Rurik dynasty

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Rurik dynasty
Рю́риковичи

Rurikids
Royal dynasty
Yarthewise.png
Personal seal of Yaroslav the Wise
Country
Founded862 (862) (in Great Novgorod)
Founder Rurik
Final ruler Vasili IV of Russia
Titles
Style(s)
Estate(s)
Dissolution1610 (1610) (in Moscow, Tsardom of Russia)
Cadet branches

The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Russian : Рю́риковичи, romanized: Rjúrikoviči; Ukrainian : Рю́риковичі, romanized: Rjúrykovyči; Belarusian : Ру́рыкавічы, romanized: Rúrykavičy, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian [1] prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862. [2] The Rurikids were the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus' (after 882), as well as the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia (after 1199), Chernigov, Vladimir-Suzdal, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Rus (Tsardom of Russia). They ruled until 1610 and the Time of Troubles, following which they were succeeded by the Romanovs. They are one of Europe's oldest royal houses, with numerous existing cadet branches.

Contents

As a ruling dynasty, the Rurik dynasty held its own in some part of Russia for a total of twenty-one generations in male-line succession, from Rurik (died 879) to Feodor I of Russia (died 1598), a period of more than 700 years.

Origins

Millennium of Russia monument in Novgorod with Rurik at the center and Vladimir the Great at the left and Dmitry Donskoy at the right (both Rurikids) Top of the Millennium of Russia Monument in Novgorod, 2005.jpg
Millennium of Russia monument in Novgorod with Rurik at the center and Vladimir the Great at the left and Dmitry Donskoy at the right (both Rurikids)

The Rurikid dynasty was founded in 862 by Rurik, a Varangian prince. The scholarly consensus [3] is that the Rus' people originated in what is currently coastal eastern Sweden around the eighth century and that their name has the same origin as Roslagen in Sweden (with the older name being Roden ). [4] [5] [6] According to the prevalent theory, the name Rus', like the Proto-Finnic name for Sweden (*Ruotsi), is derived from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" (rods-) as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, and that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen (Rus-law) or Roden , as it was known in earlier times. [7] [8] The name Rus' would then have the same origin as the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden: Ruotsi and Rootsi. [8] [9]

The Chud, the Slovenes, the Krivichi and the Ves said 'Our land is vast and abundant, but there is no order in it. Come and reign as princes and have authority over us!'" Three brothers came with 'their kin' and 'all the Rus' in response to this invitation. Rurik set up rule in Novgorod, giving more provincial towns to his brothers. There is some ambiguity even in the Primary Chronicle about the specifics of the story, "hence their paradoxical statement 'the people of Novgorod are of Varangian stock, for formerly they were Slovenes.'" However, archaeological evidence such as "Frankish swords, a sword chape and a tortoiseshell brooch" in the area suggest that there was, in fact, a Scandinavian population during the tenth century at the latest. [10]

History

Personal seals of Rurikids. The trident (tryzoub) is was adopted by Ukrainian nationalists in 20th century as Ukrainian coat of arms. Ruriks crests1.png
Personal seals of Rurikids. The trident (tryzoub) is was adopted by Ukrainian nationalists in 20th century as Ukrainian coat of arms.

Rurik and his brothers founded a state that later historians called Kievan Rus′. By the middle of the twelfth century, Kievan Rus′ had dissolved into independent principalities, each ruled by a different branch of the Rurik dynasty. The dynasty followed agnatic seniority and the izgoi principle. The Rurik dynasty underwent a major schism after the death of Yaroslav the Wise in 1054, dividing into three branches on the basis of descent from three successive ruling Grand Princes: Izyaslav (1024–1078), Svyatoslav (1027–1076), and Vsevolod (1030–1093). In addition, a line of Polotsk princes assimilated themselves with the princes of Lithuania. In the 10th century the Council of Liubech made some amendments to a succession rule and divided Ruthenia into several autonomous principalities that had equal rights to obtain the Kiev throne.

Vsevolod's line eventually became better known as the Monomakhovichi and was the predominant one. The line of Svyatoslav later became known as Olegovychi and often laid claim to the lands of Chernihiv and Severia. The Izyaslavychi who ruled Turov and Volhynia were eventually replaced by a Monomakhovychi branch.

