3] He was popularly known as 'Uncle Suisa'. [4]

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Naga people ethnic group

The Naga people are an various individuals or ethnic groups associated to the North Eastern part of India and northwestern Myanmar. The tribes have similar cultures and traditions, and form the majority of population in the Indian state of Nagaland, with significant populations in Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in India and the Sagaing Division of Myanmar.

Manipur State in North-east India

Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. It is bounded by Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, and Assam to the west; Burma (Myanmar) lies to its east. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi) and has a population of almost 3 million, including the Meitei, who are the majority group in the state, the Pangals or the Pangans, Kuki, and Naga people, who speak a variety of Sino-Tibetan languages. Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years. It has long connected the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia, China, Siberia, Micronesia and Polynesia, enabling migration of people, cultures, and religions.

Rungsung Suisa belonged to the Tangkhul Naga tribe. [5] He was the son of Rungsung Luithui. [1] He hailed from Somdal, Ukhrul district. [6] He studied at the Jorhat Christian High School. [1] He was amongst the first youths of the Manipur hill people to obtain matriculate education. [6]

Tangkhul Naga

The Tangkhuls are a major Naga ethnic group living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra tract hills, Layshi township, Homalin township in Upper Burma and Tamu Township in Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".Tangkhuls living in Burma are also known as Hogo Naga or Eastern Tangkhul or Somra Tangkhul. Also Kokak Naga, Akyaung Ari Naga and Hogo Naga are included tribally within Tangkhul Naga tribe but their language are quite distinct. The Tangkhul (Somra/Hogo) language in Mayanmar is very different from Tangkhul (Ukhrul) spoken in India.

Ukhrul district district in Manipur, India

Ukhrul is a district in the north eastern state of Manipur in India. It lies about 84 kilometres (52 mi) north east of Imphal.

Hill tribes of Northeast India

The hill tribes of Northeast India are hill people, mostly classified as scheduled tribes (hills), who live in the Northeast India region. This region has the largest proportion of scheduled tribes in the country.

Suisa was one of five hill leaders named by the President Manipur State Darbar to participate in the Constitution-Making Committee in 1946. However, Suisa and the other hill leaders did not attend the first session of the Committee. [1] [3] On 13 August 1947 he chaired a meeting of hill leaders, at which the assembled demanded that the hill peoples should have the right to secede from Manipur after a five-year period. However, these demands were not heeded by the Committee, and in the new constitution the administration of the hill areas was placed under the control of the Maharaja. [3] In June 1948 he was elected unopposed to the Manipur State Assembly. [1] [3]

In 1949 he visited Burma, and came into contact with the Communist Party of Burma. His experience in Burma radicalized his political approach, taking a more revolutionary stance in local politics upon his return. [3] He became a member of the Manipur Electoral College in 1951. [1]

The Communist Party of Burma is the oldest existing political party in Myanmar. It was founded on 15 August 1939 at a meeting attended by seven founding members, including Aung San, the father of modern-day Myanmar. The party was banned in 1953 by the government of Myanmar, and its operation remains illegal in the country.

Suisa was elected to the Lok Sabha (lower house of the parliament of India) in the 1957 general election. He stood as the Indian National Congress candidate in Outer Manipur constituency, obtaining 21,316 votes (26.24% of the votes in the constituency). [7] In parliament, he was represented in various committees. [3] The Manipur Naga Council boycotted the 1962 general election and Suisa was one of the Naga leaders that was detained at Dum Dum for about a year. [2]

Lok Sabha Lower house of the Parliament of India

The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.

Parliament of India National bicameral legislature of the Republic of India

The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses: the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The President in his role as head of legislature has full powers to summon and prorogue either house of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. The president can exercise these powers only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers.

1957 Indian general election

The Indian general election of 1957, held from 24 February to 9 June, was the second election to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India. They were held five years after the first general election, according to the provisions of the Constitution of India. Elections to many state legislatures were held simultaneously.