Monument to Vladimir the Great in Kiev Pam'iatnik kniaziu Volodimiru zobrazhennia 2.jpg
Monument to Vladimir the Great in Kiev
Prince Alexander Nevsky defeats the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of the Ice in 1242 (20th century work) Ice-battle.jpg
Prince Alexander Nevsky defeats the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of the Ice in 1242 (20th century work)
Principalities of Kievan Rus', ruled by Rurikid princes, 1220-1240 Kyivan Rus' 1220-1240.png
Principalities of Kievan Rus', ruled by Rurikid princes, 1220–1240

"The Rurikid dynasty ... attempted to impose on their highly diverse polity the integrative concept of russkaia zemlia ('the Rus′ land') and the unifying notion of a 'Rus′ people'. But 'Kievan Rus′' was never really a unified polity. It was a loosely bound, ill-defined, and heterogeneous conglomeration of lands and cities inhabited by tribes and populous groups whose loyalties were primarily territorial." This caused the Rurik dynasty to effectively dissolve into several sub-dynasties ruling smaller states in the 10th and 11th centuries. These were the Olgoviches of Severia who ruled in Chernigov, Yuryeviches who controlled Vladimir-Suzdal, and Romanoviches in Galicia-Volhynia. [12] [13]

Descendants of Sviatoslav II of Kiev

The Olgoviches descended from Oleg I of Chernigov, a son of Sviatoslav II of Kiev and grandson of Yaroslav the Wise. They continued to rule until the early 14th century when they were torn apart by the emerging Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Grand Duchy of Moscow. The line continued through Oleg's son Vsevolod II of Kiev, grandson Sviatoslav III of Kiev, great-grandson Vsevolod IV of Kiev and great-great grandson Michael of Chernigov, from whose sons the extant lines of the Olegoviches are descended, including the Massalsky, Gorchakov, Baryatinsky, Volkonsky and Obolensky, including Repnin.

Descendants of Vsevolod I of Kiev

Vsevolod I of Kiev was the father of Vladimir II Monomakh, giving rise to the name Monomakh for his progeny. Two of Vladimir II's sons were Mstislav I of Kiev and Yuri Dolgorukiy.

The Romanoviches (Izyaslavichi of Volhynia)were the line of Roman the Great, descended from Mstislav I of Kiev through his son Iziaslav II of Kiev and his grandson Mstislav II of Kiev, father of Roman the Great. The older Monomakhovychi line that ruled Principality of Volhynia, they were eventually crowned kings of Galicia and Volhynia and ruled until 1323. Romanovychi displaced the older line of Izyaslavychi from Turov and Volhynia as well as Rostyslavychi from Galicia. The last were two brothers of Romanovychi, Andrew and Lev II, who ruled jointly and were slain trying to repel Mongol incursions. The Polish king, Władysław I the Elbow-high, in his letter to the Pope wrote with regret: "The two last Ruthenian kings, that had been firm shields for Poland from the Tatars, left this world and after their death Poland is directly under Tatar threat." Losing their leadership role, Rurikids, however, continued to play a vital role in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the later Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Most notably, the Ostrogski family held the title of Grand Hetman of Lithuania and strove to preserve the Ruthenian language and Eastern Orthodoxy in this part of Europe. It is thought that the Drutsk and related princely families may also descend from Roman the Great.

The Rostislaviches were the line of Rostislav I of Kiev, another son of Mstislav I of Kiev, who was Prince of Smolensk and a progenitor of the lines descending from the princes of Smolensk and Yaroslavl.

The Shakhovskoys were founded by Konstantin "Shakh" Glebovich, Prince of Yaroslavl, and traces its lineage to Rostislav I of Kiev through his son Davyd Rostislavich. It is possibly the only extant branch, with many Shakhovskoys living outside of Russia after having fled during the Russian Revolution.

The Yuryeviches were founded by Yuriy Dolgorukiy, the founder of Moscow and spread vastly in the north-east. Yuri's son Vsevolod the Big Nest was Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, a precursor state to the Grand Principality of Moscow and thus of the Russian Empire. Vsevolod's son Konstantin of Rostov was Prince of Rostov and the progenitor of various "Rostov" princely lines. Another son, Ivan Vsevolodich, was Prince of Starodub and progenitor of a number of extant lines, most notably the Gagarin line.

Vsevolod's son Yaroslav II of Vladimir was the father of Alexander Nevsky, whose son Daniel of Moscow sired the ruling house of Moscow until the end of the 16th century.

Beginning with the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Muscovite branch used the title "Tsar of All Russia" and ruled over the Tsardom of Russia. The death in 1598 of Tsar Feodor I ended the rule of the Rurik dynasty. The dynasty was briefly revived in the person of Vasili IV of Russia, a descendant of Shuyskiy line of the Rurik dynasty, but he died without issue. The unstable period known as the Time of Troubles succeeded Feodor's death and lasted until 1613.

In that year, Mikhail I ascended the throne, founding the Romanov dynasty that would rule until 1762 and as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov until the revolutions of 1917. Tsar Mikhail's father Patriarch Filaret of Moscow was descended from the Rurik dynasty through the female line. His mother, Evdokiya Gorbataya-Shuyskaya, was a Rurikid princess from the Shuysky branch, daughter of Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky. Tsar Mikhail's first wife Maria Dolgorukova was of Rurikid stock but their marriage produced no children. Emperor Peter III in 1762 brought fresh Rurikid blood to the Romanovs: he and his wife Catherine the Great both descended from the Rurik dynasty. (Catherine the Great descended from a daughter of Yaroslav I (978–1054) through her maternal grandfather, Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp. [14] )

Historian Vasily Tatishchev and filmmaker Jacques Tati also descended from Rurik.

Trade

In the early days of the Rurikid dynasty, the Kievan Rus' mainly traded with other tribes in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. "There was little need for complex social structures to carry out these exchanges in the forests north of the steppes. So long as the entrepreneurs operated in small numbers and kept to the north, they did not catch the attention of observers or writers." The Rus' also had strong trading ties to Byzantium, particularly in the early 900s, as treaties in 911 and 944 indicate. These treaties deal with the treatment of runaway Byzantine slaves and limitations on the amounts of certain commodities such as silk that could be bought from Byzantium. The Rus' used log rafts floated down the Dnieper River by Slavic tribes for the transport of goods, particularly slaves to Byzantium. [15]

Skirmish with Byzantium

One of the largest military accomplishments of the Rurikid dynasty was the attack on Byzantium in 960. Pilgrims of the Rus' had been making the journey from Kiev to Constantinople for many years, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, believed that this gave them significant information about the arduous parts of the journey and where travelers were most at risk, as would be pertinent for an invasion. This route took travelers through domain of the Pechenegs, journeying mostly by river. In June 941, the Rus' staged a naval ambush on Byzantine forces, making up for their smaller numbers with small, maneuverable boats. These boats were ill-equipped for the transportation of large quantities of treasure, suggesting that looting was not the goal. The raid was led, according to the Primary Chronicle, by a king called Igor. Three years later, the treaty of 944 stated that all ships approaching Byzantium must be preceded by a letter from the Rurikid prince stating the number of ships and assuring their peaceful intent. This not only indicates fear of another surprise attack, but an increased Kievan presence in the Black Sea. [16]

Legacy

Russian and Ukrainian historians have debated for many years about the legacy of the Rurikid dynasty. The Russian view sees the Principality of Moscow ruled by the Rurikid dynasty as the sole heir to the Kievan Rus' civilization, this view is "resting largely on religious-ecclesiastical and historical claims" because Russia was ruled by the Rurikid dynasty until 16th century, while Ukraine was not defined as a state until 20th century. This view started in Moscow as ruled by the original Rurikid dynasty between the 1330s and the late 1850s. The Ukrainian view was formulated much later, between the 1840s and the end of the 1930s in Eastern Austria, and views the Ukrainian descendants of the Rurikid dynasty as its only true successors. The Soviet theory "allotted equal rights to the Kievan inheritance to the Three Slavic peoples, that is the Russians, the Ukrainians, and the Belorussians". [17]

Branches

Family tree (from Rurik to Vladimir I)

Rurik Efanda of Novgorod
Igor of Kiev Olga of Kiev Malk Lubchanin
Predslava Sviatoslav I Malusha Rogvolod Dobrynya
Oleg Yaropolk I Greek nun Anna Porphyrogenita Vladimir I the Great Rogneda of Polotsk Konstantin Dobrynich
daughter of Bolesław I Chrobry Sviatopolk I Theofana 8 issues (see below) Dobrynich line

Wives and children of Vladimir I (1)

Olof Skötkonung Estrid of the Obotrites Rogneda of Polotsk Vladimir I the Great Adela
Saint Anna Yaroslav the Wise Izyaslav of Polotsk MstislavVsevolodPremislavaMstislavaPredslava Mstislav of Chernigov Boris Gleb Stanislav Sudislav
10 childrenPolotsk lineEustaphius

Wives and children of Vladimir I (2)