Suisa was assistant to the vice president of the Naga National Council 1964-1966. [3] In October 1966, following the deadlock in the peace talks, he presented a proposal to solve the Indo-Naga conflict through confederation, with shared responsibilities between India and Nagaland on foreign and military affairs, but full Naga sovereignty on internal affairs. [2] [8] [9] He sought to mediate between the Indian government and the Naga leaders. [4] [10] Allegedly, Indira Gandhi was open to accept Suisa's proposal. [8] However, the NNC opposed these moves and did not accept his proposal, as it went against their demand of complete independence. [2] Suisa had travelled to London together with Vizol in June 1967 to present the proposal to Angami Zapu Phizo but it was rebuffed by him. [10] [11]

The Naga National Council (NNC) was a political organization of Naga people, active from the late 1940s to the early 1950s. Under the leadership of Angami Zapu Phizo in the 1940s, it unsuccessfully campaigned for the secession of the Naga territory from India and creation for a sovereign Naga state.

Indira Gandhi Third Prime Minister of India

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. She was the first and, to date, the only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. She served as Prime Minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984, making her the second longest-serving Indian Prime Minister, after her father.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital of and largest city in England and the United Kingdom, and the largest city in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

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Nagaland State in North-east India

Nagaland is a state in northeastern India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam to the north, Myanmar to the east, and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur. It has an area of 16,579 square kilometres (6,401 sq mi) with a population of 1,980,602 per the 2011 Census of India, making it one of the smallest states of India.

Naga Peoples Front Political party of India

The Naga People's Front (NPF) is a regional political party in Nagaland and Manipur, India. It headed the Nagaland government with the Bharatiya Janata Party, as part of the Democratic Alliance of Nagaland from 2003 to 2018. Dr. Shurhozelie Liezietsu is the president of the party. Till 16 January 2018 Neiphiu Rio, the Lok Sabha member from the lone constituency of Nagaland was the main leader of the party. On 22 March 2004 the NPF absorbed the Nagaland Democratic Party.

Angami Zapu Phizo (1913–1990) was a Naga nationalist leader. Under his influence, the Naga National Council inclined towards seeking secession from India through armed revolution. The Naga secessionist groups regard him as the "Father of the Nagas".

Naga Hills mountain in Myanmar

The Naga Hills, reaching a height of around 3,825 metres (12,549 ft), lie on the border of India and Burma (Myanmar). They are part of a complex mountain system, and the parts of the mountain ranges inside the Indian state of Nagaland and the Burmese region of Sagaing are called the Naga Hills. The highest point of Naga hills is Mount Saramati.

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References

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  2. 1 2 3 4 U. A. Shimray (2007). Naga Population and Integration Movement: Documentation. Mittal Publications. pp. 90, 123–124. ISBN   978-81-8324-181-6.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U. A. Shimray (2007). Naga Population and Integration Movement: Documentation. Mittal Publications. pp. 82–85. ISBN   978-81-8324-181-6.
  4. 1 2 Prasenjit Biswas; C. Joshua Thomas; Indian Council of Social Science Research. North Eastern Regional Centre (1 January 2006). Peace in India's North-East: meaning, metaphor, and method : essays of concern and commitment. Regency Publications. p. 362. ISBN   978-81-89233-48-8.
  5. Bertil Lintner. GREAT GAME EAST. HarperCollins Publishers India. p. 86. ISBN   978-93-5029-536-6.
  6. 1 2 The Sangai Express. Nagas' demand for integration: A historical perspective - II
  7. Election Commission of India. STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTIONS, 1957 TO THE SECOND LOK SABHA - VOLUME I (NATIONAL AND STATE ABSTRACTS & DETAILED RESULTS)
  8. 1 2 Dr. Kunal Ghosh (1 January 2008). SEPARATISM IN NORTH EAST INDIA: ROLE OF RELIGION LANGUAGE AND SCRIPT. Suruchi Prakashan. p. 116. ISBN   978-81-89622-33-6.
  9. D. R. Mankekar (1967). On the Slippery Slope in Nagaland. Manaktalas. p. 178.
  10. 1 2 A. S. Atai Shimray (1 January 2005). Let Freedom Ring?: Story of Naga Nationalism. Bibliophile South Asia. p. 258. ISBN   978-81-85002-61-3.
  11. Reisang Vashum (2000). Nagas' Rights to Self Determination: An Anthropological-historical Perspective. Mittal Publications. p. 91. ISBN   978-81-7099-774-0.