Olava Vladimir I the Great Malfrida
VysheslavSviatoslav

Wives and children of Vladimir I (3)

granddaughter of
Otto I the Great
Vladimir I the Great unknown mistress
Casimir I
duke of Poland
Maria Dobroniega Bernard
margrave of Nordmark
out-of-wedlock
daughter
Pozvizd

From Vladimir I the great to Yuri I Long-arm

Yuri the Long-arm onwards

The following image shows the descent of the leading (historically most powerful branch) of the Rurikids, being the descendants of Vladimir II Monomakh through his sixth son Yuri Dolgorukiy (known as "Yuri I" and "Yuri Long-arm"):

Family tree of members

Ruriks.jpg

See also

Related Research Articles

Vladimir II Monomakh Grand Prince of Rus

Vladimir II Monomakh reigned as Grand Prince of Kievan Rus' from 1113 to 1125. He is considered a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church and is celebrated on May 6.

Yuri Dolgorukiy Grand Prince of Kiev

Yuri I Vladimirovich, known under his soubriquet Yuri Dolgorukiy, was a Rurikid prince. He reigned as Velikiy Kniaz of Kiev from September 1149 to April 1151 and then again from March 1155 to May 1157. Yuri played a key role in the transition of political power from Kiev to Suzdal following the death of his elder brother Mstislav the Great in 1132.

Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Kingdom in Central Europe

The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia, also known as the Kingdom of Rus' from 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia that existed from 1199 to 1349. Its territory was located in modern-day Poland, Ukraine and Slovakia. Galicia was conquered by Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great with the help of Leszek the White of Poland. Roman the Great united the principalities of Halych and Volhynia into a single state. Along with Novgorod and Vladimir-Suzdal, it was one of the three most important powers to emerge from the collapse of Kievan Rus'.

Michael of Chernigov Grand Prince of Kiev

Saint Michael of Chernigov or Mikhail Vsevolodovich was a Rus' prince. He was grand prince of Kiev ; and he was also prince of Pereyaslavl (1206), of Novgorod-Seversk (1219–1226), of Chernigov, of Novgorod, and of Halych (1235–1236).

Roman the Great Prince of Novgorod

Roman Mstislavich, known as Roman the Great was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kiev.

Principality of Kiev former Ruthenian state in the regions of central Ukraine around the city of Kiev

The inner Principality of Kiev was a medieval East Slavic state, situated in central regions of modern Ukraine around the city of Kiev. It was formed during the process of political fragmentation of the Kievan Rus' in the early 12th century. As a result of that process, effective rule of Grand Princes of Kiev was gradually reduced to central regions of Kievan Rus', thus forming a reduced princely domain, known as the inner Principality of Kiev. It existed as a polity until the middle of the 14th century.

The Prince of Chernigov was the kniaz, the ruler or sub-ruler, of the Rus' Principality of Chernigov, a lordship which lasted four centuries straddling what are now parts of Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation.

Prince of Pereyaslavl Wikimedia list article

The Prince of Pereyaslavl was the kniaz of the Rus Principality of Pereyaslavl, a lordship based on the city of Pereyaslavl on the Trubezh river and straddling extensive territory to the east in what are now parts of Ukraine. It lay on Rus civilization's southern frontier with the steppe.

Yaropolk Izyaslavich Ukrainian king

Yaropolk Izyaslavich was a Knyaz (prince) during the eleventh-century in the Kievan Rus' kingdom and was the King of Rus (1076–1078). The son of Grand Prince Izyaslav Yaroslavich by a Polish princess named Gertruda, he is visible in papal sources by the early 1070s but largely absent in contemporary Rus sources until his father's death in 1078. During his father's exile in the 1070s, Yaropolk can be found acting on his father's behalf in an attempt to gain the favor of the German emperors and the papal court of Pope Gregory VII. His father returned to Kiev in 1077 and Yaropolk followed.

Kievan Rus Former federation of East Slavic and Finnic tribes

Kievan Rus' or Kyivan Rus was a loose federation of East Slavic and Finnic peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Varangian Rurik dynasty. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestors, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it. Russia was ruled by the Rurikid dynasty until 16th century. At its greatest extent, in the mid-11th century, it stretched from the White Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and from the headwaters of the Vistula in the west to the Taman Peninsula in the east, uniting the majority of East Slavic tribes.

Mstislav II Svyatoslavich was a Rus' prince. His baptismal name was Panteleymon. He was probably prince of Kozelsk (1194–1223), of Novgorod-Seversk (1206–1219), and of Chernigov (1215/1220–1223). He was killed in the Battle of the Kalka River.

Oleg III Svyatoslavich was a Rus' prince. His baptismal name was Feodosy. He was prince of Vshchizh, of Novgorod-Seversk (1200–1201), and of Chernigov (1201/1202–1204).

Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich was a Rus’ prince. He was prince of Ropesk, of Starodub (1166–1176), and of Chernigov (1176–1198).

Yaropolk III Yaroslavich was a Rus' prince. He was prince of Novgorod (1197).

Principality of Turov former country

The Principality of Turov, also called Principality of Turov and Pinsk or Turovian Rus', was a medieval East Slavic principality and important subdivision of Kievan Rus' since the 10th century on the territory of modern southern Belarus and northern Ukraine. Princes of Turov often served as the Grand Princes of Rus early in 10th-11th centuries. The principality's capital was Turov and other important cities were Pinsk, Mazyr, Slutsk, Lutsk, Berestia, and Volodymyr.

Principality of Volhynia western Kievan Rus principality founded by the Rurik dynasty in 987 centered in the region of Volhynia in modern-day Ukraine

The Principality of Volhynia was a western Kievan Rus' principality founded by the Rurik dynasty in 987 centered in the region of Volhynia, straddling the borders of modern-day Ukraine, Belarus, and Poland. From 1069 to 1118 it belong to Izyaslavichi who primarily ruled from Turov. After losing Turov to Monomakhovichi in 1105, the descendants of Izyaslav Yaroslavovich for a few years continued to rule in Volhynia. From 1154 to 1199 the principality was named Principality of Vladimir when the Principality of Lutsk (1154-1228) was separated.

Vladimir II Yaroslavich was a Rus’ prince. He was prince of Halych.

Shakhovskoy Noble family

Shakhovskoy is the name of a princely Russian family descending from the Rurik Dynasty, and as such, one of the oldest noble families of the Russian Empire. Most members of the family fled the Russian Empire in 1917 during the Russian Revolution.

Monomakhovichi or House of Monomakh was a major princely branch of the Rurik dynasty, descendants of which managed to inherit practically all princely titles in the Grand Duchy of Kiev. The progenitor of the house is Vladimir II Monomakh. The name derived from the grandfather of Vladimir, Constantine IX Monomachos.

Iaroslav Sviatopolkovich, also known as Iaroslav or Yaroslav Sviatopolchich, was Prince of Vladimir-in-Volhynia from 1100 to 1118.

References

  1. Rurik (Norse leader) Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  2. Rurik Dynasty (medieval Russian rulers) Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  3. https://www.historyextra.com/period/viking/the-vikings-at-home/
  4. https://www.ancient.eu/Kievan_Rus/
  5. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/vikg/hd_vikg.htm
  6. https://www.timetraveltours.se/blog/swedish-vikings-and-the-eastern-world/
  7. Blöndal, Sigfús (1978). The Varangians of Byzantium. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN   9780521035521 . Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  8. 1 2 Stefan Brink, 'Who were the Vikings?', in The Viking World , ed. by Stefan Brink and Neil Price (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008), pp. 4-10 (pp. 6-7).
  9. "Russ, adj. and n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, June 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/169069. Accessed 25 July 2018.
  10. Franklin, Simon, and Jonathan Shepherd. The Emergence of Rus 750–1200. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, Ltd., 1996. pp. 38–39
  11. Zhukovskyi, Arkadii (2009-12-01). "Encyclopedia of Ukraine". Entsykpopedychnyi Visnyk Ukrainy [The Encyclopedia Herald of Ukraine]. 1: 14–22. doi: 10.37068/evu.1.2 . ISSN   2707-000X.
  12. Pelenski, Jaroslaw Pelenski. The Contest for the Legacy of Kievan Rus′. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. p. 4
  13. Raffensperger, Christian, and Norman W. Ingham, "Rurik and the First Rurikids", The American Genealogist , 82 (2007), 1–13, 111–119.
  14. "Byloe Rossii" [Ancestry of Catherine II the Great, Russian Empress 1729–1796: Descent from Rurik (c. 835–879), Prince of Novgorod] (in Russian). The Past of Russia. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
  15. Franklin, Simon, and Jonathan Shepherd (1996). The Emergence of Rus 750–1200. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, Ltd., pp. 27–28, 127
  16. Franklin, Simon, and Jonathan Shepherd (1996). The Emergence of Rus 750–1200. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, Ltd. pp. 112–119
  17. Pelenski, Jaroslaw Pelenski (1998). The Contest for the Legacy of Kievan Rus'. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 